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On the NATURE of LANDSCAPE. Page 1 to IG 

Of the Term Lanclfcape. — Idea of a Series of Landfcapes. 
— Liindfcape Monuments and Places. — Advantages of Art over 
Nature. — The beautiful Times of Nature. — Effeft of Art on 

Of the SIMPLE STYLE. 16 to 23 

Its Rcqulfites. — Perfpicuity. — Good Choice. — Forcible Ex* 
prefllon. — Chara6tcr. — Plealing Subjeds. 

Its Defcription. — Difpolition. — Variety. 

The EXALTED or HEROIC STYLE. 26 to 30 

Choofes extraordinary Scenes. — Its Divifions, Simple and 
Magnificent. — Subjects fuppofed . — Cautious. 


The S;te. — Compofition. — The Foreft. — Wood Scenes. — 
Coppice. — The Park. — The Shrubbery. — Heatli and Downs. 
— A Champaign Country. — Culiivated Country. — Rivers and 
Waters. — Lakes. — Torrents. — Cafcades. — Hills. — Mountains. 
—Rocks. — Villages — Tov\ ns. 


Trees.— Oak.— Chefnut. —Willow.— Elm.— Fir and Pines. 
Ccdar.-Aflu-Bcech.— Vine.— Shrubs.— Herbage. — Plants. 
Roads. — Water.— Canals. — Buildings. — The Ciioice of each 
Style. — Towns. — Cities. — Views in General. — Sea 'Views.— ^ 

R Of 




Of FIGURES. 66 to 7? 

Their Suitability.— Occupations. — Reference to Styles. — - 
Suppofed Subjcfts. — Their Proportion. 


Sky. — Dillances, — Off-rcape. — Front. 

ACCIDENTS of LANDSCAl'E. 79 to 9o 

Acceptation of the Term. — Light and Shadow. — Morning. 
— Noon. — Evening. — Night. — The Sealons. — Spring. — Sum- 
mer. — Aatumn. — Winter. — Rainbow. — Halo. — Iris. — Circle. 
Aurora Borealis. — Eclipfe. — Fogs. — Storms. — Sea Storm. — 
Divifions of a Storm. 

0/ S T U D I E S. 96 to 102 

Methods of Study. — Of making and preferving Studies. — 
Of Objeds to be ftudied. 

Advifed Courfe of ?ra6^ical Study, with Reniarks on many 
of the Plates. ' 103 to 127 


( I ) 



LANDSCAPE, Ladies and Gentlemen, is a 
part of the Arts ofDefign To vtJl'y extenlive and 
interelting, that it may be faid to include moft othe^ 
branches of art. Equally delightful as deceptive, 
and, by the nature of its fubjefls, not only generally 
agreeable, but generally intelligible. Poffeffing un- 
limited powers of feleclion, not confined to particular 
fpots, but colle6ling from every quarter, and com- 
bining beauties from all parts, Landfcape is capable 
of endlefs variety, andfurniflies perpetual fucceilions 
of pleafure and fatlsfaftion. Landfcape has many 
advantages over liiflorical painting ; its fubje6ts being 
move familiar to the fpeftator : confequently more 
imprelTive, and more immediately underflood by him, 
and its errors are leis apparent. The want of exprel- 
fion, or proportion, in a head, or a figure, is obvious ; 
and not lefs ofFenfive than obvious, becaufe the forms 
proper to the part are regular and conflant : whereas, 
branches of trees, or proje«Si:ions of buildings, are not 
in conformity to any certain regulations, neither arc 
they of fuch importance (generally) as that a failure 
in exprefling them perfectly, fiiould ruin the piece. 
It is no wonder, therefore, Landfcape fhonld be 
greatly encouraged by the public, and readily pro- 

B feilei 

C ^ ) 

felTed by Aitifls : but let it not be fuppofed, that to 
attain excellence in Landfcape is without its diffi- 
culties : rather, perhaps, there have been fc.ver capi- 
tal Landfcape-painters than any others. Of the nu- 
merous tribe who have profeiTed this branch of art, 
many have fucceeded fo far as a certain mediocrity ; 
but the principles which conduce to excellence are 
not lefs profound in this, than in other fludies, nor 
lefs concealed from the oblervation of inattentive 

Our language affords no term adequately expreffive 
of that department of Art which, relates to the repre- 
fentation of Pifturefque Views of Places, and delin- 
eations of obje6ls : the v/ord Lands c ape, ill denotes 
the unlimited variety of which this branch of art is 
fulceptible ; and even when employed in its mofl 
comprehenfive fenfe, it excludes Marine fubjefts, if 
hot rocks, ' buildings, &c. whofe reprefentations may 
have little or no land attached to them. Now, as 
thefe Compofitions are regulated by the fame rulesj 
and conduced by the fame principles, as Landfcape 
fubjefts, properly fo called, there feems to be no rea- 
son why we Ihould forbid their introdu6lion as refpec. 
live diftinftions in the general Study of this Art. The 
term Landfcape, tlierefore, may be taken with great 
latitude, as expreffing reprefentations of natural ob« 
jefts of many various kinds, as they prefent them- 
lelves to general cbfervation. 

In a -feries of Landscapes we are occafionally de„ 
lighted with objefts extremely different in nature and 


( 3 ) 
appearance. In one, Genius, and Ability, render 
extremely interefling, the fimple cottage, and its 
humble inhabitants : the dwelliiis; overs;ro\va with" 
h:rbage, Ihaded by Ibme tall tree, and reflected by 
the placid lake, or the winding brook : the inmates 
employed according to-theirage, and lex ; the fcene 
animated by children at their diveraons, the ruflic of 
riper years engaged in labour, or enjoying his interval 
ofrepofe, while age with ibdulous attention, watches 
tlie rifmg otTspring, or employs itfelf in occupations 
fuited to its powers. The Compofition of this 
Pi6lure, indeed, feems very confined, it includes 
but a narrow Ipace of ground, yet within that fpace 
it comprifes the utmoft powers of Art, and the hap- 
pieft exertions of Genius. Another performance of- 
fers a fomewhat wider fcope ; not the cottage merely 
but many of its accompaniments, the heath, or the 
common, around it : increafmg variety, by trees o£ 
different hues, by banks of earth, or other foil; by 
the opportunity it affords of introducing cattle, with 
their attendants ; and enlivening the compofition by 
■ the moft pleafing reprefentations of animated nature. 
The roaring water- fall, and the ftreaming cafcade* 
the play of the waves, the dafliing of thefpray, the 
mid rifing from the agitated element here attra^St us ^ — 
while there the fnioothfurfaeecf an expanded lake^ fur- 
rounded by tall groves and darkened by umbrageous fo- 
liage, reflefting the ferenely variegated Iky, and every 
leaf of every tree, furniflies a moft delightful fubjecl. 
Thefe and a thoufand diveife compofitions of art, ori- 

B 2 ginate 

( 4 ) 

girtate in Nature, whofe immenfc ftores of objcfts, in^ 
terefting, and beautiful, defies the utmofl reach of 
human ikill, to imitate in their ^'ariety, or to equal 
in their dehght. 

In traveUing through a well inhabited country^ 
where the labours of man have been intermingled 
among the wildnelTes of nature, what alternate plea- 
fures ftrike the eye ! The richnefs arifmg from ad- 
vanced cultivation, or the diverfity produced by tlie 
regularity and order of parts in progrefs tov/ard iur- 
ther improvement, admirably contraft the yet remain- 
ing fpots untouched by indullry ! If, in proceeding, 
the grateful change of hill and dale, of lofty trees 
and humble fhrubs, of extenfive plains and contracted 
glens meet our obfervation, the fight is almoft en- 
chanted, and, after exploring a view of many miles, 
gladly exchanges the expanfive fcene for roads nar- 
rowed by rocks, or enclofed by banks ; perhaps, de- 
fcending in fome deep ravine, while high over head 
the tall trees wave their long branches, their fhadows 
chequering the ground, or almoft excluding the light, 
and rendering the gloomy road little better than a 
cavern. Here the way winds off, and deepens, till is 
produces a kind of melancholy, till it feems tohave no 
termination, nor furnifhes any mdication of a proba- 
ble exit, but— fuddenly— it opens the profpeftof fome 
noble bay, wide-ftretching its bold fhores, of fome 
capital city, the relort of the bufy and laborious, its 
glittering fpires, its noble palaces, its long ranges of 
buildings, each claiming firft infpe6tion, its numerous 
fliipping, in conilant m9tiQP; going or returning, and 


( 5 ) 

the fea completing the pidiire. Will not the contraft 
render this noble fcene, yet more noble ? this inteiefl- 
hig; compofition yet more interefling ? Enter this city^ 
iiifpect its temples, its palaces, its dwellings, its 
ilreets, admire their fymmetry and elegance, their 
richnels and ornament, their neatnefs and comfort. 
Vifit the Port, notice the various kinds of velfels, 
their various ftages, ftates, and attitudes : refle6l on 
the intercourfe of nations, and the diverfity evident 
among the natives of diltant lands now before you ; 
advance to the pier head, furvey the rolling ocean, 
the white foam of its deep green waves, appearing 
and difappearing, as the furge breaks againif the 
rocks, or glides along the beach. But now, the wind 
lirengthens, the ^.:y lowers, the heavy clouds blacken, 
the vivid lightnings flafh, the waves rife into moun- 
tains; all nature feels the fadden ftorm, and waits 
impatient, till the iky clears, till the fun returns, 
till the waves fubfide, and fear gives place to joy. 
Turn now and fay, if the ftudy of Landfcape be not 
extenfive, if befide being extenfive it be not delight- 
ful ? Does it not folace the ivAnd by its ferenity, or 
agitate the foul by its terrors ? Does it not amufe the 
imagination by variety, or captivate the fancy by 
limplicity ? 

But what if Nature produces objeds no lefs capti- 
vating though of a totally diilerent fpecies: In proof 
of this, recolle6l the frozen mountains of the Polar 
fea, where without rival roams the Ar6tic Bear, and 
the unwieldly monfters of the deep fpout the liquid 


K 6 ) 

element through their noftrils : recollecl the vaUies 
of ice among Helvetic Mountains, where fields after 
fields of ice beguile the traveller's hopes, where 
mountains after mountains feem to oppofe barriers 
impenetrable to human power, and even boundaries 
to human curiofity ; where nights and days are con- 
fumed in alcending, in defiance of penetrating cold, 
of bewildering fnows, and of rattling hail : yet amid 
thefe mountains agriculture labours, and not v/ithout 
reward ; ftrangely intermingling verdant corn among 
frozen fields ! Elfewhere behold a contrary mixture : 
verdant corn and luxuriant vegetation bedeck the 
fides of Vefuvius itfelf : ftrange to refleO: ! that where 
entrails of fire furnifh torrents of melted lava, and 
ftreams of fulphureous flame, whc^e fubterraneous 
thunders roll, and vivid lightenings play, where 
earthquakes overwhelm, and nature leems convulfed, 
there fhould be the feat of fertility, there fhould the 
vine flourifli, and there fhould devaflation be the 
parent of plenty. ■ 

Very different from either of thcfe, are the fcenes 
of African, or Arabian defarts ; without a tree ^almoft 
without a fhrub, without a rivulet, or a gentle flream, 
without verdure, a fandy plain ! Can fuch a fubject 
become interefting ? perhaps, by its novelty, by its 
flrong diftin6lion from all others, by the fingularity 
of its inhabitants, or its animals, or by Ibme fur- 
prifmg peculiarity which decidedly marks it. A 
fpeck of flourifhing vegetation amid a defart of fand, 
drubs and plants tinging the rock into thinly-fcat- 


( 7 ) 

tered greenefs, denote the general nature of thefe 
wilds : while elfewhcre groves of high-rifing palms, 
or forefts of clofe-twifled mangroves, exhibit a lux- 
uriance of growth, not ealily paralled in more tem- 
perate regions; and furnifh, along the courfe of fome 
noble river, fcenes little coincident with our ideas of 
fultry Africa, and the torrid zone. 

Wherever the nebler labours of civilized man have 
been employed, and monuments of thofe labours 
remain, a Landfcape, v/hich includes fuch monu- 
ments, has much to recommend it. There is a kind 
of plcafure, though a melancholy pleafure doubtlefs, 
in examining the remains of what once were noble 
ftruftures, or elegant retreats : while thus engaged, 
we almofl call up the long departed dead, and re-ani- 
mate thole who indiitant periods trod the famefleps: 
we refleft — what fcenes of delight were thefe to pail 
generations! where is now filence and folitude, ex- 
cept as interrupted by ouffelvcs, formerly mirth 
rejoiced, and pleafure triumphed ! Or, if fuch 
ftru6lures be commemorative, to behold them, re- 
vives in our minds the circumftances which occafioned 
their ereftion ; we rank among the warriors fighting 
to defend their country, we furvey the trophiesof their 
conqueft, or we encreafe the multitude gazing on the 
triumphant vi6tor in his glorious proceffion. The mind 
reverts indeed, to the plaintive remark, that ages 
haveopened and expired, that many generations hav^e 
lived and have ceafed to live, during the interv^al, that 
if vanity purpofed eternal renown by thefe fuppofed 


( s ) 

perpetual regifters of important events, that purpof* 
has been defeated : — the infcription is defaced, the 
ornaments are mouldered, the edifice is decayed : 
Time has laborioufly corroded thefe tokens of his 
a^e, and awaits with impatience their total obhvioji. 
But though decayed as memorials, tliey may orna- 
ment the Landfcape, and enrich the Compofition ; 
whether by combination, or by contrail:, while their 
hiftory furniflies a few remarks to the man of tafte, 
and their conftruclion exemplifies the principles which 
ages and countries remote from our own have adopted 
as elegant, or fele6led as beautiful. 

We are the rather interefted m the tafle of pad 
ages and of remote climes, becaufe in many refpetls, 
we adopt the tafte, and ftudy the conftruftion of their 
works ; direded not a little, by the rules,and the fpe- 
cimens they furnifli. Hence profelTors who feek emi- 
nence in their art, afliduoufly vifit the remains of an- 
cient ikill, and for a time, forfake their country, de- 
{ii'ous of importing ideas drawn from thefe fources ; 
while thole who are to be their patrons, infpecl for 
themfelves theie very objects, and determine on what 
they will accept as excellent, by its conformity to 
opinions acquired in vifiting fuch remains. 

Places which have been fcenes of events important 
in the hiftory of mankind, intereft us by our fyinpath v 
in the importance of fuch events 4 and we attribute to 
thofe places a thoufand nobler circumftances than we 
find elfewhere. If this be a failing in the human 
mind, it is a failing received from Nature. Our 


( 9 ) 

(fountfy, in oureftconij pofTcfses excellencies fuperior 
to others ; the Iceiics of our youthful days are lovely 
beyond compare, what formerly yielded us pleafure, 
yields us a recolleftive pleafure flill, and we willingly 
cherifh the illufion, though riper years may long fmce 
have difpelled it. In recalling ideas of paft enjoy- ' 
ments we naturally alTociate a recollection of the 
places -where we received them, and in revifiting fuch 
places they revive ideas of thofe enjoyments. Hence 
we value our birth-place : and hence all men, even 
while fenfible that elfewhere may poiTefs beauties and 
excellencies fully equal, ever prefer thofe fpots which 
have furniihed their moil frequent and familiar fatis- 

In proportion as we become better informed ref- 
pecling the produ6tions of foreign parts, and more 
ftrongly convinced that Nature has not difproportion- 
ately loaded any country with her favours, to the 
exclufion of others, our minds become more liberal, 
and our curiofity becomes more extenfive ; we wifli 
to behold what formerly we were ignorant of, or we 
flighted if we knew it ; our delire becomes more Hi- 
mulant, and we exert endeavours which we formerly 
declined. Cnriofity, being a natural pallion, has 
undoubtedly its beneficial tendency ; but it cannot 
be entirely gratified : and the occupations of life 
forbid mofl perfons from gratifying it in any confider- 
able degree. While the duty of a fettled flat ion de- 
mands performance in a limited time, and in a fixed 
place, it would be defating tliat duty to fuffer any 
principle to lead us av/ay from it, however attraftive 

C be 

( 10 ) 

be the obje6^ urged In excufe. Nor can we always 
command opportunity for more than a glimpfe of what 
we are permitted to fee, and many pecuHarities efcape 
the curfory infpeftion we arefufFered to beftow on it, 
even if the time of our viiit be that moll favourable 
to the objeft feen. In thefe, and in many other ref- 
peds, Art furniflies affiflance : it can watch the mofl 
favourable afpecl of an obje£l, and catch its mofl: 
fleeting beauties, thefe it fixes for our conflant, or 
repeated invefligation, it awaits our opportunity, 
and intrudes not beyond our leifure ; it brings home 
what is too diflant to be viewed abroad, and, by its 
extent, amply gratifies that curiofity, which, efpeci- 
ally in liberal minds, is highly prevalent. 

It is true, that in every country, and at all times, 
Nature exhibits abundant beauty to the eye which 
happily is capable of difcerning it. To the inhabitant 
of the defart, thedefart has its charms ; to him the ma- 
jeflic decline of evening, the ferene ftillnefs of ni^ht, 
the brilliant glories of heaven, are eminently beauti • 
ful ; and from among thefe his warm imagination has 
even felecled objects of worlhip. "In more verdant 
climes, green meads and flowery pallures, are our con- 
flant delight. It may be, the Arab wonders, how 
imid perpetual green we are not fatiated ; as on our 
part we are accuflomed rather to pity than to envy 
the lot of thofe who wander from defart to defart^ 

But, though conflantly exhibiting beauty, and in 
rio defpicable degree. Nature appears fometimes emi- 
nently beautiful : though we do not worfhip the rifmg 


( H ) 

fun, we acknowledge, and we enjoy, tlie glorious fpec* 
taclc ; and are ever alive to the beauty produced by 
his parting rays in all objects whereon they ftrike. 
Evening, gliding into nigiit, has its beauties, fober 
beauties too, and efpecially, if as one luminary de- 
clines, the other riles. There is a lolemnity in the 
blufhing moon, halffuewn, half concealed in clouds, 
and modeftly obtrufive on the fight, which is higlily 
grateful. Yellow now and broad, as feen through 
the mifty horizontal air, gradually rifmg in the 
heavens, and brightening her light as fhe decreafes 
her magnitude, whether fhe varies the light-flying 
clouds around her into tints of exquilite delicacy, or 
in the blue expanfe majeftic rides regent of nighty 
whether fhe render folemnity flill more folemn, by 
performing her courfe in a chariot of concealing 
clouds, or fheds her full beams around us as if 
emulous of day, in all fhe is eminently beautiful* 
Here fhe tips with filver every grove, varies the 
modefl hue of the verdant plain, foftens every afpe- 
rity by day-light too prominent on the fight, and 
melts into one grand mafs of dignified harmony, the 
broken, or fcattered, or ill-formed, particles of dif- 
tances, hills, or mountains: There fhe glimmers 
along the pointed waves, fparkling on their dancing 
tops, or gleams through the tranfparent billow, as 
it lifts its white head, — rolling — now along the fhore, 
now among the rocks. 

Whoever has accurately infpe6led the changing 
fcenes of any country mufl have obferved, that at 

C 2 different 

SMU L!^ 

( 15 ) 

tiifferent times of the day, their effefts have been 
.•iivcrfilied by the variation of light and Ihadow pro- 
duced in them, which fometimes exhibits objects, at 
Cfther times nearly obfcured. Nor need we hefitate, 
in acknowledging rocks and mountains though awful 
in themfelves, to be rendered yet more awful, by the 
gloomy magnificence of violent ftorms ; or the laugh- 
ing champaign to be touched into more joyous efhiU 
gence by the vivacity of folar light, and influence. 
To underftand the principles of thefe changes, and to 
inveftigate their caufes, is at once a fource of the 
purefl pleafurc, and an employment worthy the ap- 
plication of a liberal and exalted mind. 

Would it be refining too far, to enquire what fenf- 
ations we receive from the different natural objefts 
attached to this branch of art ? on what paffions of 
the human mind they are relatively mofl adive ? Tlie 
thought may defer ve at leafl a few words in elucida- 
tion. What are our natural feelings on board a veliel 
in diflrefs, in danger of perifliing on rocks, or foun- 
dering in the fea ? Terror. What are they, when 
we behold fuch a circumflance ? Pity. Thefe are 
the two great ends of tragic compofition ; and this 
kind of fubjefts feems to be the Tragedy of Art. 
Sympathy is part of Pity ; the triumph of Art is the, 
transfufion of fympathy into fpe6lators. Tlie reafons 
wherefore fuch fympathy has its pleafures, are the 
fame in painting as m poetry. When Art exhibits 
objects whofe dangerous tendency is not immediately 
^ppareatj fuch as vaft cutar^-ifis^ or immenfe wilds. 


{ 13 ) 

Tcrroris moderated into Apprchenfion only, a kind 
of equivocal fenfation, wliich wliile luiceptible of 
fear yet indulges hope. Though a storm produces 
terror, a fresh gale has its plealure ; and being 
free from apprehenfion, it is ufually beheld with com- 
placency ; a complacency heightened to fatisfa6lion 
by the vicinity of a commodious harbour, or fafe an- 
chorage. Compofitions including objefts which fur- 
niih pleafure and joy, divert us from Tragic to Comic 
principles : and thefe are capable of many degrees, 
and of infinite variation. Grofs Comedy is Farce : 
and whoever has feen the outre and exaggerated ideas 
indulged by fome Mafters, has no need to be reminded, 
that Art has its farce, — that burlefque and carica- 
ture, and heightened irregularities, like farcical inci- 
dents may raife our laughter, though alas! when 
laughter has fubfided, Judgement may but too juftly 
enquire what delighted us ? May not theie hints con- 
firm that refemblance between poetry and painting 
which has procured them the appellation of Sifter Arts ? 
It is impollible to defcribe the varieties of Land- 
fcape prefented by Nature, fmce every change of 
fituation in a fpeflator, by changing the point of 
view under which an obje(^t is i'een, may be laid to 
form a new Landfcape. It is evident, therefore, 
that defcending to minutia would be ufelefs and per- 
plexing. It is enough, if Art be alTilled in itsftudy 
of Nature, by thofc larger and more conlpicuous dil- 
tinclions into which a fubje6l fo extenfive may juftly 
be diftributed^ The forcQ of order is univeifally 

acknowledged ; 

( li ) 
acknow'lcdged ; we defire arrangement as the proper 
correflive of confufion : where objects by their 
, number diftraft our attention, by being grouped they 
become more level to our conception, more readily 
attainable for our infpeftion, more impreflive on the 
mind when infpefted, and the impreffion they produce 
is much more abiding on the memory. 

The iliackles of fyftem are juftly thought uneafy : 
for as Nature is free and unconiined, confinement im- 
pofed by fyftem muft be more or lefs unnatural : but, 
becaufe extremes are injurious, it does not follow, 
that a medium is not dellrable, or becaufe the utmoft 
precifion is (if attainable) burthenfome, therefore 
that regularity is of no importance. 

It requires very intimate acquaintance with natural 
objefts, and their principles, accurately to arrange 
them, as Nature herfelf might have done, had fuch 
been her intention : neverthelefs, artificial arrange- 
ment fhould always propofe the mofl ready and apt 
relation of every object to its correfpondent obje6l in 
nature ; and this is efpecially true in a fcience v/hich 
draws from natural obje6ts whatever merit it may 
poiTefs, and which invites fpe£tators to judge of that 
merit, by its reiemblance to general nature. Art 
mufl expert applaufe in proportion to her imitation of 
Nature, and from Nature muft procure all her mate- 
rials : her higheft glory is, to raife in the mind of the 
fpeclator the fame fenfations as the original obje6ls 
themfelves might produce if adually prelent. But 
though Art mull ever draw her materials from Nature^ 


(' 15 ) 

Hie is not forbid to exercife her fancy or her flcill in 
difpofing them. Nature may fometiines be improved 
by Art, and Art may often exercife her own creative 
imagination with fviccefs. Though natural objefts, 
or their combinations, when combined in Nature's 
beft manner, can never be furpafled by the utmoft' 
exertions of Art, and even to imitate them, requires 
no common difplay of fkill, yet, rarely do fuch per- 
fe6l fcenes occur ; and ufually, fomewhat to be added, 
or fomewhat to be retrenched, might improve the com- 
pofition. Befide this, by engrafting the beauties of one 
fpot on thofe of another, or by recalling and accommo-" 
dating flriking and appropriate objefts he has vifited, 
or by recurrence to principles he has long ftudied, an 
Artiil may introduce anew grace over the whole, and- 
originatebycGmpofition of parts with parts, excellen- 
cies which exift in his mental conception only. When 
mental conception becomes the feat of Art, its combi- 
nations equal in extent to the faculties ot the human 
mind, and what is their extent, none have yet been able 
to determine. Hence arife new and infuperable diffi- 
culties in relation to the claffification of works of ima- 
gination: this fmgle refle«Stion may convince us, that a 
kind of general regularity is all \vc ought to expect, 
and all that can be ufeful to the purpofes of Art. 

Well-regulated performances mull be conducted by 
principles eftablifhed on jult reafoning, and perfpi-' 
cuous analogy. To fuppofe the happy completion of 
a work unwifely begun, is to take chance or accident 
iisaguidej in aputhwhich requires confummate dif-' 


C 16 ) 
cretion ; is to deviate widely from the wifefl principles 
of human Ufe, and to employ blind fortune on what 
requires the clofeft infpeclion of well-advifed wifdom. 
It is true our befl endeavours may fail, but what mull 
be our fate without them ! to facilitate which endea- 
vours in relation to the ftudy of Landfcape, is the 
purpofe of our prefent attention. 

We proceed now, for the greater perfpicuity, to 
divide our fubjeQ: into thofe branches which appear to 
be mod natural, and bell adapted to convey diftin6i 
ideas to perfons who have not fludied this department 
of the imitative 2LVts}. commencing with the fimpler 
{lyle, and proceeding to the more complex. That 
we have named or defcribed them in fome refpects 
differently from what has heretofore been cuflomary, 
proceeds from no defire of innovation, but from a wifh 
to render our work ufeful to every clafs of fludents, 
We defire to divide them into the Simple Style, 
the Varied or Ornamental Style, and the 
Historical or Sublime Style. 

Of the simple STYLE. 

THIS Style may feem, at firll fight, to be reftricl:- 
jvely the beginning of Art, yet it mull be acknow- 
ledged, its principles are no lefs profound than thofe 
of other branches. Many mafters who have made 
confiderable progrefs in feemingly more difficult un- 
dertakings, have failed in this Style; not that it has 
lefs refources than others, but that they are of a dif- 

( 17 ) 

ftrent kind, and of a kind wli h predules many of 
thofe lii.^ritricious ornaments, which the hah-'earned 
tolerate elfewliere. 

When one idea (or a few ideas fo Intimately com- 
bined as to form but one idea) is to be reprel'ented, 
it is neceffary thai one be happily chofen, forcibly 
exprefTed, truly characterized, and exaftly repre- 
fcnted. If it be not happily chofen,. whatever laboui^ 
it may coft is totally thrown away : if it be obfcure, 
or unintelligible, if it be dubious, or equivocal, if it 
be fmgular, or extremely rare, the pi6lure will re- 
quire to be explained by defcription : as we are told 
of a painter who wrote under his produftions, *' this 
is a Cock, " or, *' this is a Dog, " fo will fuch a 
Landfcape require to be charafterized by a " this 
is .... " Nei'erthelefs, this muft not be underftood 
as forbidding the introduftion of cuftoms common in 
fome places though rare in othei's ; fuch inftances 
contribute elTentially to chara6lerize the fpot repre- 
fented, and are rather to be fought than avoided; 
becaufe when of a proper nature, they furnifh oppor- 
tunities of a happy choice. Suppofe as an inllance, 
the Subjeft of a Horfe feeding in a paflure : In fome 
places, horfes' are left free in the fields, the fields 
being inclofed by hedges ; in others to put a clog on. 
a horfe's foot is common, hedges being rare ; elfe*- 
where (whoever has been at Margate will bear me 
witnefs) the horfes are limited by a rope laid along the 
earth, faftened at each end into the ground, from 
which rope goes another that tethers the animal. Nor 
^s this practice confined to horfes onlvj tlie larger 


( 18 ) 
cattle ire generally thus fecured ; while every flock 
of fheep has its attendant fhepherd-boy and dog, to 
prevent their trelpaffing on a neighbours' ground. 
Other places have other cufloms. The relation of a 
cuflom to that fpot which is the fcene of a Pifture, 
demands the introduction of that cuflom. In Scot- 
land the ferv^ants wafh the linen by treading it in tubs 
with their feet, this cuftom introduced in a Landfcape 
marks the fcene to be Scotland : In France the women 
beat their linen with a broad flap, on a board by the 
river fide ; this would ill agree with Englifh Land- 
fcape, but it is applicable in a French fubjeft : We 
have no images of faints to worfhip in our highways, 
but in Italy nothing is more common than to fee a 
travelling piper playing his tune before fuch an image. 
The happy choice ofafubjeft, therefore, does not 
exclude the introduction of any appropriate cuftom, 
whofe purpofe may be eafily comprehended by a Spec- 
tator; flnce fuch cuftom is rather the accompanyment 
of the fubjeCt, than the fubjeft itfelf. 

There are many Ample fubjecls, which fpeak at 
once home to the heart : the Labourer going out in 
the morning, (e. g}-.) before fun-rife, affords an op- 
portunity of exprefting, not only the effeft of the 
dawn, but, the nature of a country life, and the 
folitude and quiet of the time : his dog is now his only 
companion, and like the Mafter, juft awake from fleep, 
has barely given himfelf the rouftng fhake. The 
Labourer ..returning to his meal, is quite another 
fubjeCl ; the family now is bufy, the wife, the children, 


( 19 ) 
animals, all alert, and all in buftle. It is no pecu- 
liarity of fomc fpccific I'pot, that 

*■' Now for them the blazing hearth (liall Lum, 
Or bufy houfewife ply her pleafing care. 
Or children run to kifs their fire's return. 
Or climb his knees the envied kifs to fhare.'* 
There is no queftion on the propriety of introducing 
fuch circumftances : all the world over, fucli is Nature ; 
fuch we know it to be, and fuch may Art freely re- 
prefent it. 

The parent's firft fight of his child ; tlie child's laft 
fight of his parent ; are fubjefts equally felt by all : 
no graceful turn of compliment can render the fii'ft 
more interefling, no pomp of mourning can render 
the latter more folemn. State, funeral ftate, may 
accompany a lord to his tomb, and, perhaps, may 
attract our notice till it exclude its fubjccl ; but a 
fmgle tear on a dejected cheek, raifes more interell 
in a fpeftator, than numerous attendants. lie (or fhe) 
who depofits another felf in the grave, melts our heart 
{n tender fympathy ; we calculate tl^ llattering hopes 
of future years, and we participate the lofs of endear- 
ing friendfliip. Thefe, and a thoufand other fubjeSls, 
are level to the fentiments of all beholders ; and free 
to the introduction of liberal Art. 

The neceflity of a judicious choice in a fimple 
fubject is enforced, by reflecting, that if this diforuft 
a fpeclator, he has no relief by turning to another ; or 
to another part of the pidure. I have never thought 
difeafe calculated to pleafe in a pifture, and though 
many a pidure on a mighty favorite Dutch idea (h 



( 20 ) 

doctor infpe£ling a urinal) has forced my applaiife as 
a picture, it has neverthelefs excited my cenfure as 
a fubj-eft. 

On the fame principle as tliefe inflances of figures, 
there are inflances in landfcape, of well or ill-chofen 
fubjefts ; thofe who will rake into dunghills, &;c. &lc. 
may inaft on their liberty as Englifhmen, but let them 
know they have no fuch liberty as Artifts, nor can 
' well-regulated Tafte tolerate their performances. If 
the mention of fuch incidents as I have feen introduced 
in piftures, (over which human life draws a veil of 
privacy) would exterminate, by expofmg them, 
poiTibly I might wiili that cenfure were inflifted : how 
heavy would it fall on many Flemifh mafters ! may 
it never be deferved by an Enghfh profelTor ! 

Belide being happily chofen, a fubje6l ihould be 
forcibly expreffed, for as fuch a Pifture exerts its 
v/hole powers in one fole effort, unlefs that effort be 
confiderable, the whole performance is ufelefs. A 
weak, vapid, mert, carelefs, ftyle, is a very nothings 
an unmeaning exertion, an ambiguous, feeble, ex- 
preffion, is no exprelRon at all. As in literary com- 
pofition there is an order of words, which, without 
violating the rules of grammar, is but languor, and 
though it has nothing ftiocking yet has nothing fmart, 
fo in Painting, tiiere is an inlipid manner, which to 
infpeft, produces no gratification ; from which to 
turn away, excites no reluctance; and yet it cannot 
juftly be condemned as contrary to any rule of Art, 
it is tolerably drawn, coloured, andadjufted, but to 
what purpofe ? Vigour of mind, energetic conception 
of the Scene ihould enforce a poignancy of expreifion, 


( -'1 ) . 

vhlch the power of the pencil flionld tranfmit to the 
fubjetl. exprcflion has a florm, if the trees 
are all ilill and motionlefs, inftead of being incelTantly 
and violently agitated ; if the water be fmooth, in- 
llead of boifleroiis ; and the fky ferenc, inllead ot* 
cloudy ? — but neither a cloudy fky, boifterous water, 
or agitated trees, will make a ftorm : thefe it is con- 
fcfled are fome of the ingredients, but the compofition, 
application, power, of fuch ingredients where are 
^hefe principles ? Since the mind of a. Spectator is to 
be influenced by his eye, the eye of the Artift fhould 
be influenced by his mind : a produ6lion diilinguiflied 
by mentality, will demonllrate the talents and genius 
of its author. 

That every work of Art fhould be truly charafter- 
ized, is a felf-evident prqppfition : we mentioned 
dawn of day, this Is very diibn6l from noon, as noon 
is very diflincl from night. Fidelity is more confe- 
quential^in fubjefts of fmall extent, than in others ; as 
they do not ofier that variety which amufes imagina- 
tion, the eye feeks in them a truth,, and correftnefs, 
whole abfence is fure to difpleafe. An ill-drawn, 
ilKpainted tree, a building out of perfpecllvc, a light 
placed where light could not pofTibly come, falfe re- 
flexions, or contradi6lory indications, are certain to 
be difcovered. I have feen in pitlures — the wind 
blowing two ways at one time, — lights coming two 
ways, — the glimmering of the moon where it could 
not be vihble, and many other ideas repugnant to 
common fenfe ; thefe in funple fubjefts flrike the eye 
at a glance. 


( 22 ) 

There are many pleafing fubjccls in this ftyl^^ 
drawn from the cottage ; from ruftics, from childrejij 
and their occupations ; whether amufmg themfelves , 
with contrivances, fports, oi- events, adapted to their 
years ; or, by attentions to fuch crea- ures., &c. 
with whom they are famihar, carrefling rabbits, 
puppies, or kittens ; feeding pouhry, or regretting 
the lofs of their httle favorites ; and itmuft be owned, 
when well executed, thefe have no fmall intereft, 
for with them all fpeftators can fympathize. 

Though to the fimple ftyle may be referred many 
occupations of the lov/er clafs of people in all parts, 
when treated by means of fingle (or nearly fingle) 
figures, and their accompaniments, yet when nume- 
rous figures are introduced, the compofition becoming 
more complex, is properly removed from this diviiion 
of Art, to another which is more ornamental. It is 
evident, for inftance, that a village feftival, though 
a rural fubje61, may contain a great variety of objects, 
divided into numerous groups, and yielding abundant 
employ for prolonged infpeclion : fo may a market, 
a fair, or other occurrence, which collects multitudes 5 
not omitting the renowned and infallible quack do61;or 
of dottors. 

The Simple Style alfo includes, occafionally, the 
genteeleil iubjecf s : modern philofophers ftudy as 
much as ever did ancient philofophers ; and thofe who 
inveftigate the produ6tions of Nature in gardens, 
woods, or parks, may doubtlefs by fuch ftudy furnifli 
fubjefts for the pencil : Linn^us thus engaged were 
a fubje^ worthy any pencil . Neither is the genteeleil 


( 23 ) 
lady, or her family, excluded from contributing to 
the embcllifliinent of fimple fcencs, whether orna- 
mented by cultivation, or more retired, or lolitary ; 
and indeed, fuch inftances fometimes contrail in the 
happieft manner the rude intervals of nature, with 
the crraceful refinements of Tafle. 

The varied or ORNAMENTAL Style. 

THERE is a Style, which often departing from 
limple compofition, yet not always including extenfive 
profpefls, and magnificent fccnery, offers many in- 
gredients in its productions, and includes many cir- 
cumflances, and effe6ls : this is the mod common 
ftyle in Landfcape ; if it has not fewer difficulties 
than than the former ftyle, it has more refources ; it 
exhibits, occafionally, great mafles, and minute ob- 
jeds ; it does not forego a rock, or a mountain, as 
too large, nor difdain an humble hillock as- too fmall ; 
it borrows intereft from the employment of its figures, 
fi'om the nature of its animals, its edifices, its trees, 
from works of art, or produ6lions of nature, while 
with them it combines conceptions of grandeur, and 
inftances of dignity. It nmft be owned, this ftyle is 
very congruous to natural principles ; for nature rarely 
confines us to the view of a fingle object ; and equally 
i-arely, at leaft, is the fublimer fcenery of Nature fub- 
mitted to our infpeftion. The medium, then, between 
what is too limited and what is unlimited, between 
what is too ordinary and what is too rare, may juftly 
be efteemed as calculated for popularity, and adapted 


( 2^ ) 
fo the tafcc of many, perhaps of mod, amangall clafTcs 
of mankind. ^ 

As ornament Is a favorite quahty, this ftyle aboundsr 
in ornament ; and by the multiphcity of obje£ls it 
alTembles, by their union^ or their contraft, by their 
dif^Dofition, and arrangement, by their character, and 
fidehtv, it feeks to amufe the mind, and to dehght 

the eye. 

It is admitted, that a fmgle obje6l, unlefs well per- 
formed, is of little value ; the entertainment it affords, 
is neither great, nor Lifting ; whereas by the introduc- 
tion of fundfy objefts, though each alone may not hp' 
exquifite, the efFeft refulting from the whole may be 
pleafmg, and the amufement they furnilh, may even 
be captivating. 

There is a natural enjoyment in fociety ; folitude 
has charms only occafionally ; a hermitage may pleafe, 
as a temporary retirement ; but perpetual reiidence 
there, is baniQiftient. The fame fcene, the fame 
company, or the fame no-company, the fame courfe, 
conftantly, is tirefome. To be able, after having 
infpefted one objecl;, to turn and enjoy another, 
greatly promotes our returning to re-infpe6l the fii'ft 
with pleafure. To maintain this pleafure a well- 
regulated union of objefts is necelTary ; I mean, that 
they fliould not be fuch as cannot naturally aflbciate 
(Europe and Africa, Summer and Winter, inthefame 
piece, is {hockmg) but all objefts introduced together, 
fhould be related to each other, and capable of form- 
ing one whole. Neverthelefs, this union by no means 
implies famenefs, and identity, or repetition of the 


( 25 ) 

fiime thoiiglit in the fame manner. Let us inftance 
a company of filhermen hauling their nets into a boat, 
each hits his own way of doing this, his own attitude, 
his own mode of exerting his Ilrength, and his own 
ftation, and duty in this bufmefs ; though the aftion 
be one, tlie mode of the a6lionisdiverfified. If we 
luppofe, buildings, — they vary in form, and effect ; 
all are not alike : — if trees, they alfo differ ; but 
this difference would be fliocking, if it fuffered the in- 
trodudion of trees from fundry parts of the world into 
the fame compofition ; neither ought buildings to 
exhibit at once the flyle of Lapland and of Caffraria, 
Tartar tents and European fortifications. 

Difpofition and arrangement, may naturally b^ 
cfteeined impoi tant, vvhere numerous objects are adr 
initted ; that the chief aftion fliould occupy tlie chief 
place, and not be embaraffed much lefs be hid, by 
minor accompaniments, is evidently juft : that neg- 
ligence, or confufion, fliould not entangle the com- 
pofition, or perplex a fpeiStator to difcover the nature 
ofthefcene, or the bufinefs which folicits his atten- 
tion. But on the other hand, equally improper, is 
that extremely precife regularity, which determines 
to an inch the ftation of its trees, or edifices, and 
renders a picture like one of thofe old fafliioned gar- 
dens, where 

" Grove nods to grove, each alley has a brother. 
And half the platform— juft reilefts the other. " 

Artificial difpofition is often diflferent from artfgl 
flifpofition 5 hence we fometimes fee, loop-holes cut 

E arriong 

( 26 ) 
amowg trees, tc* exhibit fonie object: which ncceflity 
rxa6ls ; but which (kill would have dilpofed without 
fuch a force on the compofition. Excellent com» 
polition, though really the offspring of much refleftion, 
fhould appear like a mere happy freedom of ideas, and 
in this lenfe, the difpofition of a piftiire ma)' be re- 
ferred to the general principles which regulate com- 
pofition as a branch of Art. 

Since all departments of Art profefs attention to 
charafter and fidelity, it is clear thofe principles can 
not be omitted in the fubjects we are now treating : be- 
caufe confufion and embarraffinent, is bed avoided 
by vigilant attention to them. Nothing contributes 
more to the prolongation of a fpeftator's enjoyment, 
and to the impreffion dehgned on his mind, and his 
memory, than order and juft arrangement, enforced 
by characler and fidelity. 

The Exalted or Heroic Style. 

BESIDE attending to the neceffary principles of 
Art, clioice of fubjeft, variety of charafter, force of 
cxpreffion, and happy arrangement, this ftyle pro- 
feffes, rather to reprefent Nature as we conceive fhe 
is capable of appearing in her happiefl periods, than 
as (lie really does appear, in her daily garb : full 
of noble ideas, it feeks noble profpe6ls ; and, being 
as it were, abilrafted from common and ordinary 
things, it declines thofe more general and cuftomary 
iubjefts, which to the major part of mankind are 
fources of delight : but whofe frequent occurrence 


( 1-^7 ) 

renders them too familiar to engage the (ludy of tlie 
Heroic Style. Extraordinary fcenes ot rocks and 
wildncfs, whofe llupendous attitude or magnitude 
wliofe cloud-top^d brows, overawe the fpe6tator, fo - 
lemn ruins whofe noble remains unite ideas of former 
grandeur and prefent decay, deep glooms of lotty 
woods, melancholy lakes furrounded by overQiadow- 
ing precipices, ideal images of famous cities, wherr 
exalted imagination may freely fuppofe whatever is 
grand and fublime, heroic and affecting ; thefe are 
among its favorite fubjeds. 

I think it may be divided into two kinds ; simple 


Suppofe — the oncefacred tomb of fome hero of old 
renown, now mutilated and almofl: deftroyed ; this 
one obje6l well introduced, and characteriftically 
marked-, explained, and accompanied, affords oppor- 
tunity of much fubUme fenfation. Suppofe — a re- 
cluie, in the energy of devotion; the cell, and its 
accompaniments, may be rendered extremely affeti- 
ing , efpecially if it reprefent fome well known 
character, as Je ROM and the Angel of death. Sup- 
pofe — a king (as Alfred) divefled of his dignity ; — an 
un])appy Lover, feeking in defpondency the chrkell 
fhade, or vifiting in anguifli the tomb of his beloved, 
and bedecking it with quickly-fading garlands, fit 
emblem of her he loves ! Alexander at the tomb 
of Achilles is little lefs heroic than Alexander 
in the tent of Darius : Marius in deep reflection 
featedon the ruins of Carthage ; Belisarius receiv- 
ing charity from tliQfeheonce commanded; Anti- 

E 2 <^rHus 

'• ( 25") 
fotiiU^ receiving impure water from apeafant; afe not 
more remarkable as inftancs of Fortune's mutability, 
than as fvibjecls adapted to a llyle of compofition fim- 
ply Heroic. Thefe and many others equally affecling^ 
equally fimple fubje6ls, furnifh occafion. of mature 
refle6lion, both to the Artift, and to the fpectator. 

Hie magnificent flyle takes a larger fcope, and 
A-ifits fcenes of more extenfive grandeur ; the confe- 
fcrated Temple, the royal Palace, the pathetic or 
pompous Events and whatever Nature furnilhes of 
vafl and unlimited. It gathers over our heads tre- 
mendous clouds of terrifying ftorms, it rolls ttie 
thunder, it wields the lightning of heaven, it fnaps 
the llouteft oak, and trembles the folid earth '^ the 
fea roils in mountain-wa^ves, obedient to its commands 
and the horrors of the deep obey its voice. It de- 
fcends in imagination to Tartarus itfelf, fparkles 
in all the fplendor of Elyfmm, drinks ethereal light, 
mingles with kings and heroes long departed, and 
ranges amid the e ver- verdant fneads, the ever- mur- 
muring ftreams, the ever-fragrant groves, of that 
delightful ftate : or, deviating to Erebus, it pi-^fents 
horror upon horror, gleams of fickly fire, floods of 
liquid flame, barriers of eternal rock, ftagnant waters 
of Styx, darknefs vihble, caverns of defpair, fliriek- 
ing ghofls, and yelling furies. Nature has bounds ; 
Imagination has none : Thought tranfports itfelf to 
early time, fees infant creation rifing into liglit, fees 
floods defolate the globe, fees cities erected and de- 
ftroyed, fees tribes of men fettled and difperfed ; and^ 
fpringingior^ya^d with unreftrainable vigour, watchf^s 


( 2:^ ) 

t-lie full: kindling of that dcftiiiftive flaire, con:!i:iin- 
oned to conlumc every iiiemorial of paft ages, — the la- 
bours of man, and the globe itfelf, the work of a Deity! 

It muft be o'Nvned, not every Artiil has imagination 
to conceive fucli compreheniive fiibjeds, or ikill to 
manage them adequately. Bombaft is too often mif- 
taken for Sublimity, as well in Painting as in Poetry. 
Much is rifqued in this Ayle, and not ahvays witii 
fuccefs : but there is in the attempt fomething noble 
and elevated, and often, where much may be doubt-- 
ful there may be a proportion juflly entitled to ap- 
plaufe. Thofe who will venture nothing, mull be 
contented with ordinary merit, and be fatisfied with 
ordinary commendation ; MJiile perhaps, would they 
encourage them, |:hey poUefs abilities, which might 
do honour to their powers without derogating froal 
their prudence. Others, wh.o venture every thing, 
and liftcn to no conlideration that fhould reftrain. 
their attempts, and moderate their ardour, muft hz 
content to fuffer the fcrutinizing remarks of criticifm, 
to abide *the pelting of that pitilefs llorm' which un- - 
ufual imagination is fure to encounter ; in many a 
well-meant attempt, they muft be fatisfied with the 
praife of v.ell-meaning; and mufl fet againll this, if 
liighly favoured by capricious fortune, the gratifi- 
cation of being fometimes thought inftances of lingular 

It is evident that Genius need not h'gh for other 
worlds to conquer, while the iludy of Landfcape, in 
each of its divifions, is fo ample, and extenlive. 
While it affords fo great variety, each branch of 


( 30 ) 
which is excellent, Genius may adapt itfelf to either, 
as inclined by native prepoiTeffion, or directed by 
contingent circumftances, may cultivate its powers 
m rcprcicni-ing I'ubjects agreeable and pleafmg, or 
ornamental and aniuimg, or grand and hei-oic. 
Scarcely is it poflible that the whole of this Art 
fiiould be embraced by one miid, and performed by • 
one hand : that in the fame Artift, Compofition and 
Ordonnance, Invention and Charafter, Fidelity and 
Eft'ecl, ftiould combine in all their branches, and 
unite in rendering Simplicity interefting, Decoration 
amufmg, and Grandeur fublime. 

The Characteristic tarts cf Landscape. 

LANDSCAPE is an imitation cf Nature ; in 
fact, an artificial viev,' : but all views in nature are 
riot equally good ; Ibme are highly beautiful, others 
are abfolutely woi thlefs, in refpeft of Art ; they 
offer no fubjeft worthy notice ; their parts are 
choqiiant, irrelative, and mean. If it be thus iiT 
Nature, doubtlefs Art is expofed to the fame imper- 
ieftions, and they are more obfervable, becaufe Art 
^rofelTes to chufe the befc, and has no actual fertility, 
convenience, or other eftimable quality, to compen- 
fate for any ill choice. 

The fcite, or viev»s which a piclure reprefents, 
fhould be well chofen, its paits well united, and well 
compoled, fo as to produce a neat, ^diiiincl;, and un- 
erabaralTed, idea of the place defigned : this propo- 
fition might be fubdivided into numerous branches, 


( 31 ) 
according to the nature of a country rcprcfented ; 
whether fertile or barren, mountainous or niarfliy, 
open or cncloled : but to purine reflections on each 
of thefe, with their rekitivcs, would be tedious, 
perluips endlefs ; a few general remarks may difmifs 

Extraordinary fcites, pleafe and amufe the inia- 
gination, by their novelty, as they tranfport a fpcc- 
tator inftantly to a fpot which he has never bctore 
beheld; ordinary fcites, pleafe by their veracity, 
and their accompaniments; what are ordinary fcites 
in one country, are extraordinary in another; not 
all perfons are capable of (juftly) comprehending 
extraordinary fcites, though they find fomething 
grand in them: and indeed, it were much to be 
wifhed, that as well obfervers, as artifls, were bet- 
ter acquainted v/ith nature, whofe uncommon pro- 
du6lions furnifh the nobleil opportunities for exer- 
tions of Art: or at leaft, that obfervers would not 
become critics till tliey polielied fuch an indifpenfibie 

It is but rarely, that landfcape compofition com* 
prifes merely an affemblage of objects of one kind; 
more generally fomewhat diflin6l, and even perhaps 
in contrail, from the principal fubjeft of the piece is 
introduced. Trees alone, without buildings or other 
obje6ls different from trees, fuch as rocks, or hills; 
buildings alone, without trees, or other afTociates, are 
feldom chofen, where choice is free. The general 
iubjecl, or principrd reprefentation of the picture, 


( 32 ) 
iriuft ncverthclefs be allawed to denominate, and claf^i 
the performance, in its fpecific character as a Land- 

Among the firfl"chara6lers of Landfcape, we place 
fcencs drawn from the Forest, where the wildnefs 
of Nature, prevaihng all around, combines various 
kinds of Trees, ori nearly the fame fpot, and prompts 
each to expand its branches with unreftrained free- 
dom and vigour. Foreft fcenes are either open, or 
confined : niany extenfive openings are found in fome 
Forefts, in reprefentationof which, tlie Trees around 
are thrown into the middle diilance of the picture : 
other fpots are fo confined, that a deep gloom imper- 
vious to the eye, furrounded by Trees of vai-ious 
hues, is ail that offers. Thefe latter are clofely al- 
lied to Wood-Scenes, which flrike by folemnity 
and repofe rather than by fprightlinefs ; tliough it 
Ibmetiines happens, that the light enlivens objefts, 
plants, flems of Trees, or projeding branches, in a 
playful and pleafmg manner. 

Thefe fubjects are by their nature greatly confined, 
infomuch, that it may often be advifeable to an Ar- 
tifl, to gradate his depths, and to fhow a fucceflion 
of diilances; not indeed remote from each other, but 
juft enough to procure an opportunity of introducing 
a variety, which otherwife were abfolutely unattain-? 
able. Neither fliould it be forgot, that the en- 
trance of iuch fcenes, (a wood, for inftance) prefents 
from tlie fame fpot, at leail two ideas, either of 
which may be chol'en. — A perfon entering a wood, 
^es before him its lliaded recedes;— the fame perfon 


( 33 ) 

by merely turning on his heel, or defigning to quit 
tlie wood, lees, not only thole commencements of 
the woody fcene which are immediately adjacent to 
him, but alfo, ibmewhat of the diflances he had for- 
merly left ; and according to the nature of thefe, the 
Laudfcape he beholds is varied : when looking out of 
the wood he views a fpcftacle entirely different from 
that which offers when looking into the wood, though 
he has not changed his Ration a fmgle yard. 

As wood fcenes are naturally void of any great 
portion of ficy, the management of light is of the ut- 
moil importance to them. Bccaufe folemn, they 
(hould not be heavy, neither need they be melan- 
choly, becaufe cool, and fober ; the freedom of light 
llriking here and there, wandering, as it were, among 
the branches, the leaves, the flem.s, and the dex- 
trous fupporting of one fpread of light by others fub- 
ordinate, contributes greatly to a pleafmg, and forae- 
times neven a lively effeft. It is neceflary to pay at- 
tention to the kinds of trees introduced in a wood, or 
forell fcene, that fuch may not be mingled in Pifture 
as never aflTociate in Nature : this does not exclude a 
great variety of trees, whofe different hues fupport 
each other, and diverfify the fcene. One tree is of 
a deep green, almoft inclining to blacknefs, another 
is filvery, almoft blue, another yellowifh, or ruflet : 
thefe mutually improve the effe6l of theircompanions. 
If a light-coloured tree ftand before a deep-coloured 
one, its whole form is fliewn by its back-ground; it 
a deep-coloured tree Hand before a light-coloured 
©ncj it is relieved by its neighbour; it aflfbrds an 

F o^pjrtunity 

( 34 ) 
opportunity of gradation, its extremities become 
more agreeable, and are capable of more latisfaclory 

From trees majeflic by their dimenfions, their 
forms, their leafy honours, and venerable by their 
age, of which their deep-cleft trunks bear decifive 
evidence, vvhofe almofl above-ground roots winde in 
many, a rugged convolution, and which have long 
braved the alternate rigour of the feafons, we turn 
to the humbler COPPICE and the lowly uxderwood : 
what this wants in dignity of form, it compenfates by 
fprightlinefs of appearance; being young, healthy^ 
vigorous, it offers, efpecially in fpring, very inte- 
lefting materials for Landfcape. It is notj indeed, 
always well grouped, its forms are apt to be flrag- 
gling, rather than free, and fome management it un- 
doubtedly does require in thefe refpe6ts; but then, 
a little imagination, and a little liberty, eafily im- 
prove it, and thefe it readily admits. In treating, 
therefore, coppice-wood and its relativ^es, care fhould 
be taken that they do not difturb the harmony of the 
Piece^ either in form, or colour: that they harmo- 
nize with the principal maffes of the coinpolition, 
and do not obtrude themfelves on the eye beyond 
their jull warrant and importance. 

Parks and pleasure grounds, are artifi- 
cial woods, and resiulated forefls : if not altogether 
the creatures of Art, they are inftances of Nature 
controuled, improved, ornamented, or arranged, by 
liuman endeavours. When well compofed, they 
have much lefs wildnefs than nature, but htle lefs 

. fre edom. 

( 35 ) 

fl-eedom ; they offer lefs obftruclion to the fr^ht, anci 
periTiit a better choice of dIRance from whei)ce to be 
viewed. The danger attending them i'^', the intrur 
fio.i of a fomewhat bordering on formaHty, a kincj 
of primnefs, which hints at the interference of a 
power different from Natnre, and not always in har- 
mony with her : but when Nature has been happily 
directed, not over ruled, affilled, not contradicted 
by Art, and when (he has beftowed fome of her 
interefting capabilities, it mull be owned nr* Land- 
fcapes exceed thofe formed by this union. In treat- 
ing them, little caution is necellary, ujyond ths 
regular precepts of Art, for which the fcenes them- 
felves are often happily prepared p 

The SiiRURBERV is to the Park, what Coppice- 
wood is to the Forefl : if it contain curious trees, 
they are lofl unlefs fpecifically diftinguilhed ; if Ipe- 
cifically diftinguifhed, they rifque the introduction, 
of confufion, they break the general harmony and 
combination of the piece ; each fingly is trifline, 
altogether are a mob : add to this, their diflributioii 
in ftraight linc^, or precifely winding walks, with 
equal intervals; — it will follow, that the introduc- 
tion of a fhrubbery, unlefs by the bye, and where 
unavoidable, has little to recommend it to the 
Painter's judgment. 

Heath, and Downs, are not always pleafmg in 
tl;emfelves ; but they pleafe by adventitious cir- 
cumllances, by the introdu6lion of fomewhat to 
attrat'T; attention : a bare common is poor ; but 
add merely that very moderate compolition the 

Starting- poftj 

( 36 ) 
Starting-pofl and Betting-box of a race-ground, 
it becomes capable of raifing attention. On the 
fame principle, the huts and cottages of a common 
intereil: us ; and the rather, becaufe by rcafon of 
the general plainnefs around them, the intereft they 
produce is undivided, and enjoyed by them without 
a rival. Breadth of light and fhade is of the utmofl 
confequence to thcfe fubjefts ; if divided, and fub- 
divided, they acquire a chequered and paltry ap- 
pearance : and they poiTefs no internal power , ca- 
pable of relloring them to dignity and importance. 
They (bow well fome of the accidents of Landfcape : 
a mifty morning, ^y^ielding to the folar rays, a 
fnow ftorm, or a tempeft, is v^^ell feen on them, 
becaufe capable of full difplay, without fuffering 
by extraneous interference. 

A CHAMPAIGN open country,, which has nothing 
particular to attraft notice, is by no means a barren 
objeft in a Picture ; as it affords fuch fcope for the 
effecc of light, and degradation of diftances, that 
if there be but moderately aflifting cifcumftances in 
iurrounding objefts, to diverfify the Picture, it 
poiTeffes a contraft capable of the greatefl utilityj 
and can fcarce fail of a charafieriftic grandeur. 

An EXTENSIVE, and cultivated country, 
is among the mofl difficult branches of Landfcape ; 
♦partly, I luppofe, becaufe the cultivated produc- 
tions it includes are nothing unlefs well made-out, 
and diftinftly reprefented ; which practice, if fol- 
lowed too far, is in danger of obftructing the general 
and leading principles of the piece, in favour of 


( 37 ) 
thole miniitiaf wliofe efll'6l Is always injurious. Un- 
lels a field of corn, for inRancc, be well expreirt-d 
and coloured, it may be nii'lakc'i for lan^, or 
crravel ; it is true a field of corn may be grouped, 
and gradated into harmony, but all objects of culture 
are not thus compliant What mull wc do with a 
held of cabbages ? or .cauliflowers ? or what with 
that flrange diiplay produced by lines after lines of 
bell-glalFes, and covers, which in the gardens near 
London, have fo fingular an eflecl, efpecially when 
the fun fliines on them, and they refle6l his fpark* 
iing rays ? Art requires in theie inftances fome little 
prejudice in her favour : permiflion to tlirow into 
fhade fome of thefe importunate trifles, and to con- 
ceal and foften others. An extenfive country natu- 
rally includes an extenfive fky ; and from this we 
draw no defpicable alTlftance : the clouds being ar- 
bitrary in form and difpofition, afFord^a contrail with 
objefts on the ground, and a refource for diftributing 
more or lefs light, as cotivenierjit. Befide this, the 
Artift, as foon as polhble, contrives, that however 
he may be forced to particularize his front grounds, 
and their appendages, the grounds a little removed 
into the piece may be rnafTed, harmonized, united, 
and deprived of thole fharpneffes, and aukward- 
nefles, which they expofe. When this management 
has procured breadth^ if lively figures be added , and 
.their occupations well adjufled, thefe kinds of Pic- 
tures acquire the property of pleafing in a high de- 
gree . they exhibit Nature rejoicing, humanity rey 
joices with her ; they find the dire6l way to tli# 


( 33') 
hearf; the fpeftator fynipathlzcs with the cliecr 
ing profpeft of plenty, and the anticipated erijoyment 
of corn, wine, and oil. The dovibtlefs is 
the chief beaety in thefe fnbjefts ; yet in the hands 
of foine mailers, there is a kind of magic, in the dif- 
pofal of diftance after diilance, which attracts and 
long detains the eye ; it wanders with great dehgh^, 
from part to parf, and feems to inl'pecl much more 
than really is expreiTed on the canva';. The reafon 
may be, that the eye is fo gradually, and gently, 
invited from this object to the next beyond it, without 
any abrupt terminations, or /ffl/75 of interval , that 
it paffes on, fcarce aware of the progrefs it has made, 
OF is making. 

Rivers and waters in general, contribute To 
greatly to the flouriihing of vegetation, that they 
fcem naturally to foilo^v the mention of cultivated 
country ; and the rather, becaufe, when the nature 
of fuch a compofition includes them, it is among the 
h^ppieft circumftances in the Artift's favour. The 
banks of rivers, are either high, and fteep, or flat , 
aaid level : when the former, viewed from a jufl dif- 
tance, they furnifh opportunity for pleafing fcenes ; 
and as they ufually have fomething engaging, either 
knoUSj of trees, or rehdences, they are by no means 
inferior articles of ftudy. When their (bores are 
low and fandy, we muft look to the river itfelf for 
our opportunity of exciting delight ; this it amply 
affords, by means of the extenljve traffic ever in 
motion on it, by the various forms of velTels, the va- 
rious en plo)nients of navigators of fundry forts. 

< 39 ) 
\Vhich ply on a river ; the ferries which crofs it, the 
brid<Tes thrown ever it, and the reflections of all theie 
objects in it, not to mention tlie dextrous repreicut- 
ations of aquatic plants^ which not fckiom are ve'ry 
pleahng. Often indeed, the lopped heads of naked 
ozier trees, or the thick huddle of reeds, and ruflies, 
deferve little praife ; yet the bulrufh, in perfection, 
is not without ibmewhat of niajelly, and the water- 
lily prettily diveriifies the limpid iiirface of the 
gentle brook. 

Lakes and r[vers are fi.iiilar to purpofes of 
Art : fo nmch of a river as can b-^ feen, is ufually 
little different from fb much of a lake ; but lakes are 
gejierally among mountains, and contrailed by their 
fonns ; whereas a river, when capacious enough to 
deferve the name, rarely occupies iuch a lituation, 
but flows in a more level country. 

Torrents and v^ater-falls, are by their 
nature. rellri6ied to mountainous and rocky eleva- 
tions; they rather contrail Iuch fcenes, than are 
contraifed by them ; and rather contribute variety 
where they occur, than receive variety from fur- 
rounding objects. As thefe arc ib;ne of Nature's 
grandefl effects, impotent imitations of them are ge- 
nerally difgulting : they are a clafs of fubjects which 
ftiould be lludied immediately from Nature ; they 
fhould be portraits of certain fpots, rather than pro- 
duced by general fancy. In wliich cafe, the rocks, 
and hanging woods, the ftones which half-way down 
receive the falling ftream, and againft which it dallies 
into fpravj the rocky channel v\hich it at len<jth 


( 40 ) 
fcciclies, and its courfe, boiling as it proceeds, will 
certainly receive much of the Artift's attention. 
Fideli<-.y will Hand inftead of rules, and will ufually 
produce efFe6ls fuperior to rules, efpecially, if the 
colours of the rocks be happily adapted to relieve 
the falling flieet of water, and at the fame time, 
rontraft the trees, flirubs, bullies, and perhaps 
glooms, which overlhadov/ the whole. The water 
flioulld be clear, not dirty, touched with fpirit, not 
laboured, tranfparent, not heavy, and its fpray well 
indicated, yet uniting with the general tone of the 
piece. Great care is required left the froth, and 
agitated water in the canal, prefent the refemblance 
of foap-fuds, or rather fuggeft the idea of a boiling 
pot, than of a continuing ilreara. Where the fpray 
furniihes a rainbow acrofs the fall, that circumftance 
ought by no means to efcape ihfertion . neither ought 
»{ny other ftriking, and pleafmg peculiarity. 

There is a kind of humble Cascades which cart- 
not be called Torrents, which inftead of ifluing from 
mountains, and rolling in impetuous floods, origi- 
nate from fome narrow ravin, where further ftrait- 
ened by projefting points, they dafli into the ftreamlet 
below ; thefe are often happily compofed, by the 
loofe ftones, the banks of earth, the flirubs, around 
them ; the fnnplicity of the v/hole is kindly adjufted, 
and without pretending to the magnificence of the 
broad ilieet of water, they are complete in their fym- 
metry, and demonftrate, that the methods of Nature 
in producing beauty are unlimited. They play, 
ihev meander, in pleaiong iorms, and r?.tlier attach 


( 41 ) 
R fpeClator by the delight they impart, than aflonilji 
him by the grandeur they exhibit. 

Whoever has been at hbcrty to enjoy the plea- 
sure arifing from infpe6lion of Natural Landfcape, 
has endeavouied to augment his profpeCl by afcend- 
ing feme rifing ground, fome eminence, from whence 
that pleafure might be more amply enjoyed. Thougii 
perambulating a green lane, a verdant meadow, 
or an extenfive common, may be confidered as con- 
templating Nature, and mull be referred to the prin- 
ciples of Landfcape, yet thefe content no qne who 
has opportunity of further view, and within whofe 
attainment is fome more elevated llation. To ac- 
quire this opportunity, is an article of much dehre 
to any gentleman about to buiid a feat ; and if Nature 
have refufed it to the fpot where he niufl build, the 
refources of Art are requefled to fupply, as far as 
poflible, this deficiency. In Holland, &c, where 
the obilacles of Nature entirely prohibit the hopes, 
and fruftrate the refources of Art, in this refpe(i, ' 
every rilmg is efteemed a hill, and one ^^the only) 
hill in the country is eileemed a mountain ; from 
hence they tell us maybe feen fo many capital cities, 
fo many walled towns, fortified callles, and villages ; 
it mult be owned, the fight is rich, and entertain- 
ing, but it proves not the mountainous height of the 
Elevation, though it demcnftrates the abfolute level 
of the country infpecled. A Swifs, or a Welch- 
man, would aPx to be iliev/n this mountain, and 
when afcending it, im^ht doubt its exiileuce ; yet 

G here 

( 42 ) 
here the Hollander tarries, to prolong his profpedj 
and he mounts this hill, to extend his infpeftion. 

Hills, and rising grounds, are found prin- 
cipally among lowland countries ; they yield pleaf- 
ing profpefts, from them, but are rarely themfelves 
pleafiiig ; if they advance forward into the Pifture, 
they terminate the view, while the eye fuppofes 
itfelf capable of further infpe6tion, confequently, 
fomewhat prematurely ; but, when the compofition 
advanced before them has nearly fatisfied the eye, 
they furnifh an agreeable clofe, and diverGty, to 
the piece, and elegantly complete that previous 

Mountains are fcenes of grandeur, or they are 
nothing : they fcarce admit a medium : they are 
bold, overbearing, awful, dreary, and folemn; or 
their effect is vapid, and inert, and themfelves are 
puny, and fpiritlefs. Being prodigious malTes, to 
fee them broicen and frittered into minute particles, 
is contradictory to their very firft principles : they 
fliouid rather be kept broad, flrong in effect of light 
and fhadow, diltin6t in forms, and confonant to the 
dignity of their fpecies. 

Mountains are either barren, or cultivated 
more or lefs ; they are fufceptible of the moil com- 
manding effects in Nature : clouds hanging on their, 
brow, and veiling the forms of their upper parts, 
mills rifmg into clouds, and other phenomena, di- 
ver'i^y their appearance. If one of the principles of 
fublimity be a certain kind of iudifiiudnefsp rather 


( 43 ) 

a fiiggeflion than entire expreflion, leaving a portion 
to the imagination, rather than ablblutely fiUing it, 
exciting the mind to mule, and to ponder, on the 
fubje6l which engages it, — then we may atfirm, that 
mountains and their efFeQs poTefs this grateful ob 
fcurity, in the moll interefting degree. Their lofty 
tops receive a certain folemn dimnefs by their ele- 
vation and diflance ; their bold projections, by ample 
fliadows, throw a veil of demi-tint over confiderable 
parts of their furface ; their clefts, and cavities, are 
fo man)' concealments from infpeftion, as well as 
variations of appearance ; and while by their mafles, 
and forms, and general properties, they excite at- 
tention_, they yet leave more to be fuppofed by the 
mind, than their reprefentations exprefs to the eye. 

In treating Rocks, (or Mountains when feen 
hear, if rocky or barren) the painter mud endea- 
vour by artful management of his light and fliade, 
to render them accordant with the other parts oi his 
compofition :. they muft be boldly and truly coloured, 
with warmth and fpirit. Rocks are of various na- 
tures, according to the ftrata which compofe them ; 
the happy imitation of which adds greatly to verili- 
mility : the mofifes which grow upon them, the 
injuries they have received from time, the fhrubs 
which accompany them, and other particulars, tend 
greatly to qualify their barren afped, and to render 
them plealing, though at firfl they feem little caU 
culated to pleafe. ' The partlof rocks removed fur- 
ther into a compofition, mufl be blended, and only 

G 2 their 

( ^H ) 

their protuberances be diflingulfhcd. Mountains, 
(or Rocks) I eprefented in a diflant view, require' 
much harmony, foftnefs, tendernefs of tint, a melted 
outhne, a generalization of form, colour, and every 
other principle : direftly contrary to fuch objects 
near at hand, whole parts cannot be too bold, pro- 
minent, and efFetlive. As to mountains upon 
mountains, they are difficult fubjeds ; no Picture 
gives ideas of the Alps equal to infpe6tion : however 
familiar their reprefentations may be to a traveller, 
the places, and fituations, themfelves, always ex- 
ceed, by far, his previous conceptions of them. The 
very nature of fuch fcenes is, to differ ftron gly at 
every point of view, and each, in fucceffion, fhews 
fuch bold features that it may be thought moft ftrlk- 
ing, till another feems better entitled to that diftlnc- 
tion. This infinity of change, of change llrongly pe- 
culiarized, defies the labours of imitative Art. 

A genuine and correal view from the top of a 
mountain, is what has been rarely attempted ; it is, 
no doubt, laborious, yet as laborious Artifts have not 
been wanting, and the fmgularity of the fabje6l 
would enfure diftinftion, I rather wonder fome ar- 
dent genius has not fought this mode of obtaining 
notice: a fuccefsful performance of the kind, would 
have a laffing effect on the public mind. 

Arrived at length on the mountain's top, we mull, 
like other travellers, think of defcending ; for a time 
we may enjoy the profpeft, may fee adjacent coun- 
tries lying as in a map^ beneath our feet ; may 


( 45 ) 
oelioUl tlie fituations of cities, of rifing hills, and of 
level plains; may trace the courfes of rivers, the 
coafts of the lea, its havens, bays, promontories, 
and their indentures ; we may ilretch our inlpeclion 
acrofs afea, and behold diftant and foreign, fliores— - 
but we mufl forego the prafped, and winde our way 
down the fteep-ihelving fides of our elevated Itation : 
happy, if the dangers of the defcent prove merely 
troublefome, and we arrive in fafety among the 
tcfidences of mankind. In fuch a courfe, we gra- 
dually exchange barrennefs for partial cultivation, 
and partial cultivation for important enclofures; 
the goat-track yields to paths, the paths to roads ; 
Jeav^ingr the goatherd's lodg-e behind us, we advance 
to the village, and ft-om the village to the towji, aiid 
the ci*y. 

Villages are a fiivourite part of the iludy o£ 
Landfcape ; by their variety, their fimplicity, and 
often by their beauty of fituation, and of verdure, 
they juftify the partiality in their favour. On the 
mode of treating them little need be faid ; they have 
already occupied us fomewhat ; and they do not 
require additional precepts. 

Towns and Cities may be referred to the prin- 
ciples of views. 

We repeat now our early obfervation, that rarely 
is any Landfcape wherein choice was free, entirely 
confined to one diftinclion of thefe charafters : it is 
much more ufual to combjne feveral of them, and by 
harmonizing the contrail v/liich arifes from their 


( 46 > 
introdu6lion, to procure a fcope to the Artifl'g abili- 
ties, and to vary the fpe6lator's enjoyment. It 
is true, each by itfelf is capable of exciting fenfa- 
tions fuitedto its nature, but, as thefe fenfations are 
not always fuch as may pleafe general fpeclators, or 
any I'pectator long together, it is efteemed better 
policy to combine tiiat variety of which they are fuf- 
ceptibie, and to relieve the eye by leading it from 
one part to another ; yet always without inter- 
rupting its attention to the whole. Herein Art 
doubtlefs follows Nature ; who rarely confines a view 
to one determinate kind of objeft, but varies the 
fcene> by offering combinations of feveral ; and in 
feveral ftates, in feveral points of view, and under 
feveral diftintl efFe6ls ; as the influences of light, of 
feafons, or of accidents, happen to combine them- 


( 47 ) 


Ladies and Gentlemen, 

We have treated in a former dilcourfe on the 
Nature of Landfcape in general ,• and have fuggeft'^d 
tbofe diftinftions and branches of the Art, which we 
^uppofed might contribute to our better underiland- 
ing of its relations, and importance ; we (ball now 
engage our attention on the Component objects 
OF Landscape, and proceed to examine the nature 
and the appearance of thofe objects, whofe imitation 
offers us a fund of inexhaurtible delight. 

THE general character of a Landfcape, mayjuflly 
be denominated from the nature of the pjincipal 
cbjeiSl, Gi: obje61s, it contains : but, to purpofes of 
Art, it is often neceffary, that thefe objefts them- 
felves fliould be more intimately infpe£led, and 
refolved into thgir component parts, in order to efti- 
mate juftly the caufe of that agreeable effect which 
pleafes us. For inftance, in a foreft fcene, — what is 
the compolition, and what the nature of the trees we 
behold ? — All trees are not alike, in form, or in man- 
ner ; to fubdivide a foreft into trees, therefore, with 
defign to confider each feparately,' miglit be very 
inftru6tive. To accomplifli this, on a large fcaie, 
■would lead us no trifling diftance i and to do it 


( 43 ) 
juflice, perhaps, might occupy no inconfiderabla 
portion of a hfe : we are accordingly hmited to brief 
obfervations on this inftance, and for more mufl refer 
o the inlpeftion of Nature. I propofe, neverthelefs, 
to mention asdiflinfl objects, fundry of thofe which 
we have already attended to in groups, or combined 
with others, whether of their own, or of a differ- 
ent fpecies. 

In treating of the human figure, we always begin 
with a fmgle figure, its parts, proportions, &c. be- 
fore we proceed to groups : for if any one, incapable 
of well reprefenting a fimple figure, fhould attempt 
a compofition of figures, what is the probable con- 
fequence ? If the fimple fubje6l exceed his powers, 
whence has he abilities for a complex fubjeft ? — On 
the fame principle, 

A Tree equally exa£ls correct proportion and 
drawing ; for, unlefs every tree reprefented, differ 
m reprefentation, according to its nature, from 
others around it, what mortal fliall divine its inten- 
tention ? — ^A Poplar, whole ffems and branches fhoot 
upward, — a Fir, whofe branches expand laterally,— 
a Willow, whofe branches bend downward, — furely 
thefe require different drawing from each other. 
To comprehend this principle more fully, take ad- 
vantage of that feafon when Nature flrips the trees 
bare of their foliage: in this fkeleton ftate, ob- 
feive the various inclinations of the fi:em, the 
branches, and even the twigs, of a tree ; how its 
parts are J^t on^ their motion, as agitated by the 


C 49 ) 

wind, and odier particulars. In Spring, obfcrve 
how that lame tree Ihoots its.buJs, or leav'es, as well 
at wliat time, as in what manner : afterwards, when 
the leaves are full growii, co:nparc its general ap- 
pearance to ,itfelf when bare, and to others when 
full, by thus forming feveral times, and pomis, of ' 
comparifon, a diflinct, lading, and correct, know- 
ledge of that ti'ee's general* appearance may b<? 

Trees arc among the greatefl: ornaments of Land- 
fcape, becaule, by the variety of their ipecies, their 
verdure, and freflmels, and efpecially by their 
iightnefs, and agitation, they impart great life and 
jnotion to a compofition. 

The various fpecies ot trees demand much at an- 
tion, and very intimate acquamtance : for how fhall 
an artift defcribe by his pencil to the view of others 
that particular fpecies of which he is himi elf igno- 
rant ? and to fuppole that random attempts may 
tranfmit equal beauties as cultivated iVill, is to 
efteem the weeds of a defert equal to the vegetation 
of a garden. 

The fpeftator, who himfelf underftands their ap- 
pearances, fhould be at no lofs to determine between 
an oak or an elm ; a fir, or a poplar ; an apple-tree, 
or a weeping willow^ The particular proportions, 
manner of branching, and of leaving, whether com- 
pact or light, whether determinate, and, as it were, 
heavy, or agile and volatile ; add to this, the colour 
of their leaves^ above, below ; of the branches, of 

H the 

( 50 ) 
tbe bnrk, of the mofles which furround the bmk; 
the plants wliicli iifualiy grow at the bottom of the 
ftem ; the fituatioa I'uch trees delight in ; whether 
open and ai. y, or clofer and more confined ; whether 
by the water-fide, or on the thirfty heath : all thefe 
particulars fliould be familiar to that artift v/ho wiihes 
to rival thole m^'ifters who by fuch attentions have 
rifen to excellence. 

Befide the peculiarity of appearance which be- 
longs to each fpecies of tree, there are many differ- 
ences in trees of the fame Ipecies ; whether healthy 
and flrong ; or difeafed and infirm ; whether young 
or old. 

Young trees are generally dillinguifhed by long 
and thin^ branches, afpiring upward, and not very 
numerous, but ».vcll cloathed with leaves, well 
fpread, vigorous, and well formed : the branches of 
old trees, on the contrary, are fliort," thick, clofe, 
and numerous ; but their leaves unequal, and their 
general alpe6l thin. 

♦The barks of trees alfo, contribute greatly to their 
charafter, and muft be attended to ; in general, 
older barks are fulleft of crevices, &c. which are alfo 
deeper than thofe of younger trees. As to the leaves 
of trees, the broadeft and largeft are ufually at bot- 
tom ; thofe at top begin foonell to decay and wither, 
becoming, as it were, fun-burnt ; whereas the leaves 
of plants which are but little raifed above the earth 
.commonly begin their decay with the lowefl. 
. A few hmts on the various fpecies of trees ufually 


( 51 ) 
iiUi'o.liiccd in Landfcape, iniy contribute to a bet- 
ter uiiderftanJing of t'lcir relpe^^live characVers'. 

The Oak is a veiy beautiful and noble object, of 
venerable alpe6l ; and, if appeai'ance might juftify 
the dillinftion, entitled to all the honours once fa- 
vidicd upon it. Its fteni and branches are grand, 
and its colour firm and ftable. The oak of the forefl 
differs from that in a hedge ; is abundantly more 
flately and romantic, and divefted of thofe fuckei-s 
which give fomewliat of commoner s to that in the 
hedge, even while they increale its verdure. 

The Chestnut is rather a heavy tree, yet has 
more majefty than many which are preferred before 
it, either for the canvafs, or the park : when' in 
flower, its flowers being large, remarkably dillin- 
guifh it. 

The Willow has a very agreeable and flately 
appearance when perfeft ; it has alio a very pleaiing 
variety in the lengthened (hape of its leaf, and t>y its 
contraft to other trees in tiiis inilance, often Kais a 
very happy effect ; which the water, on whofe 
banks it chobfes to flourifh, increafes by relleclion. 
Wdlows cut and loprped, as theyuittally are by th^ 
lides of water-courles in England, are no fpecimens 
of this tree. 

The Elm is a flately tree, tail, but does not 
very much extend its foliage : this alfo fulfeis con- 
fiderably in its pifturefque appearance from itbiofs 
by lopping. 

FiRb and Pines contribute gi'eatly to variety; 
H 2 tiieir 

( 52 ) 

their forms ufually contrail we'll with furrouridiii*'' 
objeCls ; tbey are oftcii happy in icenes where 
wildnefs and romanticnefs is neceffiiry. As they 
grow on roc:ks and precipices, they contribute an 
ornament which in fuch compoiitions is veiy ac- 

The Cedar may perhaps be the moft majeftic of 
trees wlien in perfeftion ; as on Mount Lebanon, 
where are fome amazingly large, and very an- 
cient : but in England we have little or no oppor- 
tunity of introducing it into pi6:ures. 

The Ash is a fine fprightly tree, light in its leaf- 
ing, agitated by every wind, and diiplaying great 
diiforence of colour in the upper and under furfaces 
of its leaves : its branches are (lender and elegant, 
and its bark brilliant-: it admits of neatnefs and free- 
dom of pencil remarkably well, and though not gay 
is graceful. 

The Beech is a tall and majeflic tree, and, toge- 
ther wim the Birch, has a beautiful ftem, and a 
light, fpirited charafter, in its branches and foliage. 

Thefe trees, and others which might be named, 
receive peculiar beauties when happily contraftcd, 
or gro iped ; their various colours and manners con- 
tribute much to general effeft. But it is evident, 
that the Seafons produce great difference and diffimi- 
larity in trees of every kind : young leaves and (hoots 
have a very diftinguifhing yellownefs, which height- 
ens their green ; but having palled the vigour of 
their maturity, tliey become reddiih or brownifli ; 


( 53 ) 
they gradually wither and decay, till the fap, being 
retii'td from the ftem to the root, leaves them with- 
out moiflure or nourifhment, and they alTume an ap-» 
pearaace totally unlike their former verdure. 

The fame attention as is req li ed by crees of the 
fore*, which diiplay the wild luxuriance of Naturcg 
mult be employed on thofe of the park, or pleafure- 
ground, as alfo on the coppiie, or other nuri'eries of 
trees. It is remarkable, that fcarce any fruit-trees 
are pi6lurefque in their appearance , their ftragling 
branches ftartofFfrom the truak at awkward angles, 
and this awkwardnefs they preferve throughout their 
whole extent. In bloffbm time, they contribute 
greatly to diverfify a compofition, and to exprefs 
the fealbn ; and when viewed at a proper diftance, 
have a determinate efFecl, however they may be pro- 
hibited in front. The blolToms of fome trees covel* 
their branches as white as fnow, and require dex- 
trous management to avoid confuiion 

Nothing enriches a wall, whether alone, or as 
part of a cottage, &c. equally to a Vine running up 
its furface ; the broad leaf, the vatiety of its tones of 
colour, the freedom of its feftoons of fruit, contri- 
bute to -^this ornamental effeft ; no lefs than the 
richnefs of its produce, which ufually is fuggeiied by 
its luxuriant appearance. 

On the fame principle, the various Shrubs which 
bedeck the ruins of defolated buildings, contribute 
to render them interefling. The Mofs on the walls 
has this elFed, no lei's than the mantling Ivy ; and 


( 54 ): 
tfiouga Broom, and Ferns, oil the heath, being rc- 
dmidaiit, are little laudable, . yet in the area adjacent 
to fame lofty tower they have their ufe. The rank 
fiimitory in a church-yard denotes fomewhat relative 
to the fcene, and as well as by Its colour, in common 
with all kinds of verdure, diverfifies the general af- 
ipe6l of the compofition. 

Herbage, viewed from a little diflance, lofes its" 
diflinclnefs of parts, and merely retains a general 
refemblance of colour to itfelf when near at hand : in 
turf, or meadows, it ihould be varied, yet broke 
as little as poflible by oppofition : diftinftion of parts 
It may claim ; but this too llrongly exprelTed is 

The larn^er kinds of Plants, when introduced 
oil the foreground, require fome attention ; and in- 
deed, though it feerns rather defcending to minutia 
to direO: their being well drawn, yet certainly we 
Isave feen pictures which for M^ant of this corre(!^nefs 
had a flovenly appearance, while others by poffeir- 
ing it, v/ith little or no more labour, feemed en- 
riched, fini&ed, and by very much the neater for 
iiich attention. When Plants of any remarkable 
nature, or form, or proper to the fpot reprefented, 
occur, efpecially on the foreground, where only the 
judicious Artift will particularize them, they may 
without offence exa6l a correft veracity of repre- 

This remark, applies to thofe compofitions of 
cultivated lands where diftinclneis of vegetation is 


< 53 ) 
neceflary. LaiiHs under culture^ i. e. while plougTi, 
ing, for inftance, have a determinate afpect by means 
of their furrows, which is pretty enough, and beiu(»" 
cxpreflive, contributes much to intcrell. A plough- 
man, or a company of ploughmen, with their horfes 
and accoutrements, is far from being a deipicable 
fubjett, and if enriched by the addition of a family, 
or the jug of ale at whiftling time, is capable of 
much beauty in its compolition. Lands whereon 
particular plants are cultivated, have in iome pei'iods 
of their culture a pi8:urefque appearance, whicli 
they lofe in other periods : and tliis relieves us of 
fome of the difficulties which attend them. Broad 
maffes, tendernefs of tone, and mellow harmony, 
are however at all times their bed friends. 

High Roaps, though feemingly void of orna- 
ment whereby to become interefting, yet fomctimes 
by the contrail of their colour v/ith the verdant 
plain ; by their broken, but not fcattered parts ; bj 
the idea of population, and utility conne6led with 
them ; and, above all, by the opportunity they offer 
for lively movement and decoration by figures, paf- 
fengers, animals, &c. they become moft entertain- 
ing and captivating objefts. 

Water contributes much to the apparent truth 
of a picture, by its fpjend6ur, and efpecially by its 
reflexions ; they are in nature a kind of piflure, and 
we know it ; we conlider them as fuch ; we there- 
fore expecl them to be fo wherever we fee them, and 
we come ready prepared to be deceived : a deceptioii 


( 56 ) 
nTAVcIi completly takes place, if they are judfcioufly 
introduced, and happily treated. Like the feigned 
play in Hamlet, which realizes the main action 
ralliy ; io theie feigned pictures, by their applica- 
cation and relation, give to what is meant for re-» 
ality an ahiiolt magical veracity and exillence. 

By the variety of forms of vviiicii water is capable, 
it div^eri'fies the fcenery moie tuaii any other ingre- 
dient whatever; wnetiier compreiied by a rocky 
channel, it foams into a cataratt, or flowly gliding 
along its capacious bed ; whether opening m the 
wide extended river, or contratied in the humble 
brook, it is flill various. Hill pleaiing, and enter- 
taining. But let its redections be true and genuine; 
let them be natural and juft ; touched with harmony, 
yet diilmctly, and with Ipiric, but iikewiie delicacy. 
And lince water is in its iiacure the treeit of ail ob- 
jecfs, fmce it always feeks its level, let it not be 
otherwife reprefented ; nor lituated where the wind- 
ing element-would reluie to be contined. 

Water is capable of diveriity united to breadth ; 
whence, if well introduced, it imparts a lobernefs, 
a ftillnefs, to a pifture, which is highly favourable^ 
If breadth of light be wanted, water will i-ellecl a 
lisht cloud without helitation ; if tendernelis of tint 


be wanted, water reflects the blue Iky at command 5 
is deep gloom mult be lomewhat varied, flill retain- 
ing its gloominefs, water juit indicates a feparation 
of parts, yet preierves every depth without abate- 
ment. Water aUords employment for figures: in 


( 57 ) 

boats, on the fliore, rowing, angling, mufing, &c. 

It creates a totiiUy diflerent clafs- of buildings: 

bridges, from the humble plank fupported by polls, 

to the noble arch ; locks and dams of various kinds, 

whofe forms diverfify the fcene, and from whence 

the falling flream fparkles into effe^l : mills, whofe 

rolling wheels aflbrd opportunity to the Artifi's 

pencil, well to exprcfs the waters they agitate. 

Indeed, the great water-wheel of a mill, has ufually 

no little luccels in pifture ; it contrafls the foi'ms of 

parts around it : the ftream, the mdl itfelf, the 

mill-dam, and herbage, compofe a very refpeftabie 


or Rivers and Lakes we have treated. Ca- 
nals are now lb common in our country they add 
another to the branches of Water reprefentation ; 
their dead level water, indeed, is not in itfelf pro- 
digiouily beautiful, but the animated commerce they 
fupport contributes much importance to them ; 
their turnino; and winding courfes, afford ftations 
from whence to choofe favourable views ; and where 
they run by any remarkable objefts, they add a va- 
riety, and improve the general effe6l : where canals 
run over roads, over rivers, under tunnels, &c. 
they have an expreffive character peculiar to them- 
felves. A towing path, well employed, occupies 
refpeftably its place in pifturefque management. 
Water is capable of fo much variety, being now 
fmooth, now ruffled, now clear, now turbid, that 
it ufually has a beneficial effed. 

I Having 

( S3 ) 

Having mentioned a Water-mill, let us juft hint, 
that a Windmill is ol'ten advantageous in repre- 
fentation : partly, by reafon of its peculiar form, 
and the appropriate ideas conne6led with it ; partly, 
by reafon of the adjacencies, houfes, flables, Sec. 
and the opportunity of figures, whofe employment 
is not made on purpofe for them, but arifes naturally 
from conne6led circumftances. 

Buildings are of greatim.portancein Landfcape: 
they Ihould be well placed in a compofition, well 
proportioned to obje6ls around them, efpecially to 
the figures; and may, generally, claim no inc^onfi- 
derable proportion of the light admitted into a piece. 
They require great truth of colouring, and to be 
kept warm in their tone of colours ; on this princi- 
ple, they admit evening efFefts well : a white houfe 
among green trees, has ufually a fprightly appear- 
ance ; but wliite may fometimes include the idea of 
coldnefs ; — ^yet when varied by the refleftion.of the 
fetting fun upon it, it harmonizes pleafingly, and 
produces a modeil confpicuoufnefsj which is highly 
grateful to the eye. Few objefts are more attractive 
than a white countiy Church, by fun-fet : indeed, 
churches in general, have fomething interefting, 
though their forms be mean ; but when they polTefs 
the advantage of fymmetry, and variety, few objefts 
exceed them. 

Buildings contribute much to enrich a compofi- 
tion : their forms are infinite, according to their 
ufes, to the caprice of their eredors^ or occupiers; 


( 59 ) 

and iicrcby tliey afford the utmofl: liberty for lights 

and fliadows ; for proje6lions and reccilions ; for f 

fmaller parts, or for larger divifions. 

Buildings contribute much to difcriminate the 
ilyles we formerly remarked : they are objetSs of our 
perpetual infpcttion in nature, and therefore we be- 
come capable of determining upon them inftantly 
when offered us by Art. Moreover, as the ranks q£ 
mankind, their riches and opulence, or their poverty 
and want, are no where more apparent, or more 
clearly indicated, than in their buildings; tlicy be- 
come, as it were, a kind of index, which at once 
relates the circumfbances of their owners, their 
abilities, and their difpofitions. 

The Rural ftyle, delights in cottages and barns, 
in hamlets and villages ; nor thinks the meanefl erec- 
tions beneath its regard, not even thofe deferted and 
almoft ruined buildings, whofe tottering walls, and 
falling roofs, produce a variegated richnefs in a 
Painter's eye, however they may fpeak poverty to 
the owner of the foil. Thefe exhibit effefts in the 
ravages of time on their materials ; in the greennefs 
of the mortar, occafioned by the mofs ; in the dif- 
colours of the beams, and their irregular forms ; all 
contrafled by ridges of red tiles, and fcattered diftri- 
butions of brick-work, which no modern building 
can pretend to : nor is it, thank Heaven ! in this 
country every day to be met with. 

The Ornamental ftyle, compofes its buildings of 
various materialsj and feleds their forms from various 


( 60 ) 
quarters : in this rer<:ca, it challenges great liberty ; 
hue icrjpdious care fhould be taken, that liberty 
does not degenerate into licentioulnefs. We but too 
often lee proaigious maiTes of marble buildings -on 
the very "edge of a fliore, where no rational Arcli- 
itecl would place even a hut ; and but too often we 
fee in picture handfome houfes on barn:n fpots, or 
w:;ti;out thofe correfpondent conveniencies, which 
the ovviiers of fuch houfes would naturally procure. 
Though I his ilyle claims the privilege of mingling 
barren rocks and noble dwellings, fea and land, 
riches and poverty, yet its efforts fucceed beft, 
v/hen moll corre6tly regulated by ftrift attention to 

The Hiflorical ftyle, feeks in fuperb magnificence 
for. objecis congenial to its fentiments ; the arched 
roof," the long-drawn aifle, the pomp of pillars and 
orders, or the monuments of fuperftitious vene- 
rar-.on : the painted window, the decorated frieze, 
the enriched cornice, the elevated arch, and the 
fupporting buttrels. But in compofmg architeftural 
ruins, let great attention be paid to their corre6lnefs, 
that the parts remaining entire may correfpond to 
thofe thrown down. Let not the fpeftator be Ihock- 
ed by Corinthian- columns, or capitals, fallen from 
Doric buildings ; nor be fuffered to enquire, to what 
invjfible fabric fuch or fuch a fragment belongs. On 
this reck many Artifls have fplit ; nor is lefs fatal that 
thoughtlels inattention which places marble columns 


( 61 ) ' 

on foundations of reeds, and reprefents a whole arcU 
confiding of many ftones as fupported on one fide 
only, and that by afingle pillar. 

Towns, {"cen at a diftance, mud obey the gene- 
ral laws of compofition, and harmonize with their 
neighbours around them : if too well made-out, they 
can fcarcely avoid coming too near the eye, and ap- 
pearing hard ; but this by no means juftifies a lloven- 
ly negleft of fo much of them as is requifite to exprefs 
their juft charafter. It frequently happens that, feen 
from fome proper fl:ation, Towns are among the moll 
pifturelque of objefts ; in fuch cafes and efpecially 
if they include remarkable buildings, they often 
requite all tlie attention an Artift can bellow on 

Cities, are compofitions fo important, and 
diflinft from all other, that they abfolutely come 
under the principles of Views : unlefs they are 
correal, and authentic, they are grofs and injurious 
deceptions. Even Pous sin's ideal reprefentations 
of ancient cities, being incapable of verification, have 
always appeared to me uncertain, and this uncertainty- 
has impeded the fatisiaclion arifing from viewing 
them. Doubtlefs the entrances of famous cities of 
old, might have been magnificent, and their afpe6l:s 
might have glittered with fumptuous edifices ; never- 
the lefs, it might be, that they, like cities of the pre- 
ient day, were a mixture of good and bad, of fplen- 
dour and obfcurity, of pride and poverty, of ftiew 
and mifery. 


( 62 ) 
If times long fince departed allow free fcope to 
liberal exertions of fancy ; and if in adverting to 
to theip., an Artiil may laudably choofe the better 
and leave the worfe ; an elevated flyle of treating 
them certainly ought to be preferred, as the moil 
iudicious : but, this liberty is withheld from rcpre- 
fentations of modern cities ; views of London, 
of York, of Briftol, &c. muil either be accurate, 
or be cenfured. 

Of Views in General. 

THE difficulty of Views in Cities, is, to felecl 
the proper obje-Sls for reprefentation, and to give 
them only their juft importance ; fo many, and fo 
various, ufually obtrude themfelves, that fome refo- 
lution is neceifary, to decline thofe lefs connefted 
with the principal of the piece, m order to do that 

Views are confined to fidelity and refemblance : 
tlie portraits of places. An Artift, therefore, recurs 
to the happy application of fcientific principles for 
that variety, and, that nitereft, which the objefts 
themfelves may not afford : but which, if Nature 
has beftow^ed on the fubjeft of his pi6lure, impart to 
his produftion an importance fuperior to every effort 
of creative imagination. Neverthelefs fidelity does 
not always bind Artifts to minute punftuality of re- 
femblance ; we do not expeft in the trees that every 
branch ftiould be precifely a portrait^ though we 


( 63 ) 
win not allow a change in the kind of tree, or tlie 
i'ubftitution of an oak for an holly : nor do we expeO: 
that buildings fliould be fo minute as an ArchiteQ: 
ought to fhew them, or that they fliould afford geo-- 
metrical meafurement ; but it is, neverthelefs, for- 
bidden to place windows or doors where there arc- 
none, or to vary the heights of ftories by departure 
from truth. 

What licences a View requires, muft be intro- 
duced with difcretioH ; a very remarkable objeft 
muft not be omitted, becaufe the trees around conceal 
it, if it be of a nature that permits a little elevation, or 
if the trees may be a little thinned, or opened in that 
place. A canal may be reprefented fomewhat broad- 
er than it really is, if it thereby form an agreeable 
object, and is otherwife in danger of being overlooked. 
Whatever may contribute to the expreffion of the 
piece, to the purpofe intended by a view of that par- 
ticular place, and to the ideas conne6led with that 
view, mull be admitted : on this principle, that their 
admiffion is a lefs evil than their abfence. Or, if the 
objefts introduced are likely after a few years, to be 
more piclurefque, better grouped, or in fuperior con- 
dition, an Artift will do well to look forward, and to 
give them advantages which their prefent appearance 
may not altogether juftify. An Artift would be 
blameable who did not chufe the moft agreeable 


afpeft of his objeft, in which it offers the greateft 
variety of forms, and is moft piclurefque : he may 
alfo choofe to fee it from the bell ftution and dillance, 


C 64 ) 

and take every method of fetting it off. Nor let 
him be fparing of accidents of light and fhadow ; as 
they are too numerous to be Hmited by rules, they 
become arbitrary, and no one will call him to ac- 
count for a happy effect produced by their means : 
but I repeat, that this requires difcretion, and 
fliould not \}Q forced on the com.pofition ; the artifice 
muff be fo concealed, that the whole may appear 
extremely natural. 

Sea Views come under the fame principles as 
Landfcape in general ; chara£rer here mull fupply 
the place of that variety of objefls and diftances 
which Land Views afford ; and as the objefts are not 
fo numerous, the truth and natureof v>^hat are intro- 
duced fliould make amends for th jir fmaller numbers. 
The clouds fhould be kept rather lighter than in a 
Landfcape ; becaufe, there is little oppofition to be 
procured by objefts around them, and they naturally 
include a very great proportion of the picture . 
The water fhould be touched with fpirit ; the lights 
on the rifmgsof the waves diflinftly andjuftly treat- 
ed ; and the free, unconftrained play of the liquid 
element be carefully expreffed. The ofFscape require^' 
great attention ; and to impart an idea of interval 
and diftance is very important, and, indeed, indil- 
penfable to happy fuccefs. 

Views of remarkable objeSls, fuch as Monu- 
mentary Ere6lions, Pillars, Tombs, Obeliflis, &c- 
or Temples, Clailical, Gothic, or Druidical; 
Crofles, &c. or Fountains, Boundaries, Fields of 


( 65 ) 
Battle, ^c. require not only veracity but a kind of 
punctuality, and explicitnefs, which may recoin,- 
mend them to general lpe»5tators.. Even in ruins, if 
their hiflory be known, it is advifeable to introduce 
fuch indications of that liiftory as may elucidate, 
anddetermine thcfubject, provided they becoime6ted 
gracefully and without force on the compofition. 
« A remark on the nature of Smoke as conne6led 
with buildings, and cities, will clofe this branch of 
our fubjed. Smoke, in fmall quantities, as from a. 
cottage chimney, feldom does more than imply that 
the houfe is inhabited, and the pot boiling ; fmoke 
in London, abfolutely dims the atmofphere, and 
produces a brownnefs in the iky, which in winter is 
peculiar. I have thought the mantle of fmoke over 
London ample beyond compare, but I learn, that 
fome of our manufaftiiring towns, Liverpool, &c. 
have a dill thicker, and darker, if not a more exten- 
five covering. Smoke iffuing from a chimney often 
takes very elegant forms, and moves in graceful 
bendings, till it becomes too much attenuated to be 
vifible : yet when it iffiies in vaft columns, as from 
fome of the fteam-engines, and other fire-machines, 
its denfity and compaftnefs, render it heavy, ill 
Ihaped, and almoft motionlefe ; it maintains its figure 
for, perhaps, half a mile together, arid when the w::nd 
is not brilk enough to difperfe it, it flreams in a low 
long parallel to the horizon, indicating its infalubri- 
rious influence over all expofed to it. The /Iiarlnrv of 
'moke i^ extremely feeble, ^and ill defined : when the 

K fun 

( 66 ) 
fun fliines on it, it is rather embrowned than gilded; 
when between the eye and the fun, it feems thinner 
than when otherwife viewed ; when againft a light 
iky, it ieems darker than ufual ; whei| among dark 
objefts, as deep green trees, it is apparently whit- 
ened. No doubt, alfo, the different qualities of the 
materials burned, vary its nature and colour. Smoke 
^ffuiug from cannon, or from a lime-kiln, might be 
adduced in confirmation of this remark. 

Of Figures. 

FIGURES are of much greater importance in a 
Landfcape than is commonly luppofed ; and many a 
Landfcape otherwife pleafmg, have I feen injured, 
if not fpoilt, by the introduftion of bad, or improper 
figures. I know not wherefore the figures fhould 
generally be 7nade to the Landfcape : in thofe in- 
ftances which I have obferved to the contrary, the 
pi6lure has loft nothing by an inverfe mode of pro- 
ceedure. The danger indeed lies on either fide, lell 
the compofition inftead of being fimple, compaft, 
and united, fhould be fplit into parts, equally 
blameable, whether Figures and Landfcape, or 
Landfcape and Figures. But, unhappily we often 
find, that figures are the laft ingredient thought 
of, and rathQr Jitted to fill up a picture, than fuited 
to it, and forming part of it. Many compofitions, 
doubtlefs, require merely fimple figures; whofe 


( 67 ) 

employment is of little confequencc, or perhaps 
paiiengers, or figures walking, repoling, &c. and 
thefe may be fullered, occalionally ; but to be con- 
tent with thefe, is to flop far Ihort of that perfedion 
which is in our power, and of which this part of 
painting is capable : why fliould not figures be fo 
adjuRed, and predetermined, as luitably to fill up 
their places as parts of the fame whole ? Let not 
their difficulty be urged in excufe ; a little thought, 
and fome fmall trouble to fludy them, would baniOi 
thcfe herald-like drawn figures, which difgrace the 
abilities of the Landfcape painter. I would have 
them neither inlipid, nor indifferent; let them con- 
tribute to raife an intereft in the fpe6lator, whether 
by relating fome familiar hiilory, or fome diftin- 
guifhing and analogous incident. 

In endeavouring to appropriate figures to a Land- 
fcape, it may be advantageous, to recoiled thofe 
departments into which we divided this fludy ; the 
Simple, the Varied, and the Exalted. It flrikes us, 
at firfl fight, that the figures proper to each of thefe 
Styles would ill fuit with the other : heroic perfon- 
ages in a cottage, would be ridiciulous; pafloral 
occupations in a royal ^gai den, under a palace win- 
dow, or beneath marble arcades, would furely be 
intolerable : as would a company of failors, or fifh- 
ermen, among cloud top'd mountains, or in flow* 
ery meadows. 

Figures fhould be fuitable, and allied, to the 
general fcope of the pi6lure ; in the Simple Syle> 

K 3 ,. they 

( 63 ) 
they {liould be fimple ; ruftic perfons, hnd events, 
agree well with thii. Style, and. often form its prin- 
cipal ornaments. They fhould be correftly chofen, 
according to the time of day, to the feafon of the 
year, to the nature of the fcite, and to the general 
habits, and cuftoms of the parties. Poetry furniihes 
hints for figures of this defcription, becaufe it has 
already drawn its ideas from Nature, and as it pro- 
feffes, like the imitative Arts, to diveft its fubj eels 
of their grolTnefs, and of whatever is mean, bafe, 
low, unfit, and unworthv, it coincides in thefe ge- 
neral principles with the Artill's advantage. In 
faft, it can never be too pofitively infilled on, that 
rural, or common-life fubjefts, iliould be entirely 
divefled of whatever is ofFenfive to better-bred peo- 
ple than they exhibit. A company of gyphes, 
though ragged, muft not be nafty ; and beggars 
themfelves may exhibit poverty, and even diftrefs, 
without the linallefl hint at their too ufual animal- 
cula-companions. Figures in fnnple fubjefts, fhould 
exhibit one funple thought ; the fpeftator fhould 
have no occafion to revert to a long previous flory, 
in order to underfland the incident related. I fay, 
to a long previous flory, for that a previous flory 
may occafionally be hinted to advantage, is evident: 
a man returning with game, hints at his labours in 
their purfuit : a fifherman . bringing home a baflvet 
of fifh, accords well with a hut by the fea fide, and 
affords room for relating the incidents of his capture, 
fuch as broken nets, &c. which are former and pre- 

M 69 ) 
vious occurrences : going to market, may express 
clearly the concern of children at lofing their favour- 
ite cliicken ; returning from market, may difplay 
cafli brought home, or the goods bought there. 
Why fhould not a labourer be traced in a fett of 
piftures, from his birth, and boyifh days, to his 
lirfl attempts at cultivation, or bufmefs ? his early 
embarrafiments at the plough, or the hatchet, his 
lubiequent fuccefs, his matui-e age, his family, and 
his p'aft-labour flate, the incidents of feventy years, 
would furnifli numerous lubjecls for the pencil, and 
exhibit a variety, of day and night, of florm and 
fair weather, of fummer and winter, of youth and 
age, of profit and lofs, of anxiety and fatisfadion, 
which might be infinitely diverfified to maintain in- 
tereft, yet be very highly improved by their relative 

There are fufficient numbers of daily matter-of- 
facl occurences, which, improved by dextroufly 
dropping fomewhat of groiliieis, and adding fome- 
what of fentiment, become very I'uitable, and en- 
tertaining on the canvas. Under this Style may be 
included, the numerous artifans in a great citv, 
whole occupations furnifh us accomodation, — why 
not alfo amufement ? The cries of London we know 
to be various, and fome of them have their charac- 
teriftic beauties, fuch as they are, very ftrongly 
marked. Under judicious management, we have 
feen a *' fruit-barrow " become interefting, not in- 
deed fo much from the feller; as from the buyers of 


( 70 ■') 

ilie fruit ; we have feen * '^flower girls," not without 
merit ; and mlder the name of " Sir Joshua's- 
Frolic''' a llrawberry girl is likely to defcend topof- 
terity. It mull be owned artifan fubjefts require 
more intimate acquaintance with them, than may at 
iiril be thought, becaufe, unlefs the various habits 
of thefe perfons, and their adroitnefs in their occu- 
pations be well expreffed, they are nothing : an 
awkward, or left-handed or clumfy, workman, is 
iliocking : genius and attention muft be combined ; 
but that they can fucceed, is evident, by the " Smith's 
Shop," and'' the '*Iron Forge," which rank among 
our moft defervedly popular produftions. 

Figures adapted to the Varied, or Ornamental 
Style, are infinite : becaufe this Style admits a mix- 
ture of all kinds of incidents, and often of various 
incidents in the fame compofition ; againfh v/hich if 
w'ell placed, and judicioufly introduced, criticifm 
has nothing to object. Even figures doing nothing, 
are not always ufelefs, but contribute to the general 
embellilhment of the fcene ; neverthelefs, when on^ 
chief incident is related, and others kept fubordinate, 
iuch management has undeniable merit. The ex- 
tent of this Subjeft, prevents enlargement : it is 
impoflible to determine rules for all occafions. Many 
figures are lively, too many are a mob ; many oc- 
cupations of figures amufe a fpeftator, too many 
diftrad him; too many are apt to fpeckle the ground 
they occupy, to violate harmony, and keeping, and 
to clafh with each other by their multifarious, and 
^ifcordant effects. The 

( -1 ) 

The Simple divifion of the Sublime Stile, admits 
of few figures ; commonly a fingle one is llifficient : 
but if it be the nature of the ftory related to exa6l 
more, they fliould all contribute to harmonious fo- 
lemnity of efletl. Tragic fubjefts are applical)Ic : 
but tragedy is not at this moment extremely populai- ; 
and hiftorical-paftoral requires very good manage- 
ment to prefcrve dignity. 

The Hiftorical Sublime Style of Landfcape, 
requires a correfpondently fublime (lyle and manage- 
ment of figures. Hiftorical events are of great ufe : 
thefe mull be happily fuited to the fcene of the 
picture, the country, and the age, it reprefents. 
They muft be fought in the ftores of learning ; yet 
iliould not be fo recondite as to be unintelligible. 
A fingle allufion In fome rare author, a faft hardly 
known in the ufual courfe of hiftoric reading, is a 
hazardous fubjeft ; it may be well received, as an 
inftance of learning : it may be exclaimed agalnft as 
pedantic. Ideal hiftory has been much pradifed in 
this Style ; but is full as likely to be unintelligi- 
ble as the other. It is wonderful, fome well-known 
fubjefts fiiould be io little attended to as they are : 
Hannibal's paffage of the Alps, has not yet been 
done juftice to among us, though our Artifts, in 
traveUing to Italy, may acquire an accurate idea of 
the very fpot. (The Cork-tree at Hannibal's 
Gap has, however, been exhibited). Cincinnatus 
at the Plough, might fuit a champaign country, the 
funeral pile of Pompey's Body, might fuit a lea 

lliore ; 

( '^2 ) 

iliore ; the Death of Cicero, might fuit a culti- 
vated fcene ; a rocky iea view, might include the 
Death of Egeu s ; and an open country that of E s ch y - 
Lus,^ Our own hiltory, as a nation, furniflies many 
Landfcape hiftories : for a forefl fcene, William 
RuFus flain ; for rofeate bowers, fair Rosamond; 
for fieges of caftles, we have plenty of incidents ; 
and from the foiemnitv of relifiious houfes, either 

^ CD . ■' 

their foundation, or their demolition, ufually fur- 
nifhes a hiftory. After all,' the Bible yields the 
iiobleft fubjefts : I have never feen the firll Sacri- 
iice (by Adam), the fii-ft birth (of Cain), the firfb 
Death of Abel), in Landfcape ; the Deluge-, 
indeed, I have feen : Pous sin's Deluge is noble; 
thefinding of Moses is common ; but accurate atten- 
tion to the nature of the country where he was found, is 
not common : the Flight into Egypt is frequent, as 
is the Repofe in Egypt, but many of thefe as Land- 
fcape fubjefts, are below criticifm. Thefe fubjefts 
are often painted as hiftories (uiually for churches), 
but the Shipwreck of Paul, though as good a 
Landfcape marine ftorin as any other, is overlooked ; 
the Whirlwind of Elijah in the mount, that which 
removed him from^ earth, are good Landfcape inci- 
dents : the giving of the Law is tremendous ; the 
ftoryof BoAZ and Ruth is charming, that of David 
and Abigail interefting ; the Transfiguration is 
fublime, and, in fliort, with fom^e intention to find 
and fome invention to adapt, and execute them, 
thefe well-known occurrences add additional intereft 
to the moft interefling Landfcape. Great 

( 73 ) 
Great care mud be taken to proportion figures to 
the Landlcape ; if they are too large, the weaken 
other paits of the piece ; if too fmall, being alvvays 
regarded as a kind of fcale the Landfcape becomes 
gigantic. It is lefs hurtful, to''reprefent them fmall 
rather than large ; but let tliem always be touched 
with vigour and Ipirit ; placed where they may feem 
of mod confequence, as well as moll a propos ; and 
be coloured with vivacity, but not fo as to dillurb 
the general union of the piece. Since figures, by 
their variety, their movement, and bullle, are na- 
turally infpefted with pleafure, it is not advifeable 
to be fparing of them, under proper reilri6lion, if 
the fubjeft permit their introduftion. 

The Divisions of a Landscape, 

A LANDSCAPE, as a pifture, may be divided 
I apprehend, with propriety, into four parts ; 
JirJ}^ the Sky and its appendages; fecondlv, the 
Distances; thirdly, the Middle Distance, or 
Offscape; 2xA fourthly, the Front of the pifture. 
A few remarks on the different requifites of thefe 
divifions will, I hope, enable us to form a pretty 
juft and applicable eftimatc ot ■ the treatment pro- 
per to each. 

The Sky is that immenfe canopy, which, ex- 
tended all around us, is perpetually within our 
notice, and conftantly forms a part bf that picture 

L which 


( 74 ) 
which Nature exhibits to our iufpeSl-on. Being 
originally intended fpr this purpofe, it is happily- 
adapted by Ibbriety and moderation of colour, 
to be I'urveyed without pain ; and without indif- 
pofmg the organs of fight. Had it been a glar- 
ing yellow, or a fiery red, we could not long 
have borne to infpe5l it; had" it been a fombre 
brown, or melancholy black, farewell the cheerful 
nefs of human life. This obfervation may be 
proved every day, fince every day Nature fuiFers 
not the brilliancy of the more vivid colours to con- 
tinue longer than necelTary ; and moderates the 
gloom of night by the tranquil radiations of innu- 
merable flars. The moil prevalent and conflant 
colours in Nature may be denominated the dojii- 
tints : not white, it is too powerful ; not black, it is 
too mournful ; but the delicate and fimple blue ; the 
lively, but not iinmodell green. 

Though I am well aware that philofophy has, in 
many cafes, an intimate conne6llon with painting, 
and renders many fervices elfe where fought in vain' 
I {hall not here endeavour to account for the azure 
colour of the lk.y, I content myfelf with hinting 
at this connection of philofophy with art, and 
recommending becoming attention to it. We for- 
merly hinted, and now repeat, that according to the 
various parts of the globe, the principles of Land- 
fcape require accommodation. This is too obvious 

to need enforcement. 


( 75 ) 

In fome latitudes, the article vvliich at prcfcnten 
gages our attention, (the iky) is blue throughout ; 
and even at the horizon is little changed in its tint 
from what it is in the zenith : bnt in a climate fo 
moift as that of our own country, the quantity of 
vapours which are conflantly rlfing, falling, or 
floating, interpofed between us and the horizon, 
has very fenfible power and eileft. They wkitcn 
the coulour of the ficy adjacent to the horrizon ; 
fo that, at its apparent union with the circumferjnce 
of the earth, it poirelTes a much greater fhare of 
white than of blue; and this effect is produce 1 ii:^ 
proportion to the humidity of the air, or to the par- 
ticular fituation fr(5m whence we infpeft it : on the 
contrary, the drier, purer, and lefs vaporated the 
air is, the more the iky retains its native blue. 

But, befide that this gradation of bluenefs in the 
Iky is a confiderable obje«51; of attention to an Artift, 
the fky affords in the infinite variety of its Clouds 
— in their forms — and colours, very extenfive fcenes 
for obfervation. Sometimes, as it were, heavy 
laden, and fcarce able to remain in the air, the 
Clouds, incumber the heavens, as if they were 
folid maffes of vaporous condenfations ; their ikirts 
appear /itz^cf againft their neighbours around them, 
and they affume the approximating colour of a 
heavy grey. At other times they feem truly the 
fleecy clouds, wanton in every imaginary (hapc, 
and float in tranfparent thinneis : as at other times, 
they fpeckie the heavens, and diftribute themfelves 

L 3 ip. 

( 76 ) 
in airy films throughout the celeftial expanfe. The 
motions too of clouds occafion a thoufand compoli- 
tions of one againft others ; and, as they float at 
different heights, and often purlue different courfes, 
they introduce an infinite variety into the moving 

Nor lefs extenGve is the rancre of varie5;ated 
colours, which are reflefted from every quarter by 
the wandering clouds: blues and greys in every 
commixture ; reds, from a flight tinge to a threat- 
ening fcarlet; fometimes a union of both, in a 
heavy purple ; fometimes the mofl lively yellow, 
flreaks their edges, and brilliant with refplendent 
gold, they refleft the vivacity of the heavenly 
orb with almofl equal brightnefs. 

We now confider the fecpnd divifion into which 
we diflributed a Landfcape : — its Distances. On 
this part of our fubjeft, we notice the evident 
dimmution of objefts, in fize and dimenfions, as 
aKo in force and colour, their approximation of tints, 
to each other, by means of the air which difcolours 
all, and which imparts a bluenefs to the extremes of 
diflance. Parts moll elevated, are more diflin6tly 
vifible than thofe beneath, fmce the vapours which 
furroand them are moil abundant near the earth, 
and do not rife to great elevations : we obferve too 
the indiftinflnefs of tlieir parts, the melting of in- 
tervals into each other, fo as to lofe the extent of 
reparation betvyeen them ; and the artifice of Nature 
by which we are enabled to perceive them. As the 
fey is the fcource of light, it has very great influence 


( 77 ) 
on the diftances ; in many cafes imparting its o'.vn 
light to them, and tinging them-by refl^ftion with 
its own colour. As tlie diliances are ufually ni, 
or near, the centre of a pi6lare, thev iliould ne- 
ver be heavy, nor fliould they be dark, unlefs it be 
neceflfary to keep them down, and to moderate them, 
in order to affift the fplendour of fome more princi- 
pal and favourite part of the compofition, which is 
nece-Tarily predominate, as being moft interefting in 
its nature. Lead of all, (hould they, by the hard- 
nefs of their outlines, appear as if palled on the 
pifture, or, as if placed there by mifchance ; fince 
if the diftances do not feem to retire, in vain may 
the other parts of a pi6lure be charming. 

In advancing from the extremes of a profpecl to 
the front from whence we furvey it, we obferve a 
conGderable portion which is neither diftance, nor 
front; neither indillinft, nor palpable; not coxifufed, 
nor yet viade out: under the term off-scape we 
fhall beftow a few remarks on this medium-dillance ; 
which forms our third divifion. 

In proportion to the nearnefs of obje6ls to our 
view, they become more fenfible and intelligible ; 
we more readily dillinguifh their parts, and we 
better difcern their combinations : it may therefore 
happen, in the nature of an Artifl's compofition, 
that it may be requiiite to enrich this part with more 
than ordinary attention, while the front is kept 
abroad, and that decoration which it ufually chal- 
lenges is witheld from it. He may, without offence, 
coudud the eye to this part principally, and fpread 


( 78 ) 
here his mofl captiyating lights, his moll harmonious 
and brilliant colours : he may adorn it with {lately 
trees, whofe groups v/ould be impervious near at 
hand, and cnndu6t the capacious river, whole ftreams 
would occupy too much ipace in front : he may here 
introduce obje6ls, v/hofe magnitude, if near, would 
be injurious, whofe difpofition, or whofe parts, 
v/ould be too choquan^, or difagreeable ; but let 
him ever remember, that Keeping mufl regulate the 
whole ; nor let him, place his hares rumiing and 
frifking, at a diflance -vhere oxen v/ould appear but 
hares ; much lefs diflinguifb his infecls, place them 
on plants of which they are particularly fond, and 
fhew the parts and members by which they are ar- 
ranged in clafTes. 

The FRONT or fore-ground of a pi6lure, ge- 
nerally affords mofl occalion for finiihing, and parti- 
cularity ; for here a fpe6lator may well expect to dif- 
tinc-uifh one kind of tree from another, and one 
kind of cattle from another ; here may an Artifl 
exhibit his fltill, in the truth and facility of his 
pencil, in the lightnefs and appropriation of- his 
touch : but let him keep it modeft ; no glare, nor 
unbecoming levity ; no frivolity, nor embroidejy ; 
let him adjuil part to part with difcretion, and parts 
to the whole m ith prudence : always determinately 
preferving in front a breadth and majefty, which 
fufFers no intrufion of ilender flreaks, or falfe lights, 
or favourite herbage ; to diftinguiih which, obje6l5 
of greater importance muil be facrificed. 


( 79 ) 
'Accidents of Landscape.* 

1 HAVE thought that the term accident, has 
hitherto been taken in a fenfe too reftricled, bsinj 
generally applied to thofe diverfity of lights and 
fhadows, which are caufed by flyhig clouds, or 
Other non-permanent objects of a like kind, but I 
rather wi(h now to confider it as including effects 
which arife from non-permanent objects in general. 
To explain this idea, I lay, the dawn of day is 3 
tranfitory and fugitive piclarefque eff,i£l, which may- 
clear and brilliant, or grey and hazy, or cloudy and 
obfcure : i. e. it may accidentally ht either one or 
other. Moreover, as the phenomena which Nature 
from time to time exhibits, may or may not happen, 
they feem to me to be properly claiTed among acci- 
dents : a ftiower, a fiorm, a rainbow, each has its 
peculiar eileQ:, and each is attended by peculiar 
accompaniments : the feafons of the year, as they 
differ from each other, and impart to the fanie 
obje6i:s very diff*erent appearances, might, I appre- 
hend, be included under this term, with great 

Accidents of light and (liadow, are ufually caufed 
by flying clouds, whofe forms and deuGty being re- 
ducible to no fixed principles, the effects they pro- 
duce are varied beyond calculation : thefe effefts 
Art feizes, and applies to her own purpofes. As 


( so ) 

licrht is what fets off obi efts and fhews them to ad- 
vantage, it muft be preferved and even embellifhed 
on whatever objefts as are to be raifed into peculiar 
notice ; this can only be elFefted, by lowering, ob- 
fcuring, or concealing parts around them, in fuch 
degrees that, inflead of difputing with them in 
brilliancy, they iliall rather contrail and heighten 
their e3e6l;. If we fuppofe our obje6l thus dif- 
tinguifhed to be on the front of the pi6lure, the 
middle diflance, and of courfe the further diftance, 
is kept moderate, perhaps gloomy : if we fuppofe 
itt removed further into the picture, then the front- 
ground is moderated, and divefted of whatever 
might intrude on the fpeftator's eye, and prejudice 
the obje6l intended to be principal. Now, as the 
method of effecting this muft be fubmitted to the 
Artift, prudence forbids hnn from employing any 
direft and prede terminate forms of fhadow, unlefs 
they can be juftified by probability at leaft, if not 
by veracity. The fhadow of a building, if no 
building be near, would b^ a dire6t falfity ; the 
Ihadow of a rock, unlefs fuch rock exifted, would 
be the fame. This principle is not confined to pofi- 
tive views : though the landfcape be ideal, the na- 
ture of the fclte reprefented is equally fubjeft to 
its power. If the fcene be a wild heath, whence can 
originate the fhadow of a houfe ? if it be the flat 
fandy fliore of a river, whence can the fhadow of a 
rock originate ? But the fliadow of clouds, as being 
in nature of all forms are of no form, and rlouds 


( 81 ) 

being tliicker or thinner, their fliadovvs are blacker, 
or paler, and variable to any degree of (irength re- 
quired by the artid. The ciTe6t of this principle 19 
further augmented by the choice of objedls, and is 
varied by placing thofe of a dark (<')r h'ght) hue in 
the front, or further diftant, where, combined with 
judicious accompaniments, they may beft anfwer 
the artift's purpofe. 

It muft be owned that perpetual rccourfc to this 
artifice is no proof of fuperior genius ; for like all 
others, whenever it appears to be the refult of con- 
trivance, and art, not of nature and accident, it 
yields a fpe6lator little pleafure ; and this appear- 
ance it acquires by too frequent introdu6fion. Some 
of the beft landfcape-painters have almoft baniihed 
this artifice from their works, or have very rarely 
admitted it; and none are obliged io ufe it, who un- 
derftand their art thoroucrhlv. 

It is impoffible that language lliould accurately 
and adequately defcribe the effefts of Nature : words 
are neither fo determinate in their meaninsr, as to 
•xclude the danger of being underftood by different 
perfons in different fenfes ; neither are they fo de- 
fcriptivc of colorific combinations, as to fpeak to the 
mind what at a glance is beheld by the eye. All 
that is poifible to effe6l by precept is, to point out 
to the infpeflor of nature fome of thofe more ufeful 
and ftriking particulars, an acquaintance with which 
may lead to the intelligent appropriation of others. 

A dcfcription of ^Iorning has ever been among 
the favourite themes of poetry ; and many pretty 

Land/cope. M quo iat ions 

( 82 ) 

quotations might be introduced on the fubje£t ; but 
the reafoning we have adopted is conclufive againft 
their validity : ocular infpe<Slion alone is to be 
trufted in the imitative arts. It may be fufficient 
therefore, if we hint at the gradual converfion o£ 
the darknefs of night into a lefler degree of ob- 
fcurity, by the firft dawn of day in the eaft ; which, 
glimmering in the fky, after a manner enlightens 
that, fome time before it enables us to diftinguifli 
objetls on the earth : the clouds are firft varied in 
colour, from black to purple or grey, which often 
is cold and heavy. As morning is ufually ufhered 
in by a breeze, the clouds have correfpondently 
fome motion among them, and are in fome degree 
thinned by it. If the fun rife without clouds, the 
breeze is fenfible, only, or principally, by an agita- 
tion it occafions among the trees. As this breeze 
declines, morning affumes a ftillnefs which has its 
Ihare of folemnity, augmented by the uncertain ill- 
defined light and fliadow of objeQs ; the utter in- 
diftin6lnefs of remote objects, and the all-envelop- 
ing greynefs of the fcene. As the fun advances th» 
fky and the clouds become tinged with the moft 
glorious colours, reddifli, purple, orange, yellow, 
white, and thefe being reflefted on the earth, the 
enlightened parts of obje£fs are flightly tinged with 
correfpondent colours, while the unenlightened parts 
retain much of that greyifh hue which the whole 
but lately exhibited. At this time, the vapours de- 
fcended during night being exhaled by a fmail de- 
gree of warmth, they begin to rife, firft from pools 
4 and 

( 8S ) 

and flagnant waters, then from lower grounds, and 
vegetation, and thefc vapours confufing and blend- 
ing all things where they prevail, and being of no 
decifive colour, they contribute to maintain the ge- 
neral greynefs of the fcene. Thefe ultimately form 
clouds : I have feen them in the courfe of a couple 
of hours raifed in the fky, and afterwards ferving as 
a canopy from the fun, or defccnding in abundant 
fliowers on the earth, from whence they had re- 
cently arifen. 

Morning advances to Noon, but I am not aware 
of any peculiarity which marks the hours, except 
the elevation of the fun : hovi'evcr, as the heat of 
the fun increafes, the feelings of animals, and the 
occupations of mankind, denote the intenfity of //c«^ 
attendant on Noon: the general glow of the fcenery, 
the breadth of light, imparting no longer a greynefs 
but a yellowiflinefs to objefis, the paucity of (hade, 
the clearnefs and Oiarpnefs of objefts, every minutia 
being diftincl;, and theforms of their fhadows, accu- 
rately correfpondent, leaf for leaf, of a plant or a tree, 
— thefc feem to be expreflive indications of Noon. 

Evening partakes much of the principles of 
Morning: it changes the glare of mid day into fo- 
bernefs and moderation ; it is clearer than morning, 
for the vapours ufually do not defcend fo Jbon 
(meaning relative to the angle of the fular fration) as 
they rife in a morning, the warmth of the air main- 
taining them buoyant for a time. The fame caufe, 
I fuppofe, fpreads fomewhat. more of an orange 
tint over the lights of objedts, and renders it more 

M ii fcnfible; 

( 84 ) 

fenfihle; moreover, the air being replete with light, 
probably, prevents much of that blacknefs which 
accompanies early morning. Evening is not upon 
the whole fo dim as Morning, at leaft until it ad- 
vances pretty forward toward Night. As to the 
lengths of fhadows, and their general appearances, 
they are entirely the fame in both, ^nd depend on 
other principles. 

. After all that can be faid with intention to dif- 
tinguiih Evening and Morning (and thefe only are 
liable to be confounded, for Noon and Night diftin- 
guifh tliemfelves) Genius will find full exercife for 
its talent, in the application of thofe thoughts, oc- 
currences, and accompaniments, which may be 
applied to determine the fubje£l. Natural Philo- 
fophy may furnifh fome : we never fee the ftar 
Venus to the right of the fun, [i. e. rifing before 
him) in an evening : nor to the left of the fun, (z. e. 
fetting after him) in a morning: to place this ftar 
therefore high in the heavens preceding the faint 
traces of the folar light, is a pofitive appendage of 
morning. The fame principle applies to the moon; 
. which, being always enlightened on that fide next 
the fun, when yicw the crefcent is illuminated on 
the right fide, and is at no very great diftance from 
the horizon: this muft be Evening. The contrary 
is Mornins: ; i. e. the crefcent is illuminated on the 
]eft fide. Animals may furnifli fome additional in- 
dications : the bat flies only in an evening, the cock 
is ftirring early in the morning, but goes to rooft 
foon in the evening ; this is true of birds in general. 

— Are 

( 85 ) 

—Are not plants which have fuftalned the heat of 
the day lefs vigorous, and their leaves more flaccid 
in the evening, hut firmer in the morning? Some 
plants clofo in the evening and open in the morning. 
As to the occupations of mankind, they muft he 
well ftudied, well marked, and well, applied : under 
thefe circumftances they contribute much to exprefs 
and determine the times of the day. 

Since the principles of philofophy as well as ob- 
fervation, affure us of the truth of thefe remarks in 
refpe61: to the appearances of the moon and of 
Venus, they fhould be attended to by engravers, &:c. 
when treating fuch fubje61s ; fince in vain may a 
painter have introduced them as marks of time, if 
they are reverjhd in the prints engraved from his 
pictures, and 'liftributed to the world. 

Night is fo determinately marked by nature, 
that rules or fuggeftions are in a manner fuperfeded ; 
without light obje6ts are invifible, therefore light- of 
fome kind or other art muft have ; the brighteft 
flar-light that ever was, though highly delighting to 
the mind, and extremely beautiful to the eye, fur- 
niflies no light for the purpofes of art ; being uni- 
verfally fpread and diffufed, and offering no center 
or body of light, nor yielding fufficient light to be 
colle£ted, and diftributed to fpecific objects near the 
eye, this kind of night muft be rclinquiflied to aftro- 
nomers. Moon-light is the ftudy of landfcape: 
and this is fo ftrongly contrafted with any, and every, 
kind of day-light, and has fuch peculiar and appro- 
priate beauties, that art ftudies it with pleafure. 


( 86 ) 

The general cautions to be adopted in refpe£t of 
moon-light are, to place the luminary well in the 
pifture, to mark the time of her period carefully, 
and very carefully to proportion to that period the 
quantity of light fhe yields. It is not uncommon to 
fee a crefcent placed in mid-heaven, and almoft 
emulating the fun In fplendor; but what fays Nature 
to this ? The article of water-relle£lio!-)S by moon- 
light, which being highly pleafmg, are frequently 
introduced, requires no little jealoufy ; they demand 
alfo great accuracy of gradation, tendernefs, and 
diftance. The general whitenefs of the moon's 
light is proverbially filvery, and though fhadows by 
moon-light are of neceihty cool, care fliould prevent 
too-prevailing coldnefs. The lize and colour of 
both fun and moon at the horizon, differs greatly 
from that of their meridian ftation : even their forms 
are altered by the vapours through which they are 
feen. It may be thought trivial, to remark, that the 
line of fhadow of the half-moon, as having a conftant 
reference to the ecliptic, varies with the feaions of 
the year. 

The Seasons are, I think, properly reckoned 
among the Accidents of Landfcape ; and happily, they 
furniili much more diftinguifhing peculiarities than 
fome we have mentioned. As the progrefs of Na- 
ture is more important, it is more llrongly marked, 
and becomes of proportionate confequence in the 
ftudies of x\rt. The feafons differ in various climates, 
according to the peculiarities and temperature of the 
climate. Sir William Jones tells us of x\\q Jix 


( 87 ) 

Indian Seafons, which he names : four Seafons are 
ufually noted in Europe ; three Seafons arc all that 
are felt in Judea, or Egypt; and two Seafons only 
(the rainy and the fair) are difcoverable in countries 
fubje6t to the periodical rains. It is evident, that 
this diverfity implies equal diverfity in the appear- 
ances of natural objctls. Where a fudden variation 
of wind exchanges in a few days, atmofphcrical hu- 
midity for fultry heat, Art has little opportunity for 
lludying the beauties of Spring; but where the in- 
terval is confiderable between winter frofts and fum- 
mer funs, the obfervable gradations of change in 
trees and plants, in meadows and fields, is fubjcft 
to the infpetlion, and reprefentation of Art. Who- 
ever has watched this gradation, has feen, the trees 
from feeming deadnefs llioot out numberlefs buds 
and buttons, variegating their yet leaHefs branches 
with a tint of reddifli or of yellowifh hue ; which 
buds, expanding, llioot out yellow-green points in- 
creafing to leaves. Young plants, or parts of trees, 
&c. which are afterwards to become green, are ufu- 
ally, at firft, very pale, and acquire their full colour 
only bv time: fo far then as thefe are concerned in 
fuggefting the idea of Spring, a light yellow greennefs 
becomes one characteriftic of that feafon. That 
this has many fliades is certain : the firft greennefs 
of a corn-field differs from that of many kinds of 
trees, as both trees and corn accordinij to their 
kinds differ from each other: neverthelefs, this tint 
of verdure is juftly reckoned among the natural in- 
dications of Spring. I think I have obferved a dif- 

( 88 ) 

ference in the feemingly more humid flate of the 
atmofphere in Spring than in other Seafons, but this 
is fomewhat equivocal, and not eafily defcribed. 
Natural Hiilory aflllls in denoting this Seafon, ac- 
cording to the animals which breed in it. While 
the proverb is juft, " one Swallow makes no Sum- 
mer," we are fure that to reprefelit a number of 
fwallows in Spring, muft be premature; never- 
thelefs, as many animals have young about this time, 
to introduce them contributes to mark this feafon. 
There is ufually, alfo, in our country, a mildnefs in 
the fun's rays, which is highly pleafmg ; infomuch, 
that it is no fm againft probability (as in Summer it 
would be) to reprefent animals of all forts enjoying 
even his meridian beams. Spring is the parent of 
flowers; and highly favourable to profufe, though 
perhaps thort-lived, vegetation. As to the employ- 
ments of mankind, they are in Spring fufficiently 
numerous to afford ample choice j they therefore 
need not here to be particularized. 

Summer is drier than Spring: in confequence, 
many vernal productions, of which water is the 
chief principle, are now decaying, while others of 
more exalted juice or firmer nature are ripening 
apace. In countries where the vine flouriflies, the 
vintage is regarded as Autumn, and corn is faid to 
be cut In Summer; but in England^ we have no 
vintage, and corn is gathered in Autumn. Fruits 
belong to Summer. Summer has perfe6ted thofe 
iliady groves which were but forming in Spring; 
not that it has augmented the number of their 


( «9 ) 

Jraves, but it has increafed their fize, while advanc- 
ing them to maturity : as this fealon c! Tes, the 
augmented deep green of the trees hintj- a: ihei. n,,* 
preaching brownnefs: the corn, &:c. as vet unripe, 
is verging from greennefs to yellow ; the infc6t 
tribes are multiplied j their food is abundant, and 
their enemies are a8ive and numerous. 

Philofophy in(lru£ls us, that the fun is low In the 
heavens in Winter ; confequently, the ground Hia- 
dows of obje£ls are long, and extenfive: in Sum- 
mer, on the contrary, the fun is high in the hea- 
vens, and about noon efpecially, no long fhadow is 
perceivable : this remark has its ufe, and is obvious 
to all. The contrary is obferved of the moon. 

In this climate, Nature has dillin'^ly marked 
Autumn: there is a fervor, a glow, vifible through- 
out the whole of its landfcape fcenery, which is too 
evident to need defcription j the groves, arrived 
at maturity, exhibit fymptoms that their ma.urity 
is not permanent, but inclines to decay : their 
greennefs becomes brown : the meadows feem 
parched, the corn, &c. ripened, claims now he 
fickle, and the joys of harveft accompany this fealun. 
As all kinds of grain, and other produii^ions, do not 
become ripe together, Autumn has feveral parts, 
according to the order of fuch ripenings, and after 
they are moftly gathered, an interval of fine weather 
ufually precedes Winter. As heat contributes to 
charafcterife Autumn, fhade is defir^ble to all crea- 
tures capable of feeking it. 

Landfcape, N Wi n t e i^ 

( 90 ) 

"Winter llrips the trees of their leaves, and lays* 
bare their branches, thereby favouring the (Indies of 
that Artift who wiflies to examine the difiimilar di- 
rections of their members : for, as no two kinds of 
trees are alike in form, direction, and manner of 
fhooting, now is a good time to know wherein they 
differ. This feafon is marked by feverity, the at- 
mofphere exhaufls its heavy clouds in torrents of 
rain, and thick and long continued fliowers of fnow; 
and the waters are confolidated into ice by froil. 
So far as regards Landfcape, the atmofphere and its 
meteors are the chief obje6fs of ftudy, the darknefs 
of the night, the hazinefs of the day, mifts and fogs, 
hoar froft, &c. &;c. are fo many accompaniments 
of Winter. The fun's rays are lefs powerful than in 
the former Seafons : while the moon's radiance is 
much brighter than before. 

The occupations of men and animals are, as 
much as may be, within doors; at leaft they feek 
flielter from furrounding inclemencies. 

As there is no polTibility of ftudying thefe effects, 
unlefs by examination of Nature, and natural ob- 
je6s, it is vain to attempt their defcription, under 
the profeffion of accuracy; and it would be labour 
loft, to endeavour by rules to direct their application 
or introduction, becaufe, after all that can poffjbly 
be faid on the fubject, that muft be left to the 
genius and judgment of an Artift. Nature is fo 
various, and, the requiiitions of Art are fo indeter- 
rn ):riie, a.-;d multiplied, that what may be highly 
2 advifeable 

( 91 ) 

^advifeable In any one cafe, may be very injurious 
in another, unlefs accommodated with great dex- 

Among the Accidents of Landfcape, we ought, 
certainly, to reckon thofe phenomena which from 
time to time Nature offers to our infpe6lion : fuch 
as the Rainbow, and its relatives, the Halo round 
the moon, the Iris, the White Circle, the Aurora 
Borealis, and other celeftial lights. Why not allb 
Eclipfes? — alfo Fogs, Mifts, and other exhalations? 
Objefts of thefe kinds well introduced, are ex- 
tremely pleafmg, and are fure to embelihh tne pic- 
ture wherein they appear. Mr. Wright of Derby 
has diftinguifhed himfelf greatly in this refpe6l ; and 
it muft: be acknowledged, that the truth and nature 
of his imitations have added prodigioufly to the va- 
lue of his performances. I fliould like to fee a 
competent idea of a volcano, near, and remote, 
(this Mr. W. has accomplifhed); of a hurricane in 
the Weft Indies, as di(lin6t from an ordinary fiormj 
of a Water-fpout, accurately reprefented ; of a Ty- 
phon (Tuffoon) in the Japanefe feas ; of the Sa- 
miel or Purple Hot Wind of Arabia,; of the Wliirl- 
pool, called the Maelftroom, on tlie coalt of Nor- 
way; and of many other curious phenomena, which 
introduced into correfpondent and accurate land- 
fcapes, would impart a fpecific and fingular cha- 
racter to the compofition, and would furnifli tri- 
umphs for the imitative arts. It is true, thefe are 
ftriclly fubjects of Natural Philofop^hy, but as they 
are objefts of vifion, they are certainly objects of 
imitation ; and where is ihe harm, if they at once 
N 2 intereft. 

( 92 ) 

intereft, and inftru^l, the fpe£lator? I cannot de- 
fcribe what 1 have never feen ; the diftant and fo- 
reign phenomena, therefore, I pafs, with this ex- 
prellion of my wifhes: but thofe which occur in 
pur native land may engage a few words, by way of 
exciting the attention of Artifts, and directing the 
choice of patrons of Art. 

The Rainbow is never feen but when the 
fun (hines on falling drops of rain ; ufually at 
fome diftance from the fpedtator, who muft be 
fituated at a fuitable angle to view it. It is moft 
lively, when the cloud which yields the rain, 
or o. e behind it, is very black ; then, if the fun 
be bril ant, there \s not only a Rainbow, but 
a fecondarv bow, or what is frequently called 
a water-gall-, it is evident, that an opportunity 
of introducing the fun's light contrafted by deep 
dark clouds, furnifhes a happy capability of a flrik- 
ing effe6t. Notwithftanding this advantage, the 
opportunity is feldom feized ; and yet it is well 
known, that the Rainbow is no rarity, but in fpring 
is frequent, and in fummer is not uncommon. Ob- 
ferve, however, that at mid-fummer, during fome 
weeks, there can be no Rainbow at noon : the 
fituation of the fun forbidding its vifibility. But 
the Rainbow is not always generated, or attended 
by dark clouds ; it often appears, when a diflblving 
cloud, pafling, contributes to the cheerfulnefs of the 
fky, and then it forms only a partial bow; but 
"whenever this fplendid light occurs, it torms an in- 
terefting and fublime obje6t. 


( 93 ) 

The Lunar Halo, in a fenfe, holds the place 
by night, of the Rainbow by day ; this is ufually 
brighteft and mod frequent in winter; partly, per- 
haps, becaufe the moon is then mod fplcndid, and 
partly becaufe the clouds wherein it is formed are 
compofed of principles beft adapted to its pro 
duflion. This phenomena I have feen feveral nights 
fucceflively ; and why fliould it not attract atten- 
tion, as well in Art, as in Nature? 

The Lunar Iris is more rare: a fight of it is 
partly an inftance of good fortune; it follows, that 
it is more difficult of ftudy, but not that it is lefs in- 
terefting when reprefented. 

The White Circle, or Wheel, is common 
enough in London ; as its principles feem to be 
mifts which occupy the lower regions of the air 
(whofe greater or lefs elevation determine its (ize) 
or fcarcely-formed clouds, it can hardly be rare 
wherever mifts are frequent. 

As the Aurora Borealts commonly attra£ts 
the notice of the gazing crowd, and fometimes pro- 
duces effects furprilingly beautiful, it is fomewhat 
wonderful that hitherto Art has negle61ed it: that it 
is beft feen in a dark night is certain, but it is cer- 
tain alfo, that fometimes in the du(k of the evening, 
and by moon-light, its corufcations are very vivid. 

I do not know that I ever faw a pi61ure repre- 
fenting an Eclipse of the Sun: yet as Eclipfe* 
happen at all times of the day, and at all times of 
the year, they become arbitrary, and certainly might 
v^ry a compofition to advaninge. There is a kind 


( Oi ) 

officklinefs, andpalenefs, of light during an Eclipfe, 
which though not.fufficient to alarm, or to attraft, a 
cafual fpe6tator, yet is favourable to that Artift who 
could employ it advantageoufly : no doubt it would 
require a happy diftribution of clouds, &c. to con- 
tribute to dirtinft expreffion, but this might be over- 
come by fkilful and patient obfervation. 

Fogs and Mists, I have feen attempted, and 
with more or lefs fuccefs ; the beft have, in my 
judgment, left room for improvement, while the 
worft have had fomething rather interefting than 

In regard to the principles of thefe Accidents, it 
is evident, that each has its own principles, and that 
all muft be ftudied from nature: the general rules 
are, certainly, to attend to the feafons when fuch 
occurrences are moft common ; to the compofition 
of the picture, fo that diftin6lnefs and perfpicuity 
may not fuflFer, nor an air of frivolity fpoil the per- 
formance by introducing a gaudy effe6l ; to the 
keeping necetfary according to Art ; and to the 
general variety, fidelity, and refult of the whole. 

Storms and Tempests, as well on land as on 
water, are among the favourite introdu6\ions of 
Landfcape : they require a vivacity and animation 
which when well executed is extremely ftriking. 
A land-florm offers the rudiments of great effect ;, — 
in the darknefs of its clouds, and the fplendor of its 
lightning, and of the parts it illuminates. In re- 
prefenting lightning, care fhould be taken that its 
form and courfe be natural ^ it its confequences 


( 95 ) 

he introduced, (fuch as fetting a place on fire) that 
they do not appear before the flafli ftrikes the place 
ignited, and that the fire be not arrived at any great 
height while the flafh continues vifible : thefe errors 
are but too common : the firft is an abfurdity, the 
latter in moderation is a liberty, but immoderate is 
a falfity. Care- fliould be taken to maintain an uni- 
formity of general exprellion throughout the piece: 
the clouds mud drive the fame way ; alfo the trees, 
and the waters, the fmoke, linen expofed to the 
blaft, draperies of figures, &c. 

A Sea-Storm is tremendous indeed ! though a 
violent wind may be dreadful on land, yet the dan- 
ger is lefs than at. fea : the mighty waves rolling and 
pitching the nobleft veilels, covering them with 
foam, and almoft hiding them from fight, is a fpec- 
tacle more affe6ling than a Land-Storm offers. — 
There are many good reprefentations of thefe fub- 
jeds, and their ufual ideas are not uncommon. 

Storms may be divided into three periods of 
time ; advancing, raging, abating : — the firft be- 
comes interefting by the obfcuration of the light, 
and the progrefs of gloomy clouds, fraught with 
devaftation: the contraft of the remaining light with 
increafing darknefs is a fource of much attraction. 
The general expectation of all intelligent beings, 
I had almofi: faid of every individual exiitence (for 
both trees and plants await a coming llorm, and 
certain kinds of plants abfolutcly clofe their leaves, 
and fliut themfelves up) at this period, rifes into fo- 
lemnity j and this 'fojemnity is greatly augmented 
" bv 

( 96 ) 

by the miiTinefs of the atmofphere, and the hazy lit- 
decifion of obje6ls, efpecially of thofe fomewhat re- 
moved, and enveloped in the coming ftotm. 

A ftorm while raging, requires dextrous ma- 
nagement of light, a happy choice of obje6ts, and 
much good thinking, to roufe and repay attention : 
for this fubjeft having been long a favourite of the 
pencil, without fome vigorous energy of fentimenV 
It will be faid that one ftorm is but another re- 

The abatement of a ftorm is interefting-, in- 
verfely from its advancing ; the light of day aug- 
ments, and with It is augmented an opportunity for 
whatever piquancy the artift choofes : it is a very 
Dowerful ajjent on the foedator's mind, in the hand 
of a capable mafter. The effedts of a ftorm, fuch 
as broken trees, plants overloaded with rain, inunda- 
tions of water, &c. and. in Sea Views, fhipwrecks, 
paflengers faved with difficulty, half dead ; the agi- 
tation of the waves not yet fubiided, and numerous 
other circumftances, accompany and exprefs this 


This divifion of our fubje6t relates to the ob» 
fervation of Nature, by thofe who wifli an intimate 
acquaintance with her. An imitative art muft have 
conftant recourfe to the fubje6ls of imitation ; but 
as thefe are too extenfive, too cumberfome, and 
their effe£ls too fleeting, to be brought by the artift 
into his clofet, the artift is under a neceffity of going 


( 97 ) 

out to them, and of treafaring up his obfervations 
made upon them for future fervrce. It is true, that 
a well fituated manfion pofTefTes perpetual land- 
fcapes from its windows, and without venturing 
abroad, the effects of pafling clouds, their forms, 
and motions, may be ftudied within doors ; fo 
may fome efFefts of light, glancing on the obje6ls 
around, but, befide that this fcene is ever the fame, 
and the obje6ts are unvaried, we know that yet 
more ftriking effetls, differently combined, more 
piquant, or more magnificent, may be feen elfe- 
where. All kinds of plants do not grow under the 
infpe£tion of one window, or of one houfe ; all 
kinds of fites do not compofe the pi£iure which 
appears from one lituation j it is therefore neceffary 
that an artifl: Ihould vilit other fcenes, ftudy other 
trees, plants, verdure and buildings, other water, 
other traffic, and their various accompaniments and 

Painters ufually denominate Studies, thofe 
fketches, copies, hints, or memoranda, which they 
gather from nature, whatever they be. Figures, 
Heads, Hands, Feet, Draperies, Animals, Moun- 
tains, Trees, Plants, Flowers, Fruits, or any other 
articles which they mean occalionally to introduce 
in their works : the ufe of thefe ftudies is, to refrelli 
the memory in point of accurate reprefentation, and 
to contribute that fidelity of which otherwife their 
imitations would be deftitute. Nature is inexhauf- 
tible: an artift cannot ftudy without difcoverino- 
fomething new, perceiving fomething in a clearer 

Edit.l. O light 

( 58 ) 

light than he ever did before, or fortifying his me- 
mory fo that hereafter he fhould be able more cor- 
rectly to reprefent that obje£l. 

Nothing is more advifeable than order in (ludy, 
and order in preferving ftudies after they are made ; 
for it fignifies httle to have procured the fined ori- 
ginal from Nature, if when wanted it is not to be 
found. On this fubjeCl many artifts are extremely 
carelefs, but furely they are blameable in being fo : 
fince a fimilar occafion to that which now requires 
the (ludy may return, and then their prefent labour 
muft be repeated, perhaps under circumftances of 
lefs advantage. 

It is evident that the component parts of a pic- 
ture may each require diftin6t and careful ftudy : the 
Sky for inftance ;— in a morning — at noon — in the 
evening — at night : the diftant, or horizontal, part 
cf the fky, — the medium-diftant — that over head ; 
> — the teint of the blue, in thefe parts, refpe6lively, 
as more or lefs vaporated, and blended, or pure and 
diflinft : the forms of clouds, their colours, the 
compofition of one againft others, their manner of 
moving, &c. &c. and the courfes of lights breaking 
through them, or reflecling on them. 

In ftudying Trees, feveralofthe fame fort fhould 
be feparately fludied, and the general chara61er of 
each be noted ; — in its trunk — its branches' — its fo- 
liage ; in their fizes, and proportions, their colours, 
thtir bearings to each other, their lights and flia- 
dows ; their general habits, and various dates — 
young, or old — (hooting their leaves, or dropping 


( 99 ) 

them. Thefe are diftinft particulars in the fame fort 
of tree ; and in the fame tree, at different periods. 

Obferve alfo, the feveral sorts of Trees; their 
appearances as they grow together; how they re- 
lieve each other ; how they differ from each other ; 
how they appear againft a light Ikv, againft a dark 
body, againft an earthen banlc, againfl a brick wall, 
&c. &;c. Obferve the fituations, foils, and expo- 
fures, which they naturally delight in, and note 
their moft: advantageous appearance in groups, — 
difiant, or at hand, &;c. 

Obferve, the feveral forts of Plants; near 
what trees they naturally grow ; their proportions ; 
that of their leaves, their manner of fpreading their 
leaves, the feafons when they fiourilh, or when they 
decay ; how their colours beft agree with their 
neighbours, how they are varied by light, and w^hat- 
ever other particularities come within obfervation. 

In fludying Rocks, obferve their various flrata, 
their order and appearance ; the effe6fs of light, 
darkening fome pa^ts, enlightening others ; obferve 
their forms, and how they compofe with objetfts 
around them ; obferve the plants they yield, and if 
water be found among them, obferve its appearance, 
its courfe, and its cffe61 as combined with furround- 
ing proje^ions, recelfes, &c. 

Water is varied by reflections of the fky, and 
clouds, of objefts on its banks, by the colour of the 
lands through which it paffes, by the motion it de- 
rives from the wind, and from many other caufes 
which agitate or diverfify its furface j the tranfpa- 

O 2 rency 

( 100 ) 

rency of water, which differs according to circum* 
fiances, and on which the light has great influence, 
fhould be carefully regarded. 

Buildings are infinitely various : obferve their 
colours, their lights and fhadows, and the broad 
effects of light which they occafionally prefent. Ob- 
ferve, their effe6t, when among trees of various 
kinds, when on the level green, when againfl a fky, 
and when among others of their own kind. Ob- 
ferve, the differences of thatch, tiles, flate, flone, 
bricks, mortar, wood, clay, and every kind of mate- 

Obferve alfo, in general, the accompaniments of 
thefe and other fubjefts : in a park, or an embel- 
lifhed refidence, there are many ornamental circum- 
flances, lodges, pillars, temples, perhaps, — or the 
neceffary appurtenances, flyles, gates, &c. are better 
in form and materials, or in better order than in 
common fields. In common fields, the utenfils ap- 
pertaining to them require notice — ploughs, har- 
rows, carts, Sic. In towns, if a manufacture be 
carried on, confider its nature, and whether it may 
not be exprelfed ; in villages, the fame, or what- 
ever is the ufual employment of their inhabitants. 
Cottages and huts have commonly fome attendants 
which denote the intcrefi: taken in them by their 
owners ; and thefe, with whatever elfe they furnifh, 
are very proper articles of remark and attention. 

After being habituated to making thefe and limi- 

lar reflections they will become perfe£tly eafy, and 

pleafant : there remains yet one difficulty, which is, 

3 to 

( 101 ) 

to fele£t the nobleft effcdls, and to prefer fuch only 
as are really preferable. To accomplirh this is the 
office of Tafte and Genius. Induflry, however, 
may do much ; the habit of noticing will be re-' 
warded with the fight of many novel and beautiful 
effedls, which efcape common obfervation, thefe by 
degrees will direft and guide to a good choice: 
they will open the mind to circumftances calculated 
to intereft and improve it, and this at leaft may ba 
fafely aflerted, — if the habit of pi6turefque percep- 
tion had no other reward than the fpe6lacles of 
beauty which it beholds in Nature, where ignorance 
beholds nothing, that gratification alone were fuffi-* 
cient recompence for every trouble beftowed in 
acquiring it. 

In making thofe defigns which are called lludies, 
different mailers pra£life different methods; fome 
carefully copy after Nature in the open fields, what 
pieces pleafe them, without adding colours to their 
drawing. Others, abfolutely paint what they want 
(fo that at home they have merely to copy this ori- 
ginal) fometimes on canvas, fometimes on flrong 
paper, which, imbibing the colours, affords oppor- 
tunity of putting colour upon colour. Both thefe 
modes require fome little preparation, a box for co- 
lours, &c. and have the inconvenience of carrying 
thefe articles annexed to them ; but for accuracy 
and permanent good effe£ls none can exceed 
them. Certain painters lightly tint with water co- 
lours what fubjefts they defign, to affift their me- 
mory, and certify their recolleclion ; this mode is 
convenient, as all the materials may be carried in 


{ 102 ) 

the pocket without incumbrance : while fome there 
are, who truft entirely to memory, and after having 
fludioufly infpe^tcd the article they want, fuppofe 
they can carry it away with fufficient fidelity in their 


It is not always that an artifl: can repeatedly in- 
fpe£t the fubjeft he ftudies ; but when he enjoys 
this advantage, he is blameable if his works are not 
diftinguiflied by veracity. At any rate, the table- 
book for rapid hints, is not to be forgot; this, 
containing outlines of a fubje£t, with notices, or 
marks of any kind, fo they be but intelligible, 
for afcertaining the colours, &c. is of great ufe. 
There are many beautiful effetts fo tranfitory that 
they elude being copied : but if a (ketch of tnem 
be made with a black-lead pencil, andjuft direc- 
tions added, they may be referved pretty faithfully 
for future fervice. To conclude thefe hints; an 
artift ihould accuftom his eye to fee beauties how- 
ever fleeting, thefe his memory will retain, more or 
lefs : but his hand alfo fhould be ready to take ad- 
vantage of fuch inftances, and to treafure them up 
in a permanent form, for future recurrence : be- 
fide this, where leifure and circumffances permit 
more intimate acquaintance with, and more ac- 
curate imitation of, linking, and elegant objedts, 
this fhould be efteemed a happinefs, and improved 
to the utmoft ; fuch indudry being the moft imme- 
diate and certain fource of veracity, and fure to 
contribute greatly to the interefl, the excellence, 
and the value of fubfequent performances. 


( 103 ) 


After propofing a courfe of Principles, to 
dire£l the ftudies of thofe who inchnc to this elegant 
art, what remains is, to dire6t the hand and eye 
in their ai)plication to Practice. 

Where any fubje6t is liable to intricacy, fimplicity 
and eafe are peculiarly defirable in its firft prin- 
ciples : to attempt too many things at once, almoft 
forbids fuccefs in any of them ; whereas by regular 
divifions into parts, by attention to one part at one 
time, and that offered in the fimpleft form, a pro- 
grelTive and gradual improvement may enable the 
ftudent to proceed with pleafure and advantage, till 
the whole is familiar, and level to his talents. 

With this defign, our firft ten Plates offer thofe 
neceffary outlines, which cannot be too frequently 
repeated : fome perfons will think it ftrange, that 
the Author fliould value himfelf as much on thefe 
feemingly rough ideas, as on any part of this work ; 
but the faft is fo ; and competent judges will ad- 
mit its juftice. The branches, &;c. which begin 
thcfe pla-tes, fliould be repeatedly copied with a 
pen (not a neat fmooth pen, but a coarfe, bold, 
one) or with a pencil, or with chalk, in order to 
acquire a freedom and command of hand, and a rea- 
dinefs in exprelfing the courfes of lines, branches, 
obje6ts, &c. and of perceiving their relative bear- 
ings to each other. It is alfo to be obferved; that 


( 104 ) 

though one way of laying the ftrokes (or grain) of 
the chalk is undoubtedly moft convenient, yet th^ 
ftrokes are in fome of thefe examples laid back^ 
handed, in order to accuftom the learner to overcome 
that inconvenience when necejfity admits of no 
other dire6^ion. As thefe fketches contain a great 
variety. of fubjefts, whoever duly copies them can 
fcarcely fail of acquiring fomewhat of mafterly free- 
dom in handling the pen or the chalk. 

The SECOND feries of Plates are fimple and 
pleafing rural fubje6ts; ftudies from Nature chiefly; 
and adapted to exhibit a combination of country 

Plates D, No. II, and E, No. 12, are tinted to 
exprefs the mode of drawing in Indian ink : copies, 
from them, may either be left as the Plates are, or 
be further finifhed, by being lightly tinted in colours, 
over the Indian ink. The {ky and diftances which 
in the Plates are marked by lines, fhould be left in 
black lead pencil very lightly touched in ; this is 
neceflary to be attended to, becaufe otherwife the 
outlines will appear hard inflead offender, and will 
advance inftead of receding. 

No. 13. The general fcene of this Pifture is 
greatly diverfified by the introduction of the fir- 
trees, whofe rifing lines gracefully contraft the level 
lines which prevail throughout. 

No. 14. A kind of hazy funlliine, fomewhat of 
a gloom fpreads over the whole piece, yet without 
materially depriving it of light in any part. 


{ 105 ) 

No. 15. An effe6l allied to that of morning; the 
fcene extremely fimple, enriched by the great tree, 
to much advantage. 

No. 16. A much more early morning than the 
foregoing; and occupied accordingly, by hunters; 
the fcene a wild heath. 

No. 17,18. Shooting. Thefe Plates add very 
much to the variety of the colle6lion ; that they are 
faithful copies of Englifli Nature, is evident at a 

No. 19, 20, 21, 22. Are fcenes pretty much com- 
pofed of water ; which in thefe views is feen under 
very different afpefts — as agitated by wind — in fall- 
ing — by its natural courfe, — and by impediments — 
or quite dill and quiet. The bold and free handling 
of the trees on the right-hand in the view of the 
Bridge deferves notice; as does the ferenity of 
the morning effe6t of Snowdon, Plate I. 

No. 22. This Plate has prodigious maffes of rock, 
rifing very high, and floods of fparkling water, 
iffuing from them : thefe afford a brilliancy, and ani- 
mation, which in fa6t ftands in little need of other 
accompaniments to render it lively. 

No. 24. This SECOND Plate of Snowdon at- 
tempts to flicw its " cloud capp'd brow :" the fcene 
is wild, but varied by fome vegetation, and the dim 
view of the mountain is highly chara6f eriltic. 

No. 25. A fcene compofed wholly of trees: in- 
cluding a remarkable obje6f, itfelf covered alfo with 

Land/cape, V No. 

( 106 ) 

No. 26. Ruins are in general apt to occafion 
an idea of gloominefs and defolation, but this pic- 
ture is remarkably cheerful ; the breadth of fhadow 
which occupies the front ground, and the proximate 
part of the building, contributes greatly to that 
brilliancy of light which ftrikes on the central ob- 
jects y and as the part which cafts this fliadow ap- 
pears well entitled fo to do, the eye takes no offence 
at that circumflance. The brilliancy of the center 
parts is further heightened, by a plantation in the- 
offscape, which alfo contrajis them, as exhibiting 
theeffe6ts of modern tafte and attention. 

No. 27. A pleafing Landfcape — including a View 
of a Gentleman's Seat: entirely occupied by 
objedls which have been dire6ted by the hand of 
elegance j the lawn here is fmooth ; the temple and 
the plantations are extremely pi6turefque. 

The former fubje£ls are all reprefented by com- 
mon light, or day-light; it was therefore thought 
proper to include an inftance or two of extraor- 
dinary LIGHT; and this the rather, becaufe, per- 
haps, the principles of t^^Si may in thefe be more 
open to infpeftion than in the former, efpecially as 
confiding in union of light to light and fliade. to 
lliade, thereby acquiring breadth. 

No. 28. The hazinefs and mift in the Ice-field 
appears at the firft glance entirely diftinft from the 
coolnefs, and obfcurity of Moon-light; and 
befides being interefting as a very remarkable objeft, 
this plate has the merit of being fo far as I am able 
to judge, a faithful copy of Nature. 

- The 

( 107 ) 

Moon-light beft exhibits the efFc£ls of ad- 
ditional lights, when the chief luminary is be- 
clouded, or when its brightnefs is diminilbed by 
that (light veil of haze which often accompanies the 
fineft nights. The motion of thofe heavy clouds from 
which the n^oon is juft liberated, and her peeping 
through a break, in others fomewhat lighter, is ex- 
tremely natural: the relief of the obje6^s enlightened 
by the fecondary lights, and their refie6^ions, deferves 
notice ; as well as the occupations proper to the 
time, and to the fcene. 

Our laft feries of Plates is a felc8ion of the 
moft curious, or ftriking, or elegant objedls, which 
could be procured. 

No. 30. Of a very defolate appearance is the 
bleak barren top of Etna, whofe fiery crater is 
llrongly contrafted by abiding fnows : the general 
blacknefs of its afpe6t, its wafte, defart look, is in 
perfe6l unifon to the remnants of a demolifhed 
building. As a very flrong wind always reigns in 
thefe elevated regions, the artift has exprefled it, by 
the driving of the columns of flame and fmoke, by 
the agitation of the garments of the figures, and the 
difficulty they find to fecure them ; they feem alfo 
trembling with cold, while enjoying the view of 
very diftant obje61s. 

No. 31. Altogether different from any of the for- 
mer is this view of the Peak^ which though in 
itfelf barren -enough, yet is rather folemn than 
gloomy 3 and by means of its accompaniments, 
which demonftrate the attention of tafle, and the 

P w labours 

( 108 ) 

labours of induftry, it becomes interefting. It is not 
fo defolate, or forfaken, as thole we have pafled, 
but amid all its flerility, has in its afpe6t a nearer 
relation to the " cheerful haunts of men." 

No. 32, 33. Nothing can be more faithful than 
thefe two reprefentations of Vesuvius ; nor more 
fmgular than their fire-light effect. In Plate I. the 
height of the column of fire, and the cloud of 
fmoke fliooting its lightning, is tremendous ; and 
the lefTer pillars of fmoke, rifing as from fo many 
immenfe furnaces, give the moft lively idea of the 
devaflation they occafion : while the divided cur- 
rents of lava, in apparent progrefs to the cultivated 
plains, are altogether terrifying. The refledlion of 
the fire in the water, and the manner of its reliev- 
ing the caftle, deferves attention. In the fecond 
Plate, the Lava ilTuing from the chafm, its glitter- 
ing effe6t on the ftones, and trees, and its inclining 
courfe, are extremely fmgular. 

N. B. To fee thefe two fubjeffs accurately, the 
fire parts fhould be flightly tinted with vermillion. 

No. 34. This piece has but one uniform effort j it 
is not contrafted by plantations, or other lively ob- 
jefts, but is merely an affemblage of diverfified 
Ruins ; in confequence, it pofTeffes a folitarinefs, 
which might feem inconfillent with its nearnefs to 
the gate of a great city. The contrafl arifmg from 
the forms of the arches, &c. in the wall, with the 
lines of the pyramid, fhould not be overlooked. 

No. 35. Shews the efFeft of a round obje6f:; 

and is an inftance of rich fimpliclty ; the parts of 

4 the 

( 109 ) 

the whole being large, and, except under the gate- 
way, folemn and undlfturbed. 

No. 36, 37. Theeffcft of tall infulated objects: 
tbefe pillars are among the nobleft obJe6ts of anti- 
quity remaining. 

No. 38. A rich compofition : there are in this 
piece neither figures, nor actions, to render, it 
lively; but this quality it obtains, from the vivacity 
of its lights. If the number of leffer objecl:s which 
appear in it, could have been diminiftied, perhaps, 
its general effeft might have been kept more ftill, 
and tranquil, without injury. 

No. 39. The Temple of Faunus: including 
ruins of an aquedu£f. 

No. 40. The Arch of Tirus. This fliews the 
nature of fuch objeds when feen very near ; its in- 
ternal decoration exhibits the Triumph of Titus, 
and the fpoils of Jerufalem ; the facred Candleftick, 
Table, &c. 

No. 41. The Arch of CoNSTANTiNE, is an in- 
ftance, that it is not always ncceflfary to fct a full 
ftrong light on an objeft to be fhewn ; where its 
parts are of a nature to admit of being (liadowed, 
fometimes, a very pleafing effe6l may be gained by 
flievving them by refle£led light ; and generally, 
the variety it promotes when introduced in a feries, 
renders this mode of condu6iing fuch objects free 
to choice on jud occafions. 

No. 42. This is the mofl difficult fubje61 in the 
colleftion: whether we confider its general form 
(an oval) or its multiplicity of parts, or its condition, 


( HO ) 

as exhibiting part (landing, part in ruins : the diffi- 
culty alfo of exhibiting the internal paffages is not 
fmall ; nor that of maffing the lights on objects fo 
divided by arches and breaks. In faft, to combine 
diftin6lnefs of parts with generality of effe6l, always 
requires very diligent attention ; but in fuch ex- 
tenfive fubje^ls as this, it is truly an arduous under- 

The following Plates of Figures, are fuch as may 
with propriety be adopted in landfcape : but this, 
always with a provifo, that no others would be more 
appropriate to the fcene. Englifh landfcape fhould 
be enlivened by Englifti figures, whofe employ- 
ments and manners are certainly moft congenial to 
fuch reprefentations : and other national, or local, 
figures, in like manner. 


( 111 ) 

Further defcription offome of the moji remarkahlr 
fubjects ; injerted for the better underjlandhig of 
the reprefhitatioiis given of them, 


VIEW of S N O W D O N," 
from the LAKE of LLEWHELLIN. 

The diftance from the extremity of this lake to the 
highefi: peak ofSKOWDON, is about two miles, in a 
dire6l line, and three times that diftance when you 
are condu61ed by a guide, through difficult goat- 
tracks, and over prodigious rocks. — It has every ap- 
pearance of having been formerly a volcano. The 
fiflures and perpendicular craigs that prefent them- 
fclves on every part of it, confirm this opinion. The 
diftance from the fpot whence our view was taken 
to Caernarvon is about feven miles. 


V I E ^V of S N O ^V D O N, 
from the Jioad leading to B E D D K E L E R T. 

The fpot from whence this view is taken, was at 
one time of the utmoft confequence, as it com- 
manded a pafs, and prevented any irruption into the 
vale of Caernarvon. — Snow don, formerly called by 
the ancient Britons Eyri, was the fubject of long 
among all the bards, during their times. 


( 112 ) 


The top of Snowdon, which by way of pre-emi- 
nence is ftyled Y WYDDEA or ihtConfpiciwuSy rifes 
almofl: to a point, the mountain from hence feems 
propped by four vaft buttrefles ; between which are 
four deep cwms, or hollows: each, excepting one, 
had one or more lakes, lodged in its diftant bottom. 
The neareft was Ffynnon Las, or the Green Well, 
lying immediately below us. The waters of Ffyn- 
non Las, from this height, appeared black and un- 
fathomable, and the edges quite green. From 
thence is a fucceffion of bottoms, furrounded by the 
mod lofty and rugged hills, the greateft part of whofe 
lides are quite mural, and form the moft magnificent 
amphitheatre in nature. The Wydafa is on one fide ; 
Crib y Diftill, with its ferrated tops, on another; 
Crib Coch, a ridge of fiery rednefs, appears beneath 
the preceding ; and oppofite to it is the boundary 
called the Llivvedd. Another very fingular fupport 
to this mountain is Y Clawdd Coch, rifing into a 
fliarp ridge, fo narrow, as not to afford breadth even 
for a path. 

The view from this exalted fituation is unbound- 
ed. In a former tour, I faw from it the county of 
Cheficr, the high hills of Yorkfnire, part of the north 
of England, Scotland, and Ireland : a plain view ot 
the Ifle of Man 5 and that of Anglefea lay extended 
like a map beneath us, with every rill vilible. I took 
much pains to fee this profpecl to advantage ; fat 
up at a farm on the weft till about twelve, and 
walked up the whole way. The night was remark- 

{ 113 ) 

ably fine and ftarry : towards morn, the ftars faded 
away, and left a fliort Interval of darknefs which was 
foon difperfed by the dawn of day. The body of 
the fun appeared mofl: diftinft, with the rotundity of 
the moon, before it rofe high enough to render its 
beams too brilliant for our fight. The fea which 
bounded the weftern part was gilt by its beams, firft 
in flender ftreaks, at length it glowed with rednefs. 
The profpe6t was difclofed to us like the gradual 
drawing up of a curtain in a theatre. We faw more 
and more, till the heat became fo powerful, as to 
attraft the mifts from the various lakes, which in a 
flight degree obfcured the profpeft. The fliadow of 
the mountain was flung many miles, and fliewed its 
bicapitated form j the Wyddfa making one. Crib y 
Diftill the other head. I counted this time between 
twenty and thirty lakes, either in this county, or 
Meirionyddfliire. The day proved fo exceflively 
hot, that my journey coft me the ikin of the lower 
part of my face, before I reached the refting-place, 
after the fatigue of the morning. 

The reports of the height of this noted hill have 
been very differently given. A Mr. Chafwell, who 
was employed by Mr. Adams, in 1682, in a furvey 
of Wales, meafured it by inftruments made by the 
diredlion of Mr. Flamftead ; and afferts its height to 
have been twelve hundred and forty yards : but for 
the honour of our mountain, I am forry to fay, that I 
muft give greater credit to the experiments made of 
late years, which have funk it to one thoufand one 
hundred and eighty-nine yards and one foot, reckon^- 
ing from the quay at Caernarvon to the higheft peak. 

Land/cape, Q. PLATE 

( IH ) 



The Peake is a range of elevated hills in the county 
of Derby, which are reckoned among the higheft in 
England: the rivers Dove and Derwent, rife in the 
Peake ; and the whole diftri6t contains mines of lead, 
iron, antimony, and coal ; alfo mill-ftones, and grind- 
ilones. The air is Iharp and cold, notwitliflanding which, 
the vallies, among the hills, maintain numerous herds of 
black cattle, and iheep. 

The immediate fubject of our print, is, the entrance to 
a cave under the higheft h'll (or Peake) near Castle- 
TON : about fix miles from Buxton, and nine miles fmm 
Chatsworth. Castleton derives its name from an old 
caftle ad'oining, on the top of the rock, to which there is 
but one afceni-, and that fo winding and intricate, that it 
is faid to confume two miles in its courfe. 
- The opening into the cavern, is in form almoft like a 
Gothic arch : about thirty feet in perpendicular height, 
and above twice that breadth at bottom. A dwelling, or 
two, adjacent, is occupied by cottagers, who, in great 
meafure, fubhft by the gratuities of thofe whom they 
conduft into the cavern: though itideed the cavern is 
alfo ufed bv them as a rope-walk, Cloie by the rock runs 
a fmali ftream, com])ofed of two waters mingled together; 
one hot, the other cold ; thefe are, in parts, fo dftinft, 
that a perfon may keep his fingers in one, and put his 
thumb into the other. 

The Rock is in color, grevilh ; the trees feen'in a line 
on its top, are part of a plantation. 

The dimenlions oi the opening decreafe quickly, oia 
entering it ; and, afrer croiling a ftream of water, the roof 
gradually lowers, tiil a man cannot ftand upright under 
it ; palling here, by ftooping, and having crofted another 
rivulet, the roof becomes more lofty. In proceeding, a 
third rivulet offers, to which the rock defcends, almoft to 
thefurface, and here, ufually. the examination terminates. 

The vault, in feveral places, makes a noble appear- 
ance; and being chequered with varioufiy coloured 
foffils, ftones, &c. ancl of various fanciful forms, its 
beauty is admired by every fpeftator. 

*^* This Cavern is known by (f, t}iuch grojfername. 

( 113 ) 


View of the. SUMMIT of MOUNT J¥JTN\, from the 
Station conimonli/ called the PHILOSOPHER'S 

A confiderablc fpace of tlie interior part of Sicily is 
covered by mount ^Etna, now called (ribe/lo, an infu- 
lated nioniitain, the largeft volcano in the world. It is 
about two miles in perpendicular height, and above one 
hunilrec! miles in circumference at the bafe; fome make 
it coniiderably more, but it has never been meafured 
with accuracy. It is divided into three circles or zones, 
the lari^ell: and loweft of which is called Piemontefe, " the 
foot of the mountain," and occupies a breadtli of eigh- 
teen miles of rich cultivation: the fecond, ll('S,ione S>yU 
rojii. or Ncmorofa, the "woody reo;ion," fix miles: 
and the third, Rtigione defer ta^ Net fa or Seopetra, t\\Q 
" barren re<rion," alfo fix miles, always covered with 
fnow, but the lower part of it only in winter. Thus 
the whole afcent is about thirty miles. It appears at a 
difiance like a vaft r.'gular tapering cone or fugar-loaf 
terminating in a point. The ])refent crater of this 
immenfe volcano is a circle of about three miles and 
a half in circumference, as it was in the time of Pliny, 
iii. 8. It goes Iheiving down on each fide, and forms a 
regular hollow, like a vaft ampliitheatre. Near the 
center of the crater is the great mouth of the volcano, 
whence iffue volumes of fmoke, and fometimes Hre. 

The appearance of the rifmg fun from the top of 
M.tu?L is elteemed one of the grandefi: obje6ls in nature. 
The extent of the profpecl is immenfe. Several fmaller 
mountains of confiderablc bulk rife on the fides of ^Etn), 
in difierent parts, and from fome of thefc the great 
eruptions have burft forth, and not from the opening at 
the top. 

The firft ancient author who mentions an eruption of 
mount yEtna is Pindar. From the iilence of Homar con- 
cerning it, it is fuppofed tliat either there had never ieen 
an eruption before his time, or at leaft not for many ages. 
The firft eruption is faid to have happened in the time of 
Pythagoras. From that time till the battle of Pliarfijlia 
uere reckoned one hundred eruptions. 


( 116 ) 


On the 26th of October, 1751, a cleft was perceived 
a httle below the fummit of Vesuvius, and a ftream of 
ignited matter gufliing from it like a river of flame ; 
next day the appearance was quite tremendous, the in- 
flamed torrent making a channel which impetuoufly con- 
tinued its courfe among the fields, farms, and vineyards 
which lie betwixt the mountain and the fea. The channel 
which it has made is above 500 feet in breath, and the 
fediment left in it is of fulphureous fubftance, which 
dries into the hardnefs of a ftone. It extended itfelf about 
five miles, and caufed an incredible damage to the towns, 
villages, and houfes thereabouts ; there were felt feveral 
fliocks of an earthquake in all the parts adjacent to the 
faid mountain. The 10th of November, the top of the 
mountain feemed to be all in a flame, and there pro- 
ceeded from it abundance of fulphureous matter — All the 
wells near it were dried up. In the valley of Castagno, 
the fulphur and bitumen were heaped to the height of 
27 feet. 

Copy verbatim of the infcription on the back of the 
original xie'j^ of VefuviuSj Plate I. 


( in ) 

Jtdatioyi of the Courfe of the Lava, that i/facd from 
Mount Vesuvius, y^. D. 1751. By Father D. J. 
Ma RCA DE LA Torre. Correfpondent of t}i.e Acadanu 
of Sciences. 

The father rolates, that he vifited the mountain Oc- 
tober 19, without perceiviwcr the fmallcil figns of an ap- 
proaching eruption ; though in his afcent he rcpofed 
himfelf on the very fpot from whence eight days after- 
wards iflued a torrent of iava. 

On Saturday, 06tober 2;;, in the evening, fome (Tiocks 
of an earthquake were felt at Naples, &c. accompanied 
by dreadful noifes in the entrails of the mountain, which, 
lafted feveral days. Id the night of Monday 25th (or the 
morning of Tuelday 26th) iflued from Vesuvius, about 
half a mile below its fummit, eaftward, in the Alrio del 
Cavallo, a fluid mafs like melted metal ; one flreani of 
which, defcending the fide of the mountain, inclining 
toward the Torre del Greco, ran through a valley, to- 
wards Le Mauro, a piece of ground covered with wood 
belonging to the prince of Ottajano. On the 26th, at 
noon, it had run four miles, to the valley of Fluscio : 
being arrived at a part where the valley is above thirty 
yards wide, it ran fifty feet of ground in five minutes: 
It was here, in front, at this time, little above two feet 
high, of a thick confiftence, covered with pumice ftones 
(which generally fall to the bottom as the Lava ad- 
vances) flints, earth, fand, parts of trees, and other ad- 
ventitious fubftances. 

When this Lava is obftru6led in its courfe, it turrls 
afide; meeting with trees, it furrounds them, rifesagainfi; 
them, and turns away ; thefe trees fiibfift; for fome time, 
without apparent damage, but, that part of the trunk 
which is furrounded, being reduced to charcoal, they 
fall, and float on the furface ; till being thoroughly 
dried, they kindle, and are confumed. Care is generally- 
taken to cut the trees in all places where it is fuppofed 
the torrent may pafs : but when their trunks are left, the 
Lava fets them on fire; fo that a fiame is feen to ilfue, 
but not violently, from among the pumice-ftones, and 
from other parts of its furface. 

The Lava in running makes a continual noife. A 
perfon may go before it, at the diftance of ten or twelve 

The Lava which was at one time only two feet and 


( ns ) 

hairiiigh in front, and about 140 feet broad, by increafo 
of matter from Vesuvius, becanie three and half, and 
then four feet high, and in 12 minuses ran above 100 feet 
of ground: then it became nearly feveri feet high; hav- 
ing met with a fpace about 160 feet in breadth, it ran 
100 feet in 16 minutes. About eight o'clock in the even- 
ing, having run half a mile fince noon, it precipitated 
itfelf into the valley oi Biwnincontro, about 70 feet deep, 
and above 40 wide. It did not fall like water, but like 
a foft pafte, detached in diiferent pieces : nor did it make 
an exceliive noife in its fall. Having filled the whole 
valley, it continued its courie, advancing towards a fmall 
village, in the territory of Sta. Maria Salone ; extend- 
ing itfelf till near midnight, then contra6ting itfelf, and 
fettling at the road leading to Poggio Marino. Its im- 
petuofity was moderated by meeting here with a plain 
Tvhere it might extend its fuperficies ; alfo, by the ftone:* 
that had floated on its furface, ftiliing continually from 
its anterior part, and riling fome feet above its level, 
which greatly retarded its courfe ; and as it cooled by 
degrees, its fluidity diminifiied, it became more con- 
fifient, and made flower progrefs. Where it flopped, 
the Lava was in front, 1S'30 feet wide ; in height 9, 10, 
I or 12 feet, according to the elevation of the ground. It 
formed in its whole courfe a hill of matter as high as the 
poplars growing on the fpot. The jjrincipal ftream de- 
tached feveral little rivulets. 

The mountain continued to emit Lava from the open- 
ing for feveral days; with great quantities of very large 
black ftones : thefe acceffions, forced feveral parts of the 
almoft fettled Lava to advance by different courfes, nor 
was the whole finally ftopped till near the end of Novem- 
ber. In the night a fulphureous kind of fiame, of fhort 
duration, was vifible on the furface of the Lava. When 
the Lava was about to advance, the heaps of flones 
which preceded it, began to fall, and the fire to appear 
imderneath. Some of the torrents of this eruption were 
kindled, and flamed throughout their courfe ; others did 
not flame, but refembled melted metal. Alfo, from 
openings in the Lava ran ftreams of matter upon the 
middle of the former half-cooled Lava. G61. 29. It 
rained : which formed a kind of cruft over the Lava. 
Nov. 16. Vesuvius and the mountains around were en- 
tirely covered with fnow, but the Lava w^as not thereby 
cooled, for parts of it were in motion till Nov. 20. 


( 119 ) 



This pyramid is about one hundred feet liigh^ by eighty- 
five at the bafe ; faced intirely with marble, but internally 
being a mafs ottlinls, lime, and fand. called Fnzzolana. It has 
within it a chamber ni^arly thirty feet long, by twenty feet 
high, which doubtlef'^ contained the urn incloling the afhes of 
Caius Cestius ; this is coaled with ftiicco ; and was deco- 
rated with paintings of vafes, arabefque ornaments, and fingle 
female figures about a foot high, one on each of the four lides 
of the room; and in each of the four angles ol ihe ceiling, a 
Viciory holding a crown and diadem. Thtfe are now nearly 
obliterated; and no wonder, when it is recollected that the 
inundations ot the Tiber frequently fill this chamber with water 
and impurities. 

On tiie face of this flrudure are two infcriptions : the upper 
and largcft is thus: 


Indicating that '* Caius Ceflius, was the fon of Lucius, of the 
Poblilian tribe ; he was pretor, tribune of the people, and one 
of the feven men who were Epulones." Thefe Epulones were 
perf jns appointed to feaft the gods when their aid was re- 
quired ; ai which time the public were at the expence of 
feftivals called Letiijhrnia. A college confifting of feven of 
the moft refpedable Romans had the charge of preparing the 
viands, and conducing them to the temple as deputies of the 
citizens, doubtlefs alfo of terminating the repaft as deputies of 
the gods. The lower infcription is in fmaller letters : 


Informing us that this work, was performed according to the 
will of the deceafed, in three hundred and thirty uay^, by 
order of Pontius Mela, fon of Publiu--, of the Claudian tribe, 
an heir, and o\' Pothus his freed-man. 

Pope Alexander VII. having dug round the bafe, made 
the little door way, and did fundry reparations ; as we learn 
by the lower infcription : 



( 120 ) 



Ou the ancient Via Appia, not far beyond the church of 
St. Sebastian, rifes a very large, round, tower, built of 
fiones of enormous magnitude; this lower is the tomb of Ce- 
cilia Metella, daughter of Mltkllus, who was furnamed 
Crtiicui (theCretan) becaul'e he had conquered the rfland of 
Crete (the fame as is now called Candia, and fubject to the 
Turks). Below the frieze, and on the body or the work, on, 
that fide of it next the Via Appia, is flill legible the following 
infcripLion : 

Informing us, that fhe was the wif.* of Crassus, who erefteff 
this monument to his deceafed fpoufe. Jt was of two orders, 
or ftages ; the lower one fqu-ire, and faced with large dormer., 
of which it is now totally deprived ; this ferved a« a bafe to a 
fecond ftory. which was a round fuperfrruflure, faced alfo in 
a like manner, which yet remain-. Within the edifice, is a 
chamber, defrined, no doubt, a^ a fepulchre, to contain the 
allies of the deceafed; which were enclofed in an urn of white 
marble fluted : which urn was taken away during tlie ponti- 
ficate of Paul III. and is now in the court of the Palazzo Far- 
nefe. The chamber itfelf is extremely plain; the roof de- 
creafes gradually, in form of a cone. 

The lingularity of this ftrudure confifis in the beauty of 
the workraanfhip, the imperceptibility of the joints between 
the ftones, and in its being raifed during the latter days of 
the republic, and by fo rich a man as Ckassus; who, 
<loubtlefs, on this occafion empIo\ed the befi artificers ; fo that 
it may be confidered as a favourable fpecmien of (he ftate of 
art at that time. 

The walls are eighteen feet thick ; externally compofed (ag 
vras faid) of large ftones ; internally, filled with layers of 
lime, fmatl ftones, mortar, &c. according to the manner 
caMed opera incerta. Had the ravages of time only, been em- . 
ployed againft this fepulchre, it might have been in fubftanf 
tial prefervation at this day; but during the barbarous ages it 
wa- ufed as a fortrefs; in confequence, it was likely to fuffer 
both from thofe it prote^ed, and thofe who attacked them. 
The walls feen on its top, the gate-way, and the diftant 
flru6tures, are remnants of fuch fortifications, which though 
not fo old, by many ages, m^y probably perifh before the ori- 
ginal, whofe beauty they disfigure. 

This rtrufiure is commonly called by the inhabitants of the 
neighbourhooJ, Capo di Bote (Ox's Heads), on account of the 
number of heads of oxen which compofe part of the enrich- 
ments of the I'elloons which adorn tl)e frieze. 


( 121 ) 



This column was ereclcd to the memory of" the cmj)c?rr;r 
Trajan, bv Adkian his fucccllbr, by Ihe Icnate, and people 
of Rome: it fublirts liill entire ; and is near one hundrcil and 
twenty feet high, nut includijig the pedeftaj whereon it fiands. 
The pedeltal was formerly covered by the ground of "modern 
Kome ((o much is it railed above the level of the ancient city) 
but from tiiis incumbrance it was freed by pope SixTus V. 
One fide of the pedellal hai a door, which admits to a fiair- 
cafe, hewn out of the blocks which form the column, having 
185 fteps, enlightened by 15 fmall windows, placed on ditlerent 
lides. This Itair-cafe condud^s to the top of the column ; 
whereon anciently flood the ftatueof Tkaj an, of bronze gilt, 
holding in his hand a golden urn, wherein Adrian enclofed 
his aflies. But now his place is occupied by a ftatue of the 
lame metal, reprefcniing St. Pkter, placed by Sixtus V. 
A. D. 1589. 

This pillar is ftriking by its maf>, and materials, but in- 
finitely more by the beauty of the bas reliefs with which it is 
ornamented, from bottom to (op, in a fpiral line. On tlie pe- 
deflal, befides an infcription, are bas reliefs, trophies, fundrv 
figures of Victory, and a Fame blowing her trumpet. The 
fpiral line of bas reliefs, contains more than two thoufand fivo 
hundred figures of men, befides animals, machines, &c. the 
whole treated with the utmolt intelligence and art. They are 
as diflincf, as fuch an allcmblage can })oiTibly be, and that the 
upper figures may not be loll; to the fpe6lator below, the;v are 
Jarger than the lower ones ; whereby they feem about the 
fame fize. The fubjefts of thefe reprefentations are, the wars 
of the emperor again ii the Dacians, and they include moft 
events of fuch a calamity, and the ravages of de vacation in its 
various forms. They are valuable, for the information they 
alTord us relating to the military drelfes and cuftoms of the 
Romans; the general habits of the Dacii, and the nature of 
their towns, &c. and being extremely well executed, they 
are in all refpecls worthy of bt?ing flu lied. 

On the pedeflal, befides an infcription, are bas reliefs, tro- 
phies, fundry figures of Viclory, asid a Fame blowing her 

To conceive the true cfTecl of thl^ column, Ave mufl imagine 
it fianding in tlie center of a vafl f([uare, furrouncled by the 
mofi; magnilicent porticoes, bafilicas, and temples ; orna- 
mented with llatues of bronze gilt, as well pedeftrian as 
otjueftrian ; among the latter, that of Trajan himfelf. Thefe 
buildings ferved for courts of law, and for worlhip ; for the 
bufy, and for theidle. Now their only remaining monument 
is this column ; which indeed may juftify the relations of 
hiftory refpccling the others, while it excites the mofl lively 
rt gret at the devaftations of barbarous fury and favage niaii- 
;iers, which, infenfible to their magnificence, have levelled them 
in the duft, 


( 122 ) 


AT Rome. 

As this and the former are the only fpecimens of the 
kind remaining (excpt one inclofed within the feragho at 
Conftantinople, and confequently not free to infpcGlion) 
we have given a view of each : the better to exhibit their 

Titus Aurelius Fulvius Antoninus, furnamed Pius, 
was emperor of the Romans from A. D. 138 to A. D. 161. 
This pillar was erefted to his memory by his fucceiTor 
Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, furnamed the Philoso- 
pher, who had married his daughter. The alhes of 
Antoninus Pius were inclofed in the pillar ; and his 
flatue, of bronze gilt, was placed on its fummit; where- 
by it is evident that this monument was at once honorary 
and fepulchral. This ftructure was an imitation of that 
ereOied to the honor of Trajan, A. D. 1 17. Whatever 
might be the reafon, there were never man)'- fmiilar; 
probably their expence was exceffive ; nor was the diffi- 
culty fmall of procuring competent artifts. 

This colunm ftands in the center of a confiderable 
fquare, to which it gives name (Piazza della ColonnaJ ; 
is in height from its ground line to the gallery on the ca- 
pital about 160 feet. On the fummit Hands the ftatue of 
St. Paul, bronze gilt, placed there by Sixtus V. A. D. 
1.589. The fame Pope caufed many repairs to be done 
to the column, which had fuffered greatly by the injuries 
of time, and by the ravages of fires. The whole {haft of 
the column is ornamented by a fpiral line, which divides 
it into fo many compartments, and thefe are filled by hif- 
torical figures relating to the wars and victories of Mar- 
cus Antoninus the Philofopher. This mode of decora- 
tion imparts peculiar richnefs to the column, which be- 
comes further interefting from its allufion to hiltorical 

The bafe of this pillar is cafed by Sixtus V. ; the 
fliaft is hollow, and has a flair- cafe, whereby to afcend 
to the gallery on the capital: it has forty windows for 
admiffion of light, and is compofed of twenty-eighl 
blocks of marble. 


( 123 ) 

The TEMPLE of FORTUNA VIRILIS, and that of 

Tliis etiifice is fitiiated in a low, and formerly perhaps marfhy, 
f[)ot, near llie river Tiber. The manner of its building, and its 
little elevation (i hough much greater originally than it now appears), 
I'cem to agree with the earlier times of Rome, before the immcnfuy 
of magnificence was introduced and maintained by fuperfluous 
wealth. Thefe confiderations favor the general opinion that this 
temple was ere<5>ed by StRvius Tullus to Fortuna Virilis, 
i.e. to Manly Fortune : not that fuppofed goddcfs, whofe favours 
were fcattered, or withheld, at random, and who often dillingulfhed 
the undeferving by her capricious liberality; but rather to a deity, 
or power, who exercifed obfcrvant choice, and determinate judg- 
ment, in rewarding virtuous and aftive merit; Skrvius himfelf 
being raifed from a low degree to regal dignity. Whether that chief 
was its ere<flor or not, this temple is univerfally confidered as among 
the moft ancient ftiuftuies in Rome. 

The temple is quadrilateral, and furrounded by fluted columns of 
the Ionic order, which have ever been efteemed models of that part 
of architeiFture. They are of Tivoli ftone, but the ornaments of 
the building are of ftucco j and being much defaced by time, have 
given no little trouble, not without confufion, to thofe who have 
ftudied their meafurement. Not long fmce, the columns of the front 
and of the left fide of the building were Itanding; and elevations of 
the front fo ornamented have been publiflied, and are preferved to 
US; by which it appears that, inllead of defcending to the entrance, 
as now, a Eight of ten or a dozen fteps formed an afcent to it; fo 
greatly is the ground of moden Rome raifed : and this is confirmed 
by remarking, that at prefent the very bafes of the columns are not 
feen, much lefs the parts whicn fupport them. The fiieze is deco- 
rated with boys holding feftoons ; the cornice with the regular en- 
richments of the order, and lions heads in its upper member, or 

Dion y SI us of HalicarnaJJus reports, that in this temple was a 
ftatue of gilt wood of Servius Tullus, which efcaping damage, 
when every thing elfe within the temple was confumed by an acci- 
dental fire, afterwards received the higheft honouis. The fcllival 
of Fortuna ViRiLis was celebrated on the iflof April, annually j 
the women, particularly, offered incenfe, made libations, and bathed 
themfelves in baths near the temple, which Ovid mentions. 

At prefent this building is ufed as a church by the Armenian 
communion, according to their ritHal, being granted them by 
Pius IV. and is dedicated to St. Mary of Egypt : their dwelling is 
clofe adjoining. 

On the left extremity of the print iu feen the remains of fome 
ancient ereftion, vulgaily called the Houfe of Pilate ; for what reafoii 
is not known, as probably Pt/ate, the procurator ofjudea, had no 
houfe in Rome, being baniftied into Gaul, where he died. 

On the right fide of the print is feen, at a little diftance, a circular 
temple of VhsTA. 


( 124 ) 

T EM P L E of F A U N U S, &c. at ROME. 

This plate contains three dillinft objefls, which may require 
feparate notice, viz. (1)The Temple of Faunus, now 
St. SxtiPHiiN the Round. — ('2) Ruins of part of the Aquedutl of 
Nero. — (.S) The Navicell/V, or Little Bark, which ftands 
fomewhat beyond the temple. 

The church of St. Stephen the Round is generally fup- 
pofed to have been dedicated to Faunus, god of woods and 
forefts; but the antiquary Ficoroni thought it might ap- 
pertain to Jupiter the Stranger ; wdiicli opinion he adopted, on 
account of certain vows to the honour of that god, found en- 
graven on flones ; and becaufe the camp of foreign troops 
was at no great diftance. Pope Simplicius, A. D. 468. pu- 
rified it, and dedicated it to the protomartyr Stephen. 

This temjile was among the moft confiderable circular 
edifices in ancient Rome, being about one hundred and twenty 
feet in circumference. The entrance is by a portico, fup- 
portcd by four columns of granite : within is a double range 
of large pillars, to the number of fixty, placed circularly, 
all of granite, except fix fluted pillars Avhich are of Parian 
marble. The conllrudlion of this edifice furniflies not only a 
centre, under a kind of dome, where ftands the great altar, 
but alfo a colonnaded circular walk furrounding the centre. 

The conftruftion of the Aqueduct of Nero is not fo clearly 
feen in this, as in feme other points of view: it is liowever 
apparent, that two rows of arches, one over the other, riting 
about feventy-two feet high, carried the ftream of water in a 
kind of hollow canaf near the top : this canal emptied itfelf 
into a refervoir on mount Celius within tire city ; from 
whence water was diftributed on mount Celius itfelf, the Pa- 
latine mount, the Aventine mount, and e\'en beyond the Tiber. 

The Navicella, or Antique Bark, is Ihown at a didance, 
a little varied from its true pofition, in order to include fo 
curious an obje6l. It gives fo an adjoining church the name 
of Sta. Maria della Navicella. The prow reprefents the head 
of a wild boar ; and the whole of its conftrudion is coniidered 
as highly interefting. An exaft model of it has been taken, 
and now ftands in the veftibule which leads into the refeflorj 
ofGreenwicli Hofpital. 

FicoRONi conjedured it to be the vow offome foreign fol- 
dier, to which the proximity of the Caftra Peregrina feeins to 
give fupport ; but its real hillory is unknown. 


{ 125 ) 

ARCH cf TIT U S, at ROM T. 

At the extremity of Ibe Campo Vaccina, at a I'lnall difrance 

from the Cdlis E CM, built by Vlspasian and Titus hi; fon, 

is a triumphal arch ere£te({ by tlie fcnate in i)onour of the 

latler, who from liis goodnels and liberality was named the 

delight of mankind, 'ihe inlcription is thus : 





It!5 chief defigH appears to have been, to commemorate the 
Vonquefl: of Judca, and the deltruCtion of Jerufalem ; and it 
fliould feein to have been erected after the death of the prince 
it celebrates, whofe reign was not long, as well by the titls 
Divo (Divine) given to Titus, as by the fubjecl of the vault 
under the center of the arch, which h ihc apcthefljis of Titus. 
There is fome roafon to guefs it might be finidied by Trajan ; 
at lealt, it is known that he erected a monument of fome kind, 
to the memory of Titus. 

Although this arch is fmaller than others of tlie kind, and 
it has greatly fuffered by the injuries of lime, yet the work- 
inanlhip appears to be excellent. It is of the Compofite order, 
and is efteemcd the beft model of that order. On its frieze is 
reprefented, the courfe of the triumphant proceflion of Titus, 
including a figure of the riveryoi't^^i'i, with captives, and with 
animals deftined to the facrifice. On the fides of the arch, 
within, are two has reliefs, one of which reprefents the Em- 
peror riding in his triumphant chariot,, drawn by four horfes, 
and accompanied by his iidors, &c. behind him is ViCtory, 
holding in her left hand a palm-branch, in her right hand a 
crown of laurel over his head. A figure reprefenting the city 
of Rome, with a helmet and fpcar, conduces the horfes ; (lie 
is followed by mngiftrates, &c. bearing branches of laurel. 
The other bas relief, wliich is on the fide we have chnfcn to 
reprek-nt in our print, exhibits the fpoils of the temple of Je- 
rufalem, among others, the golden candlellick with feven 
lights, the tables of the law, the ark of the covenant, the table 
of fliew-bread, the jubilee trumpets, and fome other things 
which by time are obliterated, to the great regret of the 

This ftriicture, th< ugh novs^ greatly damaged, yet is an un- 
deniable evidence to tlie truth of the hifioric relations, which 
defcribe the difiblution of the Jewifli ftate and government; 
and, by its being made the fubjecl of eulogy in this monum.ent, 
it confirms the account of the danger and magnitude of that 


( 126 ) 


Is among the mod remarkable edifices of ancient RomCj, 
now remaining as ornaments or curiofities in modern Rome, 
It is fituated near the Flavian amphitheatre, commonly called 
the Coliseum. 

After the famous victory of Constantine over Max- 
ENTius, A. D. 312. this arch was dedicated to the vi6tor, by 
infcriptions in the central palTage ; on one fide, FVNDA- 
The infcription in the north front, which is reprefented in 
our print, is thus : 

Imp. C^s.Fl.Const-sntino: Maximo 
P. F. AvGUSTO. S. P. Q. R. 


Under the architrave 

V O T I S . X. 


V O T I S . XX. 

Elfewhere under the architrave 

S I C . X. 



This edifice is of the Corinthian order; divided into three 
arcades; the north and fouth fronts are adorned by fourinfulat- 
ed columns, with their accompaniments ; their pedeftals orna- 
mented with bas reliefs of trophies, foldiers, and prifoners ; 
over the center arch are alfo winged viftories with trophies. 
Thefe performances are of inferior execution, and corref- 
pond to the ftate of the arts in the time of Constantine, 
which was much below their former merit. The fculptures 
which enrich the upper parts are in a fiyle far fuperior; and 
every way worthy that mafterly hand which decorated Tra- 
jan's pillar. It is therefore generally concUided, that the 
Roman fenate, willing to render an early tribute to which- 
ever of the combatants fliould defeat his rival, detached from 
an arch of Trajan which Rood in his market place (Forum 
Trajuni) fuch fculptures as might fiiit their new eredion ; 
among which are eight cololfal llatues on the entablature oi 
the columns, and a variety of bas reliefs, reprelenting a<5tions, 

not of CoNSTANl INE, butofTRAJAN. 

This monument has furtered much from time, neglect, and 
robbery, which has purloined feveral heads, &c. from the 


( 127 ) 


at HOME. 

An Amphitheatre was an edifice complete in its figure, 
which was round, or elliptical ; it contained dilltrent ranges 
of feats, and was deftined to the purpofe of accommodating 
fpedators during public games, which were always repre- 
feiited in the central fpace furrounded by the building : tliij 
tenter was called the arena, becaule of the fand with which it 
was llrewed. The games ufaally exhibited in amphitheatres 
were, combats with wild beafts, and gladiators; of which 
latter, the number produced, and occalionally killed, is almolt 

The Fla vian'Amphitheatre, which takes its name from 
its eredor the Emperor Flavius Vespasian, was the molt 
magnificent in Rome. Its folidity is afionifhing ; it has fuf- 
fered little by age, and not fo much as might be expeft- 
4id from the repeated Jires to which it has b(!en expoled. 
Gothic fury has been its greateft enemy ; unlcfs wc except 
the barbarity of thofe who have granted, and thofe who have 
taken away, its materials, to employ them in the conftru6tion 
of other buildings. 

It is almoft all built of Tivoli ftones, in very large blocks; 
it is in figure oval, and its walls are^prodigiouQy high. Four 
grand ftories having very large arcades and windows, form 
the exterior body of the building, whofe circumference is up. 
wards of fixteen hundred feet. The arches of the windows of 
the three lower ftories are ornamented each with two co- 
lumns : the loweft order being the Doric, the fecond the Ionic, 
the third the Corinthian; the fourth Itory has a very high wall 
pierced with windows, and is adorned with Corinthian pi- 
lafters. Between each of thefe four Jlories are grand cornices, 
which run all round the edifice, and contribute greatly to its 
beauty. The height of the whole is about an hundred and fifty 
feet ; the internal circumference, i. e. around the arena, is 
about eight hundred. 

Vespasian began this building, but it was finifiied by 
Titus, his fon ; after having expended ten millions of Roman 
crowns, and employed twelve thoufand captive Jews in its 
ronftrudion. Titus was fo well pleafed with it, when com- 
plete, that he kept the feaft of its dedication during one hun- 
dred days; and each day he exhibited a new fpeclacle. 
Twenty thoufand wild bealls of different kinds periflied in the 
combats. Domitian afterwards added fome ornament-;. To 
much cruelty, alfo, has it been witnefs, for many were the 
Chriftians which periihcd in it on the arena, efpecially under 
DiocLEsiAN, after they had completed his baths. Hence a 
chapel is now ereded in it, and it is confidered as confecrated 
by the blood of the martyrs. 



Plate 1 to 8. Outlines. Plate 27. View of A(k. 

Plate 9. Gothic Ruins. Plate 23. Ice-field, Spitlbergeh 

Plate 10. Efea of Wind. Plate 29. 

Plate 1 1 . Rural Subjeds, tinted *Plate 30. Crater of Etna. 

Plate 12. Ditto (Ditto) *Plate 31. The Peake. 

Plate 13. Ditto, the Firs. *Plate 32. Mount Vefuvius 

Plate 14. Ditto, Mileftone. (Plate I.) 

Plate 15. Ditto, Morning. *PIa(e 33. Lavaof Mount Ve^ 

Plate 1 6. Ditto, early Morning. ^"^'^"^ (^^^^e II.) 

Plate 17. Do. Shooting, Plate I. *P^ate 34. Pyramid of Caius 

Plate 18. Ditto, Z)/<io Plate II. ^eftius. 

T5I ^ ,fi r,-*. ^7- fi *Plate 35. Sepulchre of Ceci- 

Plate 19. Ditto, View on the ,. ., „^ * 

lia Metella. 

Lake of Geneva. ^^. , ^^ _ . . _ . 

*Plate 36. Trajan's Column. 

Plate 20. Ditto, Water-fall. *„, , „ , . 

„., , ,,. *PIate 37. Antonme Column. 

Plate 21. Bridee on the River „_,, _ 

^ *PIate 3S. Temple of Fortuna 

E^^- Virilis. 

Plate 22. Sources of the Seille. *pj^^^ 3^^ ^^^^j^ ^^ p^^^^^^ 

*Plate 23. View of Snowdon *pj^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^.^^^^ 

^^^^*^ ^'^ *Plate 41 . Arch of Conflantinc. 

*Plate 24. Ditto (Plate II.) .p,^^^ ^^^ ^^^.^^^^^ 

Plate 25. Round Haugh. p.^t^ 43 ^^ ^g^ Six Plates of 

Plate 26. Ruins of the Abbey . Figures, proper to be intro- 

of St. Agatha. duced in Landfcapes. 

Tkofe Plates marked * have Hiftorical accounts relating 
to them. 


Plate T. Princip/d[ ct Lifidfoipi 

of Landscape. 

To /'<■' Dratvn tvith a Ten. 



To /{ye J^ravun with a Pen 




jyma/^/df o/Za/f<i^ca/?e 

To hel>rair7^ uruA a Pen 

To he Draum u^ith a J^cn 

Prmcip/rj of/afuiecupa F/a^ 71/ 

? r-v. 



'-. "- -.fy^t- .X^-' *»Ok^**».Jv s.^ 'I; 

Ir-, ;;^j ^-J r^ "= ', r a. 




/.cfsorLi' m Id/tf/srrrpe JV?/ ^ ^ 

.CTv' t Y. Vat <w5>,> .<> ■»*r'^n.- ."vS-— ' 

-L0so?fs in. Zander ape 

Fri/icipleJ df landscape. TlalelF 

... ■■ i-|'#^^ 

:.^ ? mXS- ■'■ ■■ '.. ^ .. ■ • ^ ^^ ' , •■ ■■ ' H - \ :■'-■ c> 

2r/,'>o/w T7i Za/uii'azpe. 





2<p(>/Kr //{ /.fi//(/j<(i/>i 


Jj^soiu in landscape. 

/'rui4'i/'/,y iif'J.,ifi,/.wi/>,; /'/.iff f 




ret,' ii: ' 

■-(-itigin* '''^' 

J.rfso/if in Icauhnrpe 


Ji^sons in /Mndt'cape 

l'niiri/'/,:'or'/.,ift,ii'i\ifi: /'/,///• I'/ 

l^jorir in Landfcnpe. 

^2Xm.> 'wfj^i '/'^^y^^ 

Z^'OJW ill landscape 

/ 'rinri/' /,:,• ,•/'/. ii/i< /.(, uip,. /'A //,■ /'// 

"> ■'.^>- 

3^ ' ■' 

/.tyJrons in /i(i/uifmpi 

J^^oTtr inJianeiroape. 

J'n/iri/>/,'s 0f'I<7/>,/.fr,y'^,T/rf/f TJ/l 


,,,^ ,«r-;|'-.-' 



Le/j-oTur in /,a/ui)rapc. 


Pl^UU land, 




Z,>/idmi/^r- I'Al/,' X 

' N-, 

S r^-^y 

f ,*-" 

' I ■: !. 




SrS r.v^f'it.^!;,:-, 
















; .A^Km 



























/-„n,/j;;i/'^' /•/,!.; KW 

PuttuhdSepj^So^ bv C TiwloryTi^S.Batton Oarjen 


/.anJ^cape .rial.- VC\'I7 

View of Trajan's Column at Rome 

LaniUcapr J'liilr.KXXSU 

he4irafmeyKiJ(/.'/(>ru(// (<>/^///f/' o/ ./SJVTOJflAlfSai nom* 



('/ ///(■ r /r////A// y^f/ ■ ///'/a////^/ 

ofC4Il7'S Ci:STirSa/ (/lomr 



Lui.L;,!/, I'LXL. 

VIjEw of the Arch ofTiirs at Rome 

laiuttcufic rUtrJid 

The AkCH of Con STAN TINE. 


t. ^^^ 

landscape /%/> XTJIl 

/.,i/i,/.r,(if;' /7,itf XIJI' 

l,mdcra/'e J'fatt' XCF 

/.„mLu,ir, /'!<:!, 

^ — -i^i^S-^^^ 



















O F 



O F 



Of MODELLING, and of SCULPTURE, ksfc. tsfc. 

( ■* ) 

parties were more satisfa(9:orily understood, or if 
better methods of managing them were discovered, 
which can only be the result of experiment. More- 
over, we know, that foreign countries afford a variety 
of materials different from our own, which arc used 
by the artists of those countries ; it would be a de- 
sirable acquisition, as well to the study of natural 
history in general, as to the arts, if gentlemen who 
have opportunity, would inform themselves on such 
subjects ; of their origin, their manner of treatment, 
and their mode of preparation for use ; of their na- 
tures and their effedls ; and, if they could import 
samples for examination by our own artists, not 
only those artists, but, perhaps by some happy dis- 
covery, the nation, might become obliged to their 
laudable endeavours. 

Our own kingdom and its dependencies afford a 
variety of substances which we now receive from 
foreigners : it would be well worth while to examine 
our native productions with reference to their fur- 
ther utility ; not to mention the pleasure arising from 
investigation of every part of the works of nature. It 
is submitted to gentlemen, and to artists, who reside in 
various parts of the kingdom, that such intelligence of 
British productions might be very acceptable to artists 
in other parts of the kingdom, whose situation detains 
them from such knowledge : and in particular, it is 
submitted to artists, that, as the perfection of art is 
only to be attained by liberal communication of im- 
provements which occur to individuals ; by such 
generous behaviour, and by such only, can the arts 
attain that excellence which is the earnest desire of 
every genuine artist. 


( 5 ) 

Such information would be valuable to the public, 
since thereby many expensive materials might be su- 
perseded, by others equally serviceable, at a much 
less price ; or improvements on those now disre- 
garded, might render them objects of greater atten- 
tion ; whereby, not unfrequently, our manufa6lures, 
as well as the arts, might derive great advantage. 
In some degree, on this principle, a few articles not 
in general use are admitted into this collection ; for, 
though their own services are but small, they may 
afford hints to aid the discovery of others more 
valuable ; it has indeed been our endeavour, to insert 
chiefly those articles whose utility may be depended 
on ; for it seems injudicious to burden this part of 
science, especially in a work like the present, with 
numerous recipes y even while we have endeavoured 
that nothing really worthy our reader's attention 
should be omitted. 

The intent of this work is not to instru6l masters, 
but learners ; nor can much novelty be expelled on 
the subjedl, though there are ir.any original recipes ; 
but let it come iVom what quarter it may, infor- 
mation is equally useful, and valuable, to the 

To close these remarks :— it should be recollected, 
that some colors, &:r. are dangerous to health, with- 
out due circumspection in preparation, and manage- 
ment ; to guard against accidents from such is very 
desirable, and is sufficient to prove the utility of the 
present work, in which somewhat of their natures 
and efTeifts are explained. 


I ^P' 

*^* The prices mtrked to many of the following articles, may servt 
as useful bints in purchasing Colors, ks^c. but must be taken ivitb 
some liberty, according to the quality of the article, and of the stait 
of the wholesale market, ^c. 
Those under a shilling per pound are marked cheap. 



<yWh/f>///.y //>/' /Or. 


o p 

COLORS, &c. 

xAcACIA : The flowers afford ihat bright yellow 
which bears washing in the Chinese silks, &c. and 
is used by them in painting on paper. The flowers 
are gathered before they are fully open, then put 
into a clean earthen vessel, and kept over a great 
heat (stirring them continually) till they become 
dryish and yellow. Then to half a pound of 
flowers, they add three spoonfuls of fair water, or 
just enough to hold them incorporated. This they 
boil, till the water has extracted the juice from the 
flowers ; then strain it. To the liquor they add 
hfilf an ounce of allum, and one ounce of calcined 
oyster-shell pulverised. 

It ia not impossible that Great Britain (or very pro- 
bably some of its tropical dependencies) may pro.^. 
ducc a vegetable similar in its nature, or that may 

2 serve 

( 8 ) 

serve the same purpose, at a small expence. The 
process to obtain its color, would most likely be 
much the same. 
ANACARDIUM, or Capiiew-nut: From the 
sweetish liquor contained in its shells, the Indians 
extra(5l an oil, said to prescr\e wood from putre- 
faction, and to render black colors lasting. 
ACHIOTE, called by the French Roucoc, by the 
Dutch Orleane, is the flower, or seed, of a tree 
which grow's chiefiy in very hot countries. The 
grains of Achioic, are soaked in an earthen vessel, 
and repeatedly washed in warm waters, till they 
have discharged their vermillion colour, the sedi- 
ment is formed into cakes, &c. which when pure 
js much valued. Some boil the grains to obtain a 
greater consistence of colour. 

Some use it to compose Carmine, but it gives too 
much of an orange cast. It is used to dye wax 
\'ermillion colour. 
ALLUM, a mineral chrystalizable salt, of an austere 
taste; dissolves in cold water, but much better in 
boiling water. It is obtained abroad from sundry 
kinds of earth : in England from a whitish bluish 
kind of stone called Irish slate. It is a principal 
ingredient in dying and colouring. Its styptic 
astringent quality binds the finer parts of the colors 
together, and prevents their exhaling. Hence it 
preserves paper impregnated with a solution of it, 
from sinking when wrote upon. 
Allum Water is made by dissolving four ounces 
ofallum, in a pint of boiling water : filtre it through 
brown paper, 


( 9 ) 

Rock Allum, or Roche Allum, is prepared 
from pyritous stones, cut from quarries, and is 
distinguished from the common allum extracted 
from earth, &c. 

Purified Allum, is prepared by dissolving it in 
hot rain water, and evaporating ir^ till it shoots 
again into chrystals. 

Roman Allum, is of a red color, not superficial- 
ly but throughout ; by breaking it, it may be dis- 
tinguished from counterfeits dyed red. 
Price Ail. per lb. Rock Allum Is. per Ihi 
AQUA-FORTIS, is a corrosive liquor, prepared 
from nitre and vitriol ; it dissolves all metals except 
gold. It is made by distilling purified nitre, with 
calcined vitriol, or rectified oil of vitriol, in a strong 
heat : The vapour, which rises in blood-red fumes, 
is the Jiqua-fori'is. 

If to the liquor thus procured, be added sea-salt, 
or sal-ammoniac one-fourth of its weight, it becomes 
AauA-REGiA, and ceases to dissolve silver, but will 
now dissolve gold. 

The chief use oi Aqua-fort'is in the arts, is in faci- 
litating the progress of Etching. Being poured 
of a proper strength on the copper-plate previously 
prepared, it corrodes the lines drawn through the 
ground, or varnish, on the copper. See Etching. 

Aqua-fortis as sold in the shops, requires no very 
considerable addition of water, to decrease its 
strength; but smoking Spirit op Nitre, which 
is the strongest kind oi Aqua-fort'is^ must be reduced 
to a proper strength for use, by the mixture of four 
times, or at least three times, its quantity of water. 
VOL ji. Edit, 7. B The 

( 10 ) 

The temperature of the weather, has a great effect: 
on its operation. 
Price about As. 6d. per poiind weight. 

A.RCHILL, is a white moss, which grows on the 
rocks in the Archipelago, the Canary Islands, and 
Cape de Verd Islands ; it is said by, to be 
found on the western coast of England. Prepared 
Archill will yield a violet color to water, which 
stains marble deeply, and renders it more brittle. 

Linnteus thinks many common mosses might 
yield colors ; at least, the experiment on the mo^t 
promising is worth making. 

ARSENIC, native, is called Orpiment. It is of 
a yellow, or orange, color. Though always yellow^ 
its color admits of different shades and mixtures^ 
golden, reddish, or greenish. 

The fatal effects which nuiy hy accident arise from 
this substance, ivill justify our forbidding its admission 
into the collecfion of colors, of our young friends. 
ASPHALTUM, is a solid, brittle, black, inflam- 
mable, bituminous, substance, resembling pitch. 

It is chiefly found swimming on the surface of the 
Lacus Asphaltites, or DeadSea, where anciently stood 
the cities of Sodom^ &c. being thrown to the surface 
of the water, it there swims like other fat bodies^ 
and gradually is condensed by the heat of the sun 
and its own salt. It burns with great vehemence, 
in which it resembles naphtha ; but it is firmer in 
consistence. Genuine Asphaltum has no smell, is 
not a6ted on by water, by aqua-fortis, or by olive 
oil. It is a principal ingredient in etching ground : 
j\nd is used in oil painting, but must not be too much 


( H ) 

trusted to ; it gives the appearance of age to pic- 
tureSj &c. Price Qil. to \s. per ounce. 
AspiiALTUM is extellent in the shadows of flesh, 
draperies, fore-grounds, &c. and particularly in 
scumbling, but when used alone it is apt to turn 
black ; it is therefore necessary to mix it with lake, 
or blue, or terra de Sienna, any of which colors 
mix well with it, and effectually prevent its chang- 
ing. This color being now much in use, perhaps 
too much, we give the following receipt for mak- 
ing it. 

Receipt for making Asphaltum. 

Pat two ounces of balsamo de capivi, into a peal, or 
pipkin, over a slow iire until it boils, then put in one 
ounce of asphallurn, and as much oil of turpentine 
as will make it liquid ; care must be taken to pre- 
vent its taking fire. This receipt, with the method 
of using the usphaltum^ was communicated by Mn 
Mengs, and is used with success. 

N. B. After glazing, it will be ptoper to put the 
pidlure in the sun, in order to hasten the drying of lU 

Another Method of preparing Asphaltum. 

Melt two ounces of oleo d'Abezzo, or Venice tur- 
pentine, over a slow fire in a glazed vessel, then add 
one ounce of asphaltum a little bruised 5 when 
melted, thin it properly with oil of turpentine. 

N, B. When you add the turpentine, take it from 
the fire. 

The best method of preparing asphaltum is 
to melt it over a slow fire in the clearest bal- 

B 2 samo 

( 12 ) 

samo de capivi, observing it continually until it Is 
^uite melted : and never to use it before the picture 
is very dry, tlicn rub the part which you design to 
glaze with a little of Mcngs' varnish, which must 
also be dry before you attempt to glaze it ; mix the 
c7ji/5W/z/;//w>ith a little oil of poppy, to prevent its 
being too sticky in glazing. This is the best me- 
thod of preparing and using asplialtiim^ for which 
we are obliged to Mr. West. 

AVIGNON -BERRY, called also French-beeby, 

and YellOyz-bkriiy, is the fruit of a shrub, grow- 
ing plentifully in the neighbourhood of Avignon, 
and elsewhere, in the south of France. 

The berry is son"iewhat less. than a pea ; its color 
is green approaching to, yellow, its taste is astrin- 
gent. Dyers make a yellow of it. A tincture for 
wash colors is thus extracted : 

Put a pound of berries to a gallon of water, witk 
half an ounce of allum : boil them in a pewter, or 
earthen, vessel ; filter them, and evaporate -the 
fluid. Or more simply : into a small earthen tea- 
pot, or other convenient vehicle, put a small quan- 
tity of berries, pour on them boiling water, and let 
them stand by the fire -side till the tincture is strong 
enough ; acid allum in proportion. When meant to 
be kept, some add a small quantity of spirits of 
wine. Tfie tincture may be drawn very deep. 

Fr'ice id, J)cr ounce. 
BICE, is a blue color, prepared from the lapis arme- 
71US, formerly brought from Armenia ; but now 
from the silver mines of Germany. 

3 It 

( 13 ) 

II hears tlie best body of all bright blues, uSed iu. 
.common; but is in its color the palest. It requires 
good grinding to prepare it for use, being inclined 
' be sandy, and should be well washed. It works 
,iadiJHercntly well. Green Bice, is made by add- 
ing orpimcnt to the B/ue Bice. 

BISTRE, is composed of the most glossy, and highly 
burjied soot^ iinely pulverized, and sifted, then bak- 
ed, witli a little gum water, and made into cakes, 
'^hc best Is prepared from the soot of dry beech 
v/ood, by grinding it with urine, or with water^ 
into a smooth paste; then diluting it with more 
water: after the grosser sediment is settled, pour off 
tlie liquor, and let the finer particles, which, are 
the his Ire, sink to the bottom. The best is of a 
warm, ^deepi, transparent brown, when moistened 
with water. 

This color may be used in the same manner as In- 
dian ink, and is warmer in its appearance. 
Price 6rl. to \s. Qd. per lb. 

B T. A C K S. 

Blue, is the coal of burnt vegetables ;'the 
best is said to be procured from vine-stalks, and 
tendrils. Vrlce Sd. lo \s.(5d. per oimce. Kept in the 
color-shops in bladders ground in oil, at 3^:/. each. ., originally perhaps the soot collect- 
ed from lamps, is, generally, prepared by melting 
rosin, or pitch, in iron vessels; then setting it on 
fire under a proper receptacle for the smoke ; which 
is the lamj)-hJack. It is brought chiefly from 


( 34 ) 

Sweden and Norway, where it is frequently obtain- 
ed from the refuse of the tree, left in preparing 
rosin, or pitch. It is the basis of the ink used by 
letter-press printers. The black takes fire very 
readily; the best method of extinguishing it, is by 
linen, hay, or straw, wetted ; water alone will not 
succeed. This color is not much in request for oil 
pictures, as it requires /om/zo- to make it dry. 

Ivory-black, is made of ivory burnt, or char- 
red, between two crucibles well luted; being thus 
rendered perfectly black, and in scales, it is ground 
«nd made into cakes, &c. 

The goodness of ivory-hJack, may be known by 
the fulness of its color, free from any blue cast ; and 
by its fineness. A little white sugar-candy prevents 
this color, when used in water (and others), from 

It is used in painting in oil : but is commonly 
rejected from use in water, Indian Ink answering 
much better. 

Price \s. 6d. per Ih. Bladders 3d. each. 

Horn-black, is inferior to ivory-black; it is 
raadp of bones burnt. 

German, or Frankfort, Black, is made of 
the lees of wine burnt, and washed : and afterwards 
ground in mills on purpose, with ivory, or with 
peach stones, burnt. It is a principal ingredient in 
the ink used by rolling-press printers. The French 
is superior to the German. To try its goodness, it 
is put into the mouth ; if free from grit, and of a 
deep black, it is good. 


( IS ) 

Earth Black, is a kind of coal which well pul- 
verised, is used in fresco. 

Burnt paper, ground finely, is said to make a good 

Peach stoTies burnt, make a very fine black of a, 
bluish cast, much used in France. Cherry stones 
may be substituted, 
Indian-ink is an admirable compooition, not 
fluid like our writing inks, but solid like our mine- 
ral colors, though much lighter. It is made in all 
figures, but the most usual is rectangular, about a 
quarter of an inch thick. Sometimes the sticks arc 
gilt with various devices. 
To use this ink, there must be a little hollow 
marble (to be had at any color-shop) or other 
stone, with water in it, on which the stick of ink 
must be rubbed, till the water becomes of a suffi- 
cient blackness. A Dutch tile, or piece of ivory, or 
other neat substance, may serve as a substitute. 
It makes a very black shining ink ; and though apt 
to sink when the paper is thin, yet it never runs or 
spreads ; so that the lines drawn with it are always 
smooth, and evenly terminated, how large soever 
they be. It is of great use in designing, because its 
tone of color may be augmented or diminished 
at pleasure. It is imitated by mixing laiiip- 
black, prepared from linseed oil (by hanging 
a large copper pan over the iiame of a lamp to 
receive its smoke, with as much melted glue ai: it 
requisite to form it into cakes ; these cakes, wli«ii 
dry, answer well enough in regard both to. coltpr, 
and to freedom and smoothness of working. Ivor} 


( 16 ) 

black and other charcoal blacks, levigated very 
fine, have the same effect with lamp-black. 

It IS not easy to distinguish the best Indian-ink 
from the inferior ; the usual manner is by rubbing 
the stick on the back of the hand, or any other 
place previously wetted ; but, frequently the sticks 
are coated with a fine sort, and the part within is 
worthless. The makers generally scent the best 
ink with the best musk. 

In using Indian-ink it should always be remem- 
bered, that a light color may be darkened by addi- 
tional washing ; but that w^hich is too deep cannot 
be lightened ; the safest and best w-ay is, to proceed 
gradually from a weak tint, to a stronger, till the 
various parts obtain the force intended. 

Price, per stick, from 6d. to 5s. 


Bice. See Bice. 

Blue Ashes, Centres Men, corruptly Sanders 
hhe ; are used in water'colors ; some are very live- 
ly : but in oil they become dull. They are found 
among copper mines ; water only is used in levigate 
ing them, to reduce them to a fine powder. This 
blue ought to be used in works to be seen by candle 
light (as scene painting) for though mixed with 
much white, it retains its beauty. 

There is nothing to be found in the shops under 
this name but common verditer, or some species 
of it. 

Blue, Prussian, is a modern invention, conside- 
rably in use among painters, though inferior to 


( 17 ) 

ultramarine blue. It was discovered by accident, 
about the beginning of this century. A chemist of 
Berlin, having successively thrown upon the ground 
several liquors from his laboratory, was surprised to 
see it suddenly stained with a most beautiful color. 
Recollecftlng the liquors lie had thrown on each 
other, he made a similar mixture in a vessel, and 
produced the same color. He did not publish his 
process, but prepared arid sold his /V//^, which was 
substituted for ultramarine. The account of it waci 
first published in the Berlin Memoirs, 17 10; but: 
without a description of its process. 

In a paper of Dr. Woodward's, communicated to 
the Royal Society, 1724, there is given a short way 
of making Prussiaft Blue, which was foimd to answer 
perfe6lly well ; and occasioned several experim'ents, 
whereby was discovered the nature of the subsi:ahces 
used in that preparation. 

The method was this ; Four ounces of bullock's 
blood dried, and four ounces of salt of tartar, pre- 
pared from four ounces of crude tartar, and as much 
nitre, were calcined togeth'er; two hours after 
which, a black spungy substance remained in the 
crucible, weighing four ounces ; a solution of which, 
being made in boiling water, and afterwards filter- 
ed, left a remainder which, when dried, weighed, 
nine drams; An ounce of Enolish vitriol was 


dissolved In six ounces of rain water; and eight 
ounces of crude allum was also dissolved in two 
quarts of water : These, being mixed hot with the 
blood, became green ; but on adding two^ or three, 
ounces of spirit of salt^ they became of a fine blue: 
VOL. II. Ec/i/. 7. c which 

( IS ) 

whirh subsided, and left the water clear : The prQ- 
du6l was an ounce of very fine color, fit for the 
Among the experiments made by mixing, in dif- 
ferent manners, and proportions, the several liquors 
of which this color was prepared, all produced a 
blue ; but in different degrees, some being deeper, 
others paler. In one experiment, the allum was 
wholly left out, and a very pale blue was produced ; 
in another, the ailura and vitriol were used in equal 
quantities ; then the blue was extremely deep. 

In all receipts given for making Fruss'ian Blue, the 
liquors are ordered to be mixed together boiling- 
hot, except the spirit of salt ; and the color is most 
readily, and beautifully, made this way. 
The method of making Vrussian Blue in perfec- 
tion, has been purchased as a very valuable secret. 
Its process is very extraordinary, and could scarce 
be derived a priori, from any reasoning about the 
nature of colors. It is allowed to be an excellent 
blue pigment in point of color; but its durability is 
juotly suspe(?ced : It sl^iould not, therefore, be used 
-in works of consequence. 

The goodness of Prussian Blue must be distin- 
guisheu by its brightness, deepness, and coolness. 
Four different processes given for making the 
finest sort of Prussian Blue with quick lime, are 
given in the Hist, of the Acad, of Sciences at Paris, 
for the year I756. 

Process I. Take 3lb. of ox's blood, dried and re- 
duced into a kind of small scales^ an equal quantity 


( 19 ) 

of qulck-llmc newly baked, 2lb. of red tartar; and 
lib. 8oz. of saltpetre ; pulverise the whole grossly, 
and put it into a crucible, placed in the mid^t of a 
great furnace, and give it a gradual fire. After 
four hours, when the matter is reduced into a kind 
of paste wliich emits no more smoke, and is equally 
red, throw it by spoonfuls into two pails of boiling 
water; and, having filtrated the lixivium, mix it 
with a solution of ()lb. of allum, and lib. 8oz. of 
green vitriol. This operation will yield but7oz. 
oifecuJa; but its beauty will make surlicient amends 
for the small quantity, as it will surpass, in this 
respect, all rnissian BJncs, prepared by other me- 
thods. It has also as good an effect as the finest 
ultramarine; and has, besides, the advantage of 
resisting the impression of the air. 

Process II. Take 3lb. of dried ox's blood, an equal 
quantity of quick-lime, 'ilb. of red tartar, and 2lb. 
of nitre ; let them be calcined and lixiviated, as in 
the former process ; pour the lixivium into a solu- 
tion of 4lb. of allum, and lib. of green vitriol. 
This operation will yield more of the blue ffcula 
than the other, but the color will be less beautiful. 
Process III. Take 3lb. of dried ox's blood, 4lb. 
8oz. of quick-lime, 2ib. of red tartar, lib. 8oz. of 
saltpetre, proceed as before. This operation will 
produce a most beautiful l^lue ; but the quantity 
will be only about 8oz. and 4 drams. 

Process IV. Take 3lb. of dried ox s blood, 61b. of 
quick-lime, 2lb. of red tartar, and ilb. 8oz. of nitre. 
Calcine and lixiviate as before ; pour the warm lixi- 
vium into a solution of 4lb. of allum, and lib. of 

c 2 gree«r 

( ?^ ) 

green vitriol ; t]it fecula.pi'cc'ipitsitcd in this way will 
be as beautiful as those of the first process, and the 
quantity nearly 26 ounces. 

T^e price of that kept hi the shops h from Sd. to Is 
per ounce. Bladders, ground in oil., Oil. each. 

Indigo. Vide Indigo. 

Verditer. Vide Verdiler. 

Ultramarine. Vide Ultramarine. 

Blue, powder, or smalt : This is a troublesome 
color, not much in request. Price from \s. 6d. to 
1 2s. per ounce. 

Blue, turnsol, is made of the seed of that plant, 
by boiling four ounces of turnsol in a pint and an 
half of WLiter, in which lime has been slacked. ^ 

Mr. Boyle has given us the following method of 
piaking transparent hlue^ nearly equal to ultrama- 
rine. The principal ingredient is the cyaniis^ or 
Hue corn-bottle-llower ; which may easily be pro- 
cured during the summer months. 

This flower has two blues in it, a pale color In the 
large outer leaves; and a deeper blue, in the middle 
of the flower : these produce much the best color. 
This may be observed by rubbing the leaves, while 
fresh, on a piece of writing paper, so as to express 
the juice, which will yield an excellent color; that, 
by the experience pf two or three years, has not been 
found to fade. 

A sufficient quantity of these middle leaves being 

procured, let the juice be pressed from them; to 

which a little allum being added, will give a lasting 

transparent Hue ; scarcely inferior in brightness to 



( 21 ) 

Tt is very probable, that if tlic chives of these 
ilowers were cured in the same manner as saftron^ 
they would produce a much greater body of color, 
from which a tincture might be drawn with more 
ease than when pressed fresh frorp the field. 

Mr. Boyle also recommends another fme blue, 
produced from the blue leaves of rue, beaten in a 
stone mortar with a wooden pestle, and then put into 
water for fourteen days, or more, washing them 
every day, until they are rotten. These, beaten up 
at last, water and all, until they become a pulp, 
and then dried in the sun, will make a line blue for 
Blue, transparent, for washing niaps, &g. 
Take half a pound of the best French verdigris, 
add six ounces of red argil : let them soak together 
about six and thirtv hours, \n about two quarts 
and a half of fair water: then boil them till the in- 
gredients are dissolved, let the liquor settle and pour 
jt oft. 

United with the tin(5lure of Avignon-berry, it 
makes an excellent gree?i, and will keep w^eli ; to 
secure which voa may add a little spirits of wine. 

It is necessary to caution our friends against moist- 
tening the pencil used in this color, with the 
tongue ; or by any other means admitting the color 
into the mouth, as the verdigris is apt to occasion 
a disagreeable sickness. 
BRAZIL-WOOD, is a South American produtSlion, 
variously denominated according to the places from 
whence it is brought ; as from Fernambuc, Japan^ 
St. Martha^ &c, 

3 The 

( 22 ) 

The tree grows in dry, barren, places, or on rocks ; 
is very thick and large, usually knotted, and crook 
ed. The thickness of the tree is chiefly owing to 
a gross coat of hark, which when removed, reduces 
the trank to less than half its former size. The 
flo'vi^rs, which are of a fine red, exhale a very agree- 
able scent. 

This 'vood is very heavy and dry ; that of Fernam- 
buc is the best. It should be chosen clean, close, 
sound, and free from bark, 

From the best Brazil-wood, is procured a kind of 
carmine, by means of acids. A tindlure o drawn 
from it thus: 

Infuse a quarter of a pound of Brazil-wood (which 
may be bought in chips, or shavings) in about two 
quarts of water ; when it boils, add nearly an ounce 
cf rock allum powdered. Strain the liquor when 
of the strength desired. This may be evaporated 
to a very deep color: or, the wood once boiled, 
iPiay yield a weaker tindlure. It requires no great 
skill in using. 

Red Ixk, is made of it, by boiling a quarter of 
a pound of the raspings, in vinegar, wherein it has 
been infused two or three days; then, while hot, 
filtering it through paper, in an earthen cullender; 
then heat it again, and add half an ounce of gum 
arabic, and, when that is dissolved, of allum, and 
of white sugar, half an ounce each. 

Acids turn a solution of Brazil-wood yellow, alka- 
lies change it to purple; so that lemon juice, or spi- 
rits of vinegar, render it yellov;; oil of tartar, violet. 

Frice of the raspings about Is. per lb. 


( 23 ) 

BRONZE Painting, is used to color plaster 
ligurcs, Sec. and is of two sorts: Yellow, which is 
merely the finest copper dust applied with varnish: 
and Red, whicli is a little red ochre well pulverised, 
added to the former. The work is dried as soon as 

B n O W N s. 

Brown Ochre, is a cheap color. Vide Oihre. 

Br.owN PiXK, Vide Pink. 

Cologne Earth. Vide Cologne Earlh. 

Spanish Bkown, a coarse dull color, chiefly used 
by house-painters, but may be '"'nployed in some 
-parts of landscapes, for variety, ocC. 

Spanish LiauoRiCE, diluted with water, makes 
a brown color useful for variety among water colors. 

Terra di Sienna, in its native state. 

Terra di Sienna. Burnt. 

Umber, in its native state. 

Umber. Burnt. 
BUCKTHORN BERRIES, furnish three kinds of 
colors. Being gathered green, dried, and steeped 
in water, a yellow; when ripe, a sap-green (vUe 
sap-green;) when fully ripe, and ready to drop from 
the branches, a purple. 
BOXES FOR COLORS, are of many various con- 
trivances, according to the purposes of those who 
use them. 

The general principles to be regarded in construe- 
ing Boxes, are, that all articles of a similar nature 
should be collected nearly together ; colors in oil 
by themselves; colors in water by themselves, &c. 


( 24 ) 

Boxes complete to hold 1 variety of colors, var- 
nishes, &c. are sold from 1\. 2s. to 2\. 10s. each. 
Portable boxes are much cheaper, but are usually 
contrived b}'- their proprietors. 

CALCINAl'ION, differs from mere burning, in 
that the latter leaves the substance burnt, of a black 
color, the former leaves it v;hite. Calcination in- 
creases the weight of lead, which thereby becomes 
red (i. e. Mixium) alniost one-fourth. 

CALQUING, is a term used where the back of any 
design is rubbed over, or Coated with a fine powder^ 
such as black lead, red chalk, &c. and the lines of 
the drawing by a point traced over them, are trans- 
ferred to a paper laid beneath the back so Coated. 

This operation is useful where an original is to be 
copied of the same silze : care must be taken, that 
neither the original, or the copy, be moved, from 
their exa6t situation with respedl: to each other, 
during the operation ; lest the parts transferred 
should be false. 

Drawings intended to be made in red chalk, should 
be calqued by red chalk : not by black lead, as that 
lias a greasiness which refuses to cut chalk properly; 
nor by black chalk, since the lines may then injure 
the drawing by their different color from the rest 
of it. 

•Calquing, is likewise used to signify the taking 
an impression from a drawing in chalk, by passing 
it through a rolling-press, with a sheet of wet paper 
upon it. The use of this procedure is to transfer 
on the wet paper the powderly particles of the chalk 
used in drawing, and to fix those remaining in 


( ^25 ) 

greater security from thc-ir being rubbed, and 
smeared. The tone of tlie drawing is rather deep- 
ened than hghtened by this operation; the copy on 
the paper will be an exadl reverse of the original. 
Several drawings laid on each other, may be passed 
at once; but if they are passed more than one way, 
there is a hazard of their being moved and misplaced 
in their passage back. 

Sometimes prints are cal qued hy dissolving part of 
their ink, by means of soap, and transferring it to a 
fresh ground ; or, white paper, &:c. 

A drawing in water colors may he ^^z/y?/i?<^ by pass - 
ing over the outlines with a good black-lead pencil, 
them warming the plate on which the ground is 
laid, so as hardly to melt tlie ground; and, laying 
the drawing on it, pass them through a rolling-press 
properly adjusted. Tiiis method succeeds very well 
for landscapes. Or, if a tracing be made with red 
chalk, ground wdtli water only, the colors will, 
when passed through a rolling-press, be transferred 
to the ground on the plate. 
CAMPEACHY-Vv^OOD, is nearly related to Bra- 
zil, and by no means superior for its utility in tlie 
arts ; but it furnishes a good purple. 
CARMINE, is a bright, deep, rich, crimson color, 
bordering something on purple, used constantly in 
water colors, but very rarely in oil ; because it 
•will not mix kindly in oil, as well as because of its 
high price. It is a color whicli spends well. Car- 
mine is the most valuable produ6l of the cochineal 
nu'stiquc, it is a fecula, or sediment, of water wherein 
is steeped cochineal, &c. .thus : 

VOL. II. Edit. J.J} To 

( 16 ) 

To rain water, wherein thirty-six grains of chouan 
have been boiled three times, and strained, are 
added five drams of cochineal, and this likewise is 
boiled three times; then add eighteen grains of 
Achiotte, or roucou (if thought proper), and the 
same quantity of rock allum ; this liquor is boiled 
once ; then filtered through a linen cloth, and suffered 
to stand till it has deposited its sediment ; which, 
when dried, is the carmine. 

The additional ingredients are perhaps better 
omitted (and we believe at present generally are 
omitted), since carmine is nothing more than the 
coloring particles of cochineal dissolved in an alka- 
line lixivium, and precipitated by allum. 

Some give the following-process to obtain carmine 
from scarlet wool ; Boil the wool in a strong ley of 
pot-ashes till it has lost its color ; then filter off the 
ley, with which incorporate a sufficient quantity of 
allum, and filter the liquor : the carmine will remain 
in the filter. 

An inferior kind of carmine is made of Brazil- 
wood, by steeping one pound of raspings in white- 
wine vinegar, during three or four days, with some 
gold leaf beat fine in a mortar : boil the liquor 
about half an hour, and strain it through a coarse 
sieve, temper in another vessel eight ounces of 
allum, which add to the crimson liquor, stir them 
well together, the scum is the carmine. 

An ex/eif/pore carmine tin61ure is made by putting 
thirty, or forty, grains of cochineal bruised, into a 
gallipot, with as many drops of tartar ley as will 
just moisten it, then add as much fair water as yqu 


( 27 ) 

desire the color to be deeper or fainter : it is no.w 
purple, but by adding a small quantity of allum 
Very finely pulveri^'ed, or scraped, it will become 
crimson. Strain (t, and use it speedily, for it will 
not keep. 

Cochineal tlndiui^e is heightened in its color, by 
spirits of urine; is turned purple by saccharum 
saturni ; and by quick-lime is rendered fading, 
though extremely beautiful. 

In no commodity is a purchaser more likely to be 
imposed on than in carmine ; its brightness of color 
and fineness as a powder, should be attended to." 

Prices, 1 6, 20, 24, 28, to '61s. per ounce. None 
good under tills price, some higher ; up to two guineas 
per oimce. 

CHARCOAL, is an artificial coal, or fuel ; being 
wood half burnt, and then extinguished. It is an 
excellent material to ske,tch with in beginning a 
design, as it may be brushed out even by a feather. 
The softest kind is preferred, which is that made of 
the willow. 
CHALKS, are very useful in the art of design, 
being usually put into the hands of beginners. We 
have WHITE, red, and black chalks. 

White chalk, of the best quality, is usually 
brought from Italy, which country does not possess 
our common chalk, but a distindl species. Italian 
chalk is in its texture more firm and compact, its 
touch is much smoother and neater than any other, 
consequently it may be used on smaller subjects. 
The same remark is just on the black chalk ot 

D 2 French 

( cs ) 

-French white chalk, is soft, and adapted only 
, for large subje(5\:s, as are all the chalks of France ; 
its hlack chalk is only fit to be used where expedi- 
dition admits of shwiping. Considerable quantities 
of Spanish chalk are imported; which is in 
texture between the foregoing, but not very smooth. 

Red chalk, is very much used in design ; it is in 
general of a kind and moderate temper, and readily 
forms a grain. It is, however, very far from cleanly 
in its nature, and is apt to smear, and stain, whatever 
it touches ; the precautions necessary to guard 
against this quality, in fac^, contribute to its useful- 
ness, since whoever having been habituated to red 
chalk can draw clean with it, is secure from injury 
by using other materials. 

Red chalk is best used simply on white paper, but 
some shadow it with black chalk ; or, stump in black 
chalk first, into the shades, and relieve with red. 

Black and ivhite chalks mutually assist each other, 
on a paper whose color serves for a demi-tint. The 
bad is quite worthless. Chalk to be good, should 
be free from grit, and not too hard. Price varies 
according to quality, from 6d. per ounce to Is. 6d. 
COCHINEAL, is a drug used by the dyers in dying 
red, especially crimson and scarlet; and, it is the 
basis of that excellent color carmine. 

It is brought from the West Indies ; and said to 
be produced by an insedl which inhabits the leaves 
of certain plants of the opuntia kind. 

The finer sort, which is gathered fr-om. trees plant- 
ed and cultivated on purpose, and managed with 
great care, is called i/iestique ; the other is named 


( 29 ) 

■U'ilJ, being found on uncultivated plants, and is 
very mucli inferior in beauty. 

Some are of opinion there is yet anotl^er sort, 
which is not an insc6l, but the seed of a tree ; of 
which D.v.MriEii speaks in his voyages. 

In the state it is brcmght to us, Coch'inecd appears 
to be small bodies of irregular figures, but usually 
convex, ridged, and furrowed on one side. The 
color of the best is a purplish grey pcnvdered with a 
kind of wliite dust. 
COLOGNE EARTH, is of a deep brown color, is 
used in oil, but more in water colors. 

It is a very singular substance, reckoned by the 
colormen not a little troublesome to manage. It 
has been, and still is by some accounted a genuine 
earth; but others say it contains a great proportion 
of vegetable matter. It does not form, like other 
earths, a regular, or entire, stratum where it is 
found, but is gathered in large flat separate masses, 
from among other strata. 

It is m.oderately dry wliilc in the earth, and of a 
texture soft and crumbling, when dried it becomes 
more compact:, and united ; it is very light, smooth, 
and easily reduced to pieces, adheres firmly to the 
tongue, and is \ cry astringent, and austere, in its 
taste, resembling the taste of oak bark ; from these 
criteria it seems to be the produce of wood, perhaps 
of oak, long buried in the earth. 

It is principally procured from near Cologne, in 
Germmiy, (whence its name) but is found near Bh- 
mhigham, and in Mcml'ippe Hills, in Somersetshire, 
but not pcrfcdlly pure. 

•2 ' COPAL 

( 30 ) 

COPALj is a shining transparent, citron- colored sub- 
stance, in smell allied to that of frankincense, it 
melts easily. It is a produdlion of New Spain, 
where it ooses from incisions made in the bark of a 
tree, much the same as wine is drawn from some 
trees, or, as many kinds of trees yield their sap, in 
the spring of the year, when cut. 

Genuine Copal is very rare; but in default of 
this, IS brought from the West India islands, another 
kind, which is the only one to be procured from the 

From this gum, as it is called, but improperly, is 
procured a varnish, which being digested in oil, is 
esteemed friendly to oil pictures, and is in request. 

A proper quantity dissolved in linseed oil with 
nearly heat enough to boil, or discompose, the oil, 
is diluted with oil of turpentine, and forms a transpa- 
rent varnish, which when slowly dried becomes very 
hard ; so hard indeed, that, it is said, if the picture 
underneath it wants alterations, they may safely be 
inserted on the varnish, instead of first clearing the 
varnish from the pidlure. Pfice of the varnish^ \s. 
or upivards^for a vial of two ounces. 

CRAYON, is a general name for all colored earths, 
or other substances, used in drawing, or painting 
dry, i. e. without oil, or water, &c. 

Crayon substances are either natural, or artificial; 
natural, when the material is of a proper color, and 
consistence, and admits of being cut into a convenient 
size and form ; such are chalks^ whose uses we have 
noticed, such are Hack lead, chatcoal, he. but, in 


( 31 ) 

general, crayons are compositions of colored pig- 
ments previously reduced to powder, and re-coni- 
posed into proper mixture and form. 

The art of composing crayons, depends principally 
on the mixture of the component colors, and. on the 
adaptation of the vehicle by which they are held 
incorporated. Tiiis is evident, if we consider, with 
respect: to the brilliancy, or the truth, of tlie tone 
of color, that it depends on the admission of more, 
or less, of any certain pigment; and that all com- 
pound colors, by possessing too much of any one 
color which enters into tJieir composition, may 
prove, when used, unfriendly to their neighbours. 
That the vehicle is of importance, appears from the 
consideration that scarce any two earths are equally 
tenacious; whence it follows, that as some naturally 
of a loose texture are not without difficulty held l)y 
strong binders, others .naturally compact, would be 
rendered, by such binders, almost stones; and, in- 
deed, these are the prevailing faults among those 
usually offered for sale. 

It is perhaps proper to remark, that, although soft 
crayons are preferable generally, yet crayons may be 
too soft, even for large works ; and that for sn)aller 
works they may be never the worse if a Xw.'dt firmer \ 
yet preserving the utmost distance from hardness. 

Soft crayons may, however, be used in large per- 
formances; but those which are too hard to give 
their colors freely, or without wetting, are to be 
rejected, as totally useless. 

For smaller works, ckayon pexctls have lately 
been composed ; whose utility depends, like that of 


( 32 ) 

tlie former, on their temper; they have unquestion- 
ably an advantage in neatness, and a security from 
being broken by accidents. Price about \s. each. 

Many very different vehicles have been suggested 
to bind tlie colors which form crayons: oatmeal 
i)oi]ed thick, milk, ale-v/ort, gums, glues, &c. 
Without entering into the merit of their various 
pretensions, we believe that pale ale-wort, as a ve- 
hicle sufficiently strong to hold the tender pigments, 
which yet m.ay be weakened to accommodate the 
firmest, has been most used. But, as this has some 
color, which is most sensible in the higher tints, 
others prefer spirits of wine, which has 7io color in 
any tint. 

Crayons must be made in a great variety of tints, 
to supply readily w hat tone of color may be requir- 
ed ; this variety is obtained by mixture W'ith each 
other; hence it follows, that according to the judg- 
ment of the composer, their tints will vary. 

Though we do not suppose that many of our 
readers will take the trouble to make sets of crayons, 
yet as it may happen that some acquaintance with 
the manner of proceeding for that purpose, may be 
of use occasionally, we shall offer some notices of 
the mode best esteemed. 

Procure a large flexible pallet knife, a flat stone of 
a proper size, and a smaller, with which to grind the 
colors : also two or three large fiat pieces of chalk, 
whose use is to absorb the moisture from the colors 
.after they are ground (or from the crayons, after 
they are made) : a piece of fiat glass, which cover- 
ing the colors, &c. will prevent them from drying 


( 33 ) 

too fast ; while other parts of them are under ope- 
ration, rolling into form, &:c. Also proper vessels 
to hold spirits, water, or other liquids, as they may 
be wanted. 

White chalk is so readily offered by nature, that 
it seems perfectly adapted, without receiving any 
labour, to be used as a rraxon of the first order ; 
but, as chalk is rarely so free from grit, or small 
stones, as might justify our placing any confidence 
in it, to purify and improve it is the province 
of art. 

Purified chalk is ivhithig\ and as wliiting is ex- 
tremely cheap, we consider this material as most 
convenient for our purpose: Yet as whiting may be 
capable of still further purity, we proceed to re- 
commend the washing of it in the following man- 
ner ; — Take a large vessel of water, put the whiting 
into it, and mix them well together; let this stand 
about halfi^a miilute, then pour oif the top into ano- 
ther vessel} and throw tlie gritty sediment away ; let 
what is prepared rest about a minute, and pour 
it off as before, which will purify the whiting, and 
render it free from all dirt and grittiness. When 
this is done, let the whiting settkj and pour the 
water from it; after which, lay it on the chalk to 
dry, and keep it for use, either for white crayons^ or 
for the purpose of preparing tints with other colors, 
for, with tiiis, all other tints may be safely prepared. 
If the student chooses to make crayons of whiting 
immediately after It is washed, it is not necessary to 
dry it on the chalk, for it may be mixed instantly 
with any other color; which will save considerable 
VOL. II. Edit. 7. E troni^lv. 

( 34 ) 

trouble. All colors of a heavy, or gritty nature 
especially blue verditer, must be purified by wash- 
ing after this method. 

We observe that if crayons are too thin, i. e. if they 
have too much moisture in proportion to their quan- 
tity of color, they will dry too flat; if they are too 
//jicl', i.e. if they have too much color in propor- 
tion to their moisture, they will occasion a waste 
of color, by their adherence to the palette knife, 
&c. The general rule is, when the crayoyi is 
made, to lay it on the chalk, that its moisture 
may be absorbed to a proper degree ; that degree is 
determined by the feel of the crayon in the hand; 
if it lose the greater part of its adhesive quality, and 
seem of a proper consistency, then it may be laid 
on the glass; which will not dry it so fast as the 
chalk would have done, but will allow time for 
rolling it into crayons. Otherwise the crayon when 
completely dry would be brittle, and f^l of cracks, 
which is a great inconvenience to the artist in 
using it. 

We have now got a body of white crayon which 
will serve to lighten all others that are to be made y 
for, as we have already observed, crayons are com- 
positions of different colors; now if to a portion of 
this body of white we add a portion of black, we 
shall compose a grey; if we add a deep Wue, we 
shall compose a light blue ; if a brown, we shall 
produce a brown so much lighter, as corresponds 
to the quantity of white which we have admitted 
into the mixture ; upon this principle, varied ac- 
cording to the taste, the judgment, or the skill, of 
1 the 

( S3 ) 

ilie composer, are all crayons made ; and an endless 
variety of shades results from their different com- 

Tlie different compositions of colors must be cut 
into proper lengths, after they arc prepared, in 
order to l>e rolled into pastils for use. Each crayon 
should be formed by being rolled in the left hand 
with the ball of the right, and be formed tirstcylln- 
drical; then ta[)cr at each end. If the composition 
be too dry, d.*p the finger in water; if too wet, the 
composition must be laid on the chalk again, till 
more of its moisture is absorbed- The crayons 
shouM be rolled as quick, as possible; and, when 
linished, must be laid upon the chalk again, to lose 
all remaining moisture. After the gradation of 
tints from one color are formed, the stone should 
be well scraped, and cleansed with water, before it is 
used for another color. 

It is impossible to lay down rules for mingling 
of every tint necessary in composing a set of ci'ay- 
■oiis, tJiere being many accidental compositions, en- 
tirely dependant on fancy and opinion. Tlie stu- 
dent should make it a rule to save the leavings o/ 
his colors, for of these he may form many various 
tints, which will occasionally be useful. 

We suppose now, that we desire to make crayons 
of any color: In this case, we first prepare the 
simple color, grinding it with spirits of wine, till it 
be perfedlly smooth, line, and even ; then, taking 
a proper quantity of it, we lay it on the chalk, till 
somewhat advanced toward dryness; then we roll it, 
and form itj and return it to the chalk to be finished 

E 2 by 

( 36 ) 

by drying thoroughly. Of the color which remains 
ready ground we proceed to compose tints of vari- 
ous shades, by mixti'.re with tlie purified chalk, or 
whiting, already mentioned, — as thus: 

Take some of the simple color, and levigate it 
with spirits of wine, adding about one part of washed 
whitmg to three parts of color, of which, when 
properly incorporated, make two parcels. The next 
gradation should be composed of two equal quanti- 
ties of color and whiting, of which four crayons may 
be made. The third composition should have one 
fourth color, and three fourths whiting, of this make 
SIX crayons^ which will be a good proportion with 
the rest, The last tint should be made of whiting 
very faintly tinged with color, of which make about 
eight crayons^ which will compleat the above-men- 
tioned proportion. As these compound tints are 
levigated, they are to be laid immediately on the 
chalk, that the moisture may be absorbed to tlis 
proper degree for their formation into cniyo?is. If 
its consistency be right, the composition may then 
be laid upon the glass, which will prevent it from 
becoming too <lry before it is convenient to form it 
into crayons. 

Crayons when complete should be kept in a box 
by themselves, each suite of colors distindl, 
to prevent injury from its neighbours; in the order 
— from lightest to darkest ; and, if numerous, 
the lighter oqes separate from xh.Q darker of the 
same color, 

Crayons should be pointedj if requisite, by draw- 
ing the knife from tlie point of the crayon nfdoards, 


( 37 ) 


Are made of the best tempered chalk, sawed inir# 
convenient lengths. 


Should be divided into several degrees of color. 

I. Mix flowers of SULPHUR, in due proportion to 
produce the color desired. 

II. King's yellow makes a fine bright color — 
but, remember it is of a poisonous quality. 

III. Naples YELLOW, in various tints. 

IV. Reduce yellow ochre to powder by very 
fine grinding ; mix with it, purified white chalk 
to your mind. 

V. Yellow ochre simply, ground very fine. 

VI. English pink, mixed with chalk, to form 
a proper gradation to the preceding color. 

VII. English Pink, simply. 

VIII. Dutch Pink. 

It is easy to perceive from the foregoing specimen, 
that the principles on which crayons are composed, 
:\re, the heightening a certain color, by means of 
one somewhat lighter, and deepening the same 
color, bv one somewhat darker; by gradaring th<; 
colors according to their natural tones on a general 
scale; and by composing the requisite variety of 
tints, by reciprocal mixtun^s of tlie original pig- 

As the variations from any fixed scale of colors 
are infinite, and only to be regulated by the fancy 
or inclination of the composer ; we shall content 


( 38 ) 

ourselves with hinting at their general mixtures, ai.a 
sliall leave their gradations ad libitum. 


I. Yellow orpiment, mixed with vermilion.. 
IL Orpiment and red lead. 

III. English pink, mixed with vermilion, 

IV. English pink, with red lead, finely 

V. Dutch pink mixed with red lead. 


I. Red lead, finely ground ; also varied by chalk. 

II. Red ochre, used as chalk: also varied, 

III. Vermillion, ground fine; also varied with 
chalk. The best vermilion is inclined to the car- 
mine tint ; nothing is required to prepare this color 
more than to mix it on the stone with soft water 
or spirits, after which it may be rolled into crayons. 
The different tints are produced by a mixture of tJic 
simple color with whiting, according to the pro 
portions already given. 

IV. Lake, finely ground ; also varied with chalk. 
Lake is a color very apt to be hard ; to prevent 
which, observe the following particulars : 

Take about half the quantity of Lake intended for 
the crayons, and grind it very fine with spirits of 
wine; let it dry — then pulverize it, which is easily 
done if the lake be good ; then take the other half, 
and grind it with spirits, after which mix it with the 
pulverized lake, and lay it -out diredfly in crayons 
.:pn the chalk. This color will not bear rolling. 


( 39 > 

The simple color being thus prepared, proceed 
with compound crayons, as directed before, and in 
the same degree of gradation as the carmine tints. 

V. Indian Ked, finely ground ; also varied with 

VI. Carmine, is so very dear that a small crayon 
of it costs five shillings. Carmine crayons are thus 
prepared : As their texture is inclinable to hardness, 
instead of grinding and rolling them, take a suffici- 
ent quantity of carmine, lay it upon the grinding- 
8tonc, mix it with a levigating knife with spirits of 
wine, till it becomes smooth and even. The chalk- 
stone being ready, lay the color upon it to absorb 
the spirit, but be careful that it is laid on in a pro- 
per shape for painting. It has ite advantages ; but 
for ordinary works, instead of it, may be used, 

VII. Rose pink, simply, which indeed is not- 
durable ; but it is much cheaper for ordinary uses, 


I. Ro^E PINK, finely ground, mixed with cendres 
hJeu ; for ordinary use only, as it fades. 

ir. Lake, with blue bice, simply; and heighten- 
ed by while, in several proportions. 

III. Lake, with Prussian blue, simply, and In 
several proportions. 

Now, as all purple colors are mixtures of red and 
blue, it is evident, that, by inserting a greater pro- 
portion of one than of the other, a variety is obtain- 
ed, which Inclines toward that color of which there is 
the greatest quxtnrity, a red purple, or a blue purple, 


i '10 ) 

: !s therefore easily produced, by admitting more of 

the color desired. 

The same remark applies to greens, which being 
, composed ©f yellotv and blue, may incline more, or 

less, to either of those primitive colors. 


I. Bice is the lightest blue used, finely grbund^ 
simply ; also heightened by white, in several pro- 

II. Verditer, simply; add heightened in vari- 
ous proportions. It is a color naturally gritty, and 
rJierefore it is necessary to wash it well. Its parti- 
cles are so co?.rse as to require some binding matter" 
to unite them, otherwise the crayons will never 
adhere together. To accomplish this, take a quan- 
tity sufficient to form two or three crayons, to which 
add a piece of slack Plaster of Paris about the size 
of a pea ; mix these well together, and form the 
crayons upon the chalk. This blue is extremely 
brilliant, and of great use in heightening dra- 
peries, &c. The tints must be formed with whit- 
ing as diredled in the former instances, and are 
highly serviceable for painting flesh, to produce 
those pearly tints' so beautiful in crayon pidlures. 
It is not necessary to mix the compounds with 
spirits, as clear water will be sufficient. 

III. Prussian blue, simply; and heightened in 
several proportions. This color is very apt to bind, 
and is rendered soft with more difficulty than car- 
mine and lake. The same method of preparation 
must be followed with this as is directed with respedl 


( 41 ) 

to lake, only it A necessary to grind ^ larger quan- 
tity of the pure color, as it is chiefly used for 

. painting draperies. The dijterent tints may be made 
according to necessity, or to the fancy of the painter. 

- IV. Indigo, heightened in several proportions, 
and simply ; mixed as Prussian Blue, 


I. Charcoal ; the softest is the best* i 

^'^ II. Ivory black, ground very fine. ,-1- .: . 

III. Lamp black. It is the only black that can 
be used with safety ^ as all ofhers are subjedl to mil- 
jdew. Good lanip^fhck is scarce ; for the process 
of making it, sge Bl^-cks^ Laivip Black, 

It is obvious that black heiglitened in several pro- 
portions with white, will make a greV ; and tjiis 
grey may be varied at pleasure, by admitting a little 
blue, brown, &c. 



I. Fuller's earth, ground fin^Jy^ in sev^er^pfjCf' 
portions. . ■ .. i. -,. , , 7] 

:.. II. Fuller's earth, mixed with Spanish brown, 

III. Spanjlsh brown, simply. 

IV. Spanish brown, mixed with Indian red, 
heightened variously. 

V. Cologne earth, is a finfe dark brovv-n. After 
six or eight of the simple crayons are prepared^ 
several rich compound tints may be produced from 
JLt, by a mixture of cart^iine, in various degrees. 

VOL II. EJit. 7. F ifilack, 


( 42 ) 

Black, carmine, and this colof, mixed together, 
make useful tints for pamting hair ; several grada- 
tions may be produced from each of these by- 
heightening, &CC. Mllotl" 

VI. Roman, or jbrown ochre is an excellent co- 
lor, either simple, or compounded with carmine. 
Whiting tinged, in several degrees, with either of 
these, will prove v^ry serviceable. 

VII. Umber, may be treated in just the saine man- 
ner, only it is necessary to levigate it with spirits of 
wine..' ..J ,, 

G R''1E 'E N S. 

I. Verdigris, boiled in sharp vinegar, add to it 
while boiling, a little powdered tartar; evaporate 
the moisture, the color will then become solid ; 
this dissolved, mix with white chalk, as required. 

II. Verdigris, ground with vinegar and repeat- 
edly washed. 

ni. Verdigris, prepared as above, mixed with 
Prussian blue in several proportions. These mix- 
tures may be heightened as usual. 

IV. Indigo, mixed with English pink. 

V. BicK, mixed with Dutch pink, in several 

VI. Rock indigo, mixed with flowers of sul- 
phur, in several proportions. 

VII. Indigo, mixed with Dutch pink, in seve- 
ral proportions. 


Vermilion mixed with carmine. — This is a com- 
position of great use, and tints made from this with 
whiting will be found very serviceable. 


( *3 ) 

Carmine and black is another good compound, 
of which five or six gradations should be made» 
some partaking more of the black, and others hav- 
ing the carmiae most predominant, beside several ■ 
tints with a mixture of whiting. ■\z ''•.:^ 

Vermilion and black is also a very useful com-* 
pound, from which several different tints should be 

Prussian blue and black is another good com- 
pound, and will be found of singular service in 
painting draperies. 

By the combinations to be gathered from these 
hints, may be composed an inexhaustible variety of 
tints. It is seldom that an artist procures a com- 
plete set of crayons (price tiot less them three guineas) ' 
but selects what he chooses from among others, t© 
form his collection, which is more or less numerous 
at pleasure. 

When the set of crayons is completed according 
to the rules prescribed, they should be arranged in 
classes for the convenience of painting with them. 
Some thin drawers, divided into a number of par- 
titions, is the most convenient method of disposing 
them properly. The crayons should be deposited 
according to their several gradations of lightness. 
The bottom of the partitions must be covered with 
bran, as a bed for the colors, because it not only pre- 
serves them clean, but prevents their breaking. 

The box made use of, w^hen the student paints, 
should be about a foot square, with nine partitions. 

In the upper corner, on the left hand, (supposing 

the liox ia the lap) let him place the black and grey 

1^ F 2 crayons, 

(•: 44 ) 

crayons, those being the most seldbhi used ; in the 
eeconil paitition, rhe blues; in the third, the greens 
and browns ; in the first partition on the left hand 
of the second row, the carmines, lakes, vermilions, 
and all deep reds ; the yellows and orange in the 
middle ; and the pearl tints ne^t; as these last are 
of a very delicate nature, they must be kept very 
clean, that the gradations of color may be distin- 
guished. In the lowest TOW, let the first partition 
contain a piece of fine linen rag to wipe the crayons 
with while they are using ; the second, all the pure 
lake, and vermilion tints ; and the other partition 
tnay contain those tints, which, from their complex 
nature, cannot be plassed with any of the former. 

pORT-CRAYON, is a convenient instrument for 
using chalks, &c. It is made of brass, steel, or 
silver; frice^ in brass, 6*^,; in steel, from \s. 6ci, 

DISTEMPER, is a mode of painting, wherein the 
vehicle used to compound and fit the colors for ap- 
plication, is size, white of eggs, or some similar 

The best metliod of compounding colors in dis- 
temper, is, to mix the size in water, to a proper 
strength, then to grind the colors in part of it, put- 
ing each color separately in a proper pot, &c. Add 
a sufficient quantity of size to allow for the diminu- 
tion of its strength by a subsequent addition of warm 
Vs-ater, as wanted, either to grind the color, or in 
the working of it. The pots should be securely tied 
y.'ith bladders, 


( 45 

It 16 evident that distemper paintings will not abi^le 
the injuries of the weather ; thair utility is confined 
to internal decoration, and to spacious areas, where 
the eye may be deceived by the perspedtive, with- 
out coming sufficiently near to scrutinize the hand- 
ling, &c. 

The scenes at the tlieatres are painted in distemper. 

To make Si%e for paititing Scenes ^ afid other Candle^ 
light pieces. 

Steep a quarter of a pound of the cuttings of white 
glove-leather in water for some time ; then take 
them out, and boil them in three quarts of water till 
it is wasted to a pint, and strain it through a cloth 
into an earthen pan. When the size is cold, if it 
feels firm under your hand, it is sufficiently strong. 
You may prepare any colors with this size while it 
is warm, and it will take off the glare which would 
appear upon them by candle-light^ if miisfed with 

PRIERS, are used to those colors which when alone 
are long in drying : Those chiefly used, are drying 
oil, (viife oil) and oil, or spirits of turpentine ; the 
latter from its clearness, is less likely to injure the 
lighter colors. 

DUTCH PINK, is the coloring particles of the Avig- 
non-berry, procured by reducing the berry topowt 
der, and boiling it till the color is extracted. 
Price 1 d. per opnce, bladders 3d. each. 

EGG-SHELL WHITE, js used in water colors, 
w^th success. 


( 46 ) 

^xt is prepared by washing the shell very carefully, 
and peeling off the thin film on the inside, then 
grinding the shell to an impalpable powder with 
giim-water, or about a twentieth part of white sugar- 
t^andy. Sonic order it to be washed before the 
gum is added, by rectified spirit of wine. 

This is said to be of great service as a white, and 

with the oyster-shell powders, will contribute to the 

security of colors with which they are incorporated. 

ENGLISH PINK, is of the same nature as Dutch 

pink, being obtained from the same substance. 

ENGRAVING, is an art of which we shall treat by 
itself; also of . 

ETCHING ; and of 

ENCAUSTIC PAINTING, by means of wax. 

ELAKE WHITE, is lead corroded by the vinous 
acid. The purest and best is brought from Italy.^ 
It is very useful in oil, and varnish painting; 
because those vehicles prevent the access of the air 
so as to a(5l upon the lead; for, it is to be observed, 
that however prepared, lead constantly retains a 
disposition to recover its natural color. Hence, 
in water colors, the air to which it is liable, injures 
it, as also does every ferruginous mixture. Water, 
impregnated v.-ith iron, will in time turn the white, 
with which it is used, into a dirty black : and will 
even hurt the lighter colors, into mixtures of which 
the white has been admitted. 

To prevent this in part, some use distilled water; 

others, content themselves with grinding the white 

, lead first in \inegar, till it becomes thoroughly 

3 black; 

. 47 ) 

black; then washing it with water, till it rcturiis to 
whiteness : and this they think will maintain its 

It is a commodity very liable to be adulterated : 
What a person grinds himself, from the lumps in 
which it is brought over, he may best depend on. 

Price id. per ounce^ in bladders 6d. each. 
FRUIT. — As many of the colors used in the arts are 
extradled from vegetables, it should seem by parity 
of reason that many might be procured from fruit : 
but all endeavours to this purpose have hitherto 
failed ; for however bright the colors thus extradled 
may seem, they quickly fade. It is true, the juices 
of currants, mulberries, elder-berries, morello, and 
black cherries, may be dried, and if worked up 
again, they give nearly their first color, but it 
cannot be depended on, especially if exposed in the 
open air. 

It might, nevertheless, be worth while to examine 
the juices of fruits natives of warmer climates, whicb 
require and receive most solar heat to bring them to 
perfection : since those juices which are naturally 
most exalted, are usually most durable, and best 
admit of extracting in tincflure. The briglit red. 
fruit of the opuntia, or prickly pear, is said to fur- 
nish a durable red. 
GALL STONES, are concretions of earthy matter^ 
found in the gall-bladders or bile ducts, of beasts, 
especially of oxen. 

When moistened with water, and treated as gam- 
boge, GALL STONES yield a deep, and very ivarm 


( 48 ) 

^Tcllow, verging toward orange ; which is serviceable 
on account of its brightness, and durability, and, 
especially, because it is a very applicable shade to 
other colors. It is of different degrees of goodness. 
Price \s. t)d. per dram. 

As the quantity of this substance is but small, not 
ht'ing generally found in the bodies of beasts, a sub- 
stitute, more i'-eadily procured, and much cheaper, 
is thus obtained : .4. ) 

Boil a quart of the fresh bile of oxen, with a qii^- 
•ter of an ounce of gum-arabic, in a pewter vessel^ 
suspended in water ; evaporate the mixture to about 
an eighth, which remove- into a cupj or basonj and 
let it become dry, collecting it into a mass as it 
Jiardens. This, if not equal to the natural concre- 
tion, is yet very useful where that cannot be had. 

Or, the tincture from the Avignon-berry, may be 
drawn so deep as to serve for an occasional sub- 
GAMBOGE is a very useful color ; its appearance 
•in a lumpj is of a iine orange color (the deeper the 
better) but when softened in water, ahd used, it is 
of a bright yellow. It requires no preparation, but 
may be bought at the chemist's, being sometimes 
used in medicine. 
Price 6J. or 8cl. per ounce. 
GLAIR, or white op eggs, is sometimes used as a 
varnish for pictures. It is beat with a spoon to an 
unctuous consistence, till it rises in froth; then by 
■standing all night, it becomes clarified into a good 
GLAIR, and to make it work freely, is mixed with a 
little brandy, and with a lump of sugar, to prevent 


( 49 ) 

^•".cracking ; which, however, it very imperfcdlly per- 
forms, so that it is apt to crack the coh)rs of the 
picture it covers, and therefore should not be used 
to picftures of value. 
GOLD SHELL, is used to write gold letters in 
mottos. Sec. It is made by grinding very finely 
gold leaves, or gold-beater's fragments, with a little 
honey, and afterwards washing the honey from the 
gold by water. The gold thus procured, may be 
transferred by a little gum-water to the shells for use. 
Another process is thus given : — Grind the finest 
leaf-gold with strong gum-water very fine, adding, 
as you grind it, more gum-water as you see neces- 
sary. When you have ground it as fine as you 
can, wash it in a large shell ; then temper it with a 
little mercury-sublimate, bind it in the shell with a 
little dissolved gum, shake and spread it equally all 
over the shell, and use it with fair water only. 
Price 6d. per shell. 

Gold-leaf, is used by washing the part on which 
it is to be retained, exa6lly with gum-water, on 
which, while drying, must be laid the leaf of gold 
as evenly as possible, pressing it down close with 
cotton. To make the gold leaf take the colors 
wherewith it is to be shadowed, stroke it over with 
a weak liquor of ox-gall. 

The proper shadows to the gold itself are gall- 
stone ; or, a deep tindUire from the A^•ignon berry. 
In some manuscripts may be seen golden letters 
which rise above the surface of the vellum : To 
imitate tnem : beat up vermilion very strongly with 
the white of an egg, into a kind of paste ; this paste 
VOL. II, Edit. 7. G \% 

( .50 ) 

is fixed in its proper form on the vellum by gum- 
arabic, and secured by a strong pressure ; on this 
figure wash some strong gum-water with a pencil, 
then lay on the gold leaf as before. When dry it 
will bear polishing, which is always performed 
with a dog's tooth. This manner of gilding has a 
good effe6l in coats of arms, he. 

h should be observed, that base gold, or gold 
leaf, will not answer when used in water, but will 
change color quickly. In varnish, it is said, to 
stand well enough. 

Price of gold leaf ahouf Is. Sd. per hook. 
GUMS are very useful materials in the arts, whether 
we consider them, as in water colors, the vehicle of 
the application of colors; or as varnishes to secure 
oil pidtures. 

Those used in the arts, are in their nature greatly 
similar ; and chiefly vary as they are more or less 
compadl in texture. 

Gum-arabic, is of a moderate and friendly tem- 
per, to bind and apply water-colors, Price id. ytr 

GuM-SANDAEAc, p'tce id. per ounce, and Gum- 
mastic, are yet stronger ; the latter is used chiefly 
in making varnish for oil pi6lures. Price (5d, per 

There are other gums occasionally used by caprice, 
the softest of all is gum-tragacanth. 
(jRAVER, is a steel instrument, useful to engrave 
on metals, It consists of four sides, the two which. 
form the belly are polished very smooth ;• their de- 
clination is Hiore, q\ lesSj angular ; the point is 


( 51 ) 

formed by tlie two inferior sides. When ground, 
the breadth of the end of the tool is termed its face; 
Gravers should be made of the best steel ; they arfi 
usually too hard as sold in the shops ; the best way 
of tempering them, is, by infusing into them gra- 
dually a quantity of heat (which is readily done, by 
holding them on a red hot poker, or other Iicated 
body, &c.) till they change to a light straw color^ 
or deeper, according to their previous liardness, 
then, dipping them in oil. The graver which yields 
to a file, is too soft, and worthless. If the point 
breaks often, it is too hard. Gravers are made of 
various forms, and more or less lozenge in shape, 
for various services. 
For more of their management I'icJe ENGHAvilvrG. 
GREEN is very rarely a simple color; but is 
compounded of blue and yellow. 

A mineral green is said to be brought from 
Verdigeis, and sap green, are the greens iilosC 
used in water colors. 
GROUND for Etching. The importance of thia 
article to engravers is very considerable. There 
are several compositions which have been employed 
as grounds; (called varnish by some) as for instance i 
Rembrandt's ground. Take half an ounce of 
asphaltum burnt, and gum-mastic the same quan- 
tity, one ounce of virgin wax ; beat, or grind, thd 
mastic and asphaltum very fine ; melt the virgin 
wax, in a new earthen pot, over a gentle heat, add 
to it, when melted, the mastic and asphaltumj by 
degrees, stirring the mixture till they are thorough- 
G -2 ly 

( 52 > 

ly incorporated ; when intimately compoundecl, 
pour the whole into clear water, and make it into 
a ball. In using this ground the plate must not be 
too hot, and the thinner it is laid the better. 

Callot^s ground. Take a quarter of a pound 
of virgin wax, and half a quarter of a pound of 
asphaitum, the same quantity of mastic, one ounce 
of rosin, one ounce of shoe-maker's pitch, half an 
ounce of common pitch, half an ounce of varH,isH ; 
melt the wax, and add the other ingredients gra- 
dually, as before, and, when incorporated, pour it 
into water. 

If the quantity of mastic be greater, it renders the 
ground softer; which, if the quantity of mastic be 
less, will be proportionably harder. 

Another ground is made thus ; To a quarter of a 
pound of virgin wax, add, half a quarter of a pound 
of asphaitum, one ounce of amber, one ounce of 
mastic, grind the asphaitum and mastic very fine^ 
melt. Sec. as above. 

Grounds have been composed, among other in- 
gredients using nut-oil, &:c. but these are obsolete. 
Some proportion the ingredients thus ; virgin wax 
six ounces; mastic four ounces; asphaitum two 

Ground is sold in balls, /jr/V^ \s. or 2s. each. The 
French make very good ground. 
HORTUS SICCUS is a name given to a colle(5lion 
of dried plants. As the manner of preserving spe- 
cimens of this kind may occasionally prove very 
serviceable to artists ; we shall transcribe the pro- 
cess from Dr. Hill : 


( 50, ) 

,Tak.e a plant in flower, with one of its bottom 
leaves on it, if it have any; bruise the stalk, if too 
rigid, Qv sht it if too thick ; spread the leaves and 
.'lowers OU; paper, as nearly in their natural order as 
may be, cover them with more paper, on which- 
place a sufficient weight. In a day, or two, of 
vvhenev-er perfectly flat, lay the plants on a bed of 
dry common sand ; sift over them more dry sand, 
and let them lay three veeeks, or a month. After 
they are perfectly dry, and hardened, they are 
placed in books by the following cement : Infuse 
for a considerable' time before it is wanted, two 
ounces of camphor in three quarts of water, shake 
it from time to time : add, when the plants are 
ready, two ounces of carpenter's glue, and twQ 
ounces of isinglass, to a pint of water ; let them 
stand a day or two, then boil the liquor, and strain 
it through a coarse cloth. Smear the backs of the 
plants with this cement when warmed ; lay thcxTi on 
paper, and gently press them ; then expose them to 
the air a few minutes, and finally lay them to dry 
under a small weight. 

To preserve flowers perfectly ; Vv'e are told, to 
gather them when not yet thoroughly open, in the 
middle of a dry day ; put them into a good earthen 
vessel glazed within ; fill the vessel up to the top 
with them ; and when full, sprinkle them over with 
some good French wine, Vv'ith a little salt in it; 
then set them by in a cellar, tying the mouth of 
the pot carefully down. After this, they may be 
taken out at pleasure, and on setting them in the 
sun, or within reach of the fire, they will open, and 
retain not only their color, but their smell. 


( fi4 ) 

Sir KoBERT Southwell has communicated a 
method of drying plants, by which most of them 
preserve their proper colors. Two plates of iron 
of a proper size, must be made so thick as to pre- 
vent bending, and must have a hole near each corner 
for the reception of a screw. 

These prepared, lay in readiness several sheets of 
paper, gather the plants with their flowers, when 
quiteperfe(51t, in the middle of a dry day; lay them on 
one of the sheets of paper doubled in half, spreading 
out the leaves and petals nicely. If the stalk be 
thick, it must be pared or cut ; lay several sheets 
of paper over and under the plant, then put the 
■whole between the iron plates, screw them close, 
and put them into an oven after the bread is drawn, 
during two hours. After this, mix equal parts of 
aqua-fortis and brandy, and rub the flowers lightly 
o\^r with this liquor ; then lay them on fresh browrt 
paper, and press them gently till the wet of these 
liquors is dried away^ The plant thus prepared ; 
put the quantity of a nutmeg of gum dragon, into a 
pint of fair water cold, and let it stand till dissolved ; 
then with this liquor daub over the backsides of 
the leaves, lay them carefully down on white paper 
and press them lightly. Care must be taken, thai^ 
the heat of the oven be not too great. 

Another way of keeping both flowers and fruit the 
whole year, by the same author. Take salt-petre 
©ne pound; bole-armoniac, two pounds; clean com- 
mon sand three pounds mix all well together, then 
gather fruit of any kind, that is not full ripe, with 
stalk to each; put these one by one into a wide- 

( 55 ) 

mouthed glass, laying them in good order ; tie an 
oil-clotli over the top, carry the glass into a dry cel- 
lar, and set the wliolc upon a bed of this prepared 
matter four inches thick, in a box ; 1111 up tlie 
remainder of the box with the same preparation, and 
let it be four inches thick over the top of the 
glass and round all its sides. Flowers, thus pre- 
served, may be taken up after a whole year, as 
plump and fair as when buried. 

INDIAN RED, is an earth of the ochre kind, of a 
fine compact texture, very heavy, and of a purplish 
deep red. It is said to be, while in the earth, of a 
deep blood color, and so hard as to resist a spade. 
It is of a rough dusky surface, and abounds in glit- 
tering particles, it adheres firmly to the tongue, is 
harsh to the touch, and stains the hands deeply. 
It is so strong a color in oil, that it overpowers 
those with which it is mixed, unless cautiously used. 
Price \s. per ounce, bladders od. each. 

INDIGO, is the produ6l of a plant cultivated in 
the hot countries of America, the West Indies, he. 
It is procured by rotting the plants in water, by a 
subsequent fermentation, &c. ; the very best is said 
to be brought by the Portuguese from Brazil, 
It is the deepest of blues, and is a soft pleasant 
color, after it has been finely ground. In using 
indigo, try its tone first, lest it should prove 
stronger than is supposed. Price 8d, to is. i5d^ 
per oufice. 

INK, Indian, the best is brought from China, but 

the makers are such cheats, that it is not to be 

jLnown whether good or bad, but by breaking. 

3 It 

( 56 ) 

It is sold in little square cakes, pice from Qd. z//>- 
'Eoards to 55. 

ISINGLASS, is one of the purest animal glues, 
being the produ(5l of certain kinds ^f fish. 

It is used in the arts much on the same principle 
as gums are used, i. e. as a proper vehicle, where- 
with occasionally to apply water colors; and being 
of great strength, it is of much ser\-ice. It dissolves 
in brandy, or in spirits of wine, better than in boiU 
ing water. 

Isinglass size. — To half an ounce of beaten 
isinglass add a pint and half of water, to be boiled 
until the isinglass is dissolved, and strained through 
a piece of iine linen while warm; Let it be divided 
into two equal parts ; to one of them add an equal 
quantity ol 'vArm water, this keep in a vial for use, 
the other keep undiluted, that you m.ay be furnish- 
ed with a strong, as well as a weak, size. 

IVORY furnishes the tablets used in miniature- 

To prepare them for receiving the colors, l. e. to 
take off the greasiness which injures their superfi- 
cies, some only rub them with g, fine piece of pu- 
mice stone, or scrape them with a fine-edged knife ; 
others wash them over with ox gall ; and others, 
prefer as the best method, the rubbing them over 
with the juice (or a clove) of garlic. This last 
article has been kept as a secret. 

IVORY BLACK. Vide blacks. 

KING'S YELLOW, is a very bright yellow, used 
-sometimes in oil ; it is a preparation of arsenic, 
Pi'ke \s. to. ^s, per ounce, 


( 57 ) 

LACCA, STiCK-LACj improperly called gum lac, 
is a red, brittle, transparent substance, brought 
from Malabar, Bengal, and Pegu, used in painting, 
making varnishes, 8tC. 

It is a kind of comb, such as bees, and other 
insedls, make. On being broke, it appears divided 
into many little cells, of a uniform figure, contain- 
ing little bodies, or other parts, of the inserts that 
produced the lacca. These little bodies are of jl 
beautiful red ; and, when broken, make a powder 
as fine as cochineal. It is most probable they are 
tlie embryos of inserts, or, perhaps, their skins. 

To obtain the fine red lac used by painters, boil 
the stick-lac in water, filtre the decodlion, and 
<;vaporate the liquor to dryness over a gentle fire. 

This being the first bright color obtained by this 
process from similar materials, has given the name 
of LACQUEs, or LAKES, to scvcral pigments not 
otherwise related to it. 
LAKE, is drawn from several flowers ; a yellow 
lake from flowers of juniper, a red lake from the 
poppy, a blue lake from the iris, or violet, &c. 

The tinctures of these flowers are extracted by 
digesting them several times in aqua vitae, or by 
boiling them over a stove fire in a lixivium of pot 
ashes and allum. 

An ARTIFICIAL LAKE, is made of Brazil-wood, 
boiled in a lixivium of the branches of the vine, 
adding a little cochineal, turmeric, calcined allum, 
and arsenic; it is incorporated with the bones of 
the cuttle-fish, pulverized, and made up into little 
cakes, and dried. 

VOL. II. E<fit. 7. II To 

( 58 ) 

To render it very red, add the juice of lemon ; to 
make it brown, add oil of tar^^ir. 

Dove-colored, or columbine lake, is made 
with Brazil of Ferriambuc, steeped in distilled vine- 
gar for the space of a month, and mixed with 
i^llum incorporated in cuttle-iish bone. 
YELLOW LAKE, is made by the following pro- 
cess : Take a pound of turmeric-root in iine 
powder, three pints of water, and an ounce of salt 
of tartar ; put them into a glazed earthen vessel, 
and boil them over a clear gentle fire, till the 
water appears highly impregnated. Filtre this 
liquor, and, gradually, add a strong solution of 
roch allum in water, till the yellow matter is pre- 
cipitated; this, filtered again, will leave the yellow 
matter behind. It is washed repeatedly with fresh 
w^ater, till pure. In this manner may lake be 
procured from any of the tinging substances that 
are of a strong texture, as madder, log-wood, &c. 
but it fails in the more tender species as the 
flowers of roses, violets, &c. 

A YELLOW LAKE is also made from broom- 
flowers, thus: make a ley of pot-ashes and lime ; in 
this, boil over a gentle fire, fresh broom-flowers 
till the ley has extradled all their color: then boil 
tlie ley in earthen vessels, adding as much allum as 
the liquor will dissolve ; empty this liquor into a 
vessel of clean water, and the yellow color will 
fall to the bottom. Let all settle, and decant it ; 
wash the powder till the salts of the ley arc washed 
off; then separate the yellow matter, and dry it in 
the shade. 


( 59 ) 

Ked Lake is at present FcWom prepared from 
any orhcr substance th;in scarlet rug., cocliineal, 
or Brazil-wood. The best of wliar is comnionly 
sold, is made of the color extracSlcd from scarlet 
rags, and deposited on the cuttle-fish bone ; it is 
prepared thus : 

Dissolve a pound of the best pearl-ashes in two 
quarts of water, and filtrc the liquor; add to thi? 
solution two more quarts of water and a pound of 
clean scarlet shreds ; boil them in a pewter boiler, 
till the shreds have lost their color : take out the 
shreds, press them, and put the colored water 
yielded by them to the other : in the same solution 
boil another pound of shreds ; and likewise a third, 
and fourth pound. While this is doing, dissolve a 
pound and a half of cuttle-fish bone in a pound of 
strong aqua-fortis, in a glass receiver; adding 
more bone, if it produces any ebullition in the 
aqua-fortis. Pour this strained solution gradually 
into the other. The crimson sediment deposited 
by the liquor is the lake : pour off the water, and 
stir the lake in two gallons of hard spring water, 
and mix the sediment in two gallons of fresh water; 
repeated four or five times. If no hard water can 
be procured, or the lake appears too purple, half an 
ounce of allum should be added to each quantity of 
water, before it is used. Having freed the lake 
from the salts, drain off the water through a fdter, 
covered with a w^orn linen cloth. When it has 
been drained to a proper dryness, let it drop 
through a convenient funnel on clean boards, and 

II 2 the 

( 60 > 

the drops will become small cones or pyramids, id 
which form the lake must be suffered to dry. 

Red lake may be prepared from cochineal, by 
gently boiling two ounces of cochineal in a quart of 
water ; filtre the solution, add two ounces of pearl- 
ashes dissolved in half a pint of warm water, and 
filtered. Dissolve cuttle-fish bone as in the former 
process : and, to a pint of it add two ounces of 
allum dissolved in half a pint of water. Put this 
mixture gradually to that of the cochineal and 
pearl-ashes, as long as any ebullition appears to 
arise; and afterwards proceed as above. 

A beautiful red lake may be prepared from 
Brazil-wood; by boiling three pounds of it, during 
an hour, in a solution of three pounds of common 
salt in three gallons of water ; and filtering the hot 
fluid through paper : add to this a solution of five 
pounds of allum in three gallons of water. Dissolve 
three pounds of the best pearl-ashes in a gallon and 
a half of water, and purify it by filtering ; put thij, 
gradually, to the other, till the whole of the color 
appears to be precipitated, and the fluid be left co- 
lorless. But if any appearance of purple be seen, 
add a fresh quantity of the solution of allum, by 
degrees, till it becomes scarlet : treat the sediment 
as before. If half a pound of seed-lac be added to 
the solution of pearl-ashes, and dissolved in it 
before its purification by the fdtre ; and two pounds 
of the wood, and a proportionate quantity of com- 
mon salt and water, be used in the colored solution, 
a lake will be produced that will stand well in oil 
or water, but it is not- sa transparent, in oil, as 
without the seed-lac. 


( 61 ) 

The lake from Brazil-wood may also be made by 
adding half an ounce of anotto to each pound of the 
wood. The annotto must be dissolved in the solu- 
tion of pearl-ashes. 
LEAD, Black, is used to make pencils ; not being 
fusible, it is cut into form. It is a mineral sid 

Price in pozvifer ]J. per oiuice. Pencils Qd. each. 
Red Lead, or MINIUM, is a calx of lead, of a 
vivid orange colour, or yellowish-red; which colour 
it acquires by the very slow calcination to which it 
is exposed. It is chiefly brought from Holland. 

This colour would be very valuable, if it was dur- 
able; but, like every preparation of lead, it is 
liable to become black. It is used in water colors, 
and requires a moderate proportion of gum-water, 
and to be frequently stirred up while using, as its 
weight inclines it to settle. 

Price 6J. per ounce. 

White Lead is kept in the colour-shops under 
the name of Nottinghain, and is used in oil for 
coarser purposes. 

Price in bladders 3d. each. 
LITMUS, is a blue pigment, procured from archil, 
by adding to the archil (previously bruised by 
grinding), quick-lime, and spirits of urine ; the 
mixture being evaporated becomes at length of a 
due consistence. It is chiefly brought from Hol- 
land. This colour is liable to change tovvards crim- 
son, by the least approach of acids. 

Litmus may be thus prepared for use: boil an 
ounce in a pint of small-beer wort till it acquires a 
proper coloivr; then pour off the liquor, and let it 


( 62 ) 

coo!: by degrees it will become solid. This may 
aiVerwards be liquified by water, for use, 
LOGWOOD furnishes an excellent purple tindlure, 
to obtain which some proceed thus: 

Boil together Brazil-wood and logwood, till the 
liquor is of a due colour. More logwood makes it 
more purple ; more Brazil-wood inclines it to red. 
Or thus : — 

Boil two ounces of logwood in three pints of water ; 
it is now brown, but by the addition of roch allum 
one ounce, it becomes purple. 
MASTICOT is lead gently calcined till it becomes 

more, or less, yellow. 
METAL, Dutch, is used where genuine gold would 
be too expensive. It is kept in leaves, in books. 

SheJh \d. each. 
MILINUM, famous for being the only wliite of the 
ancient artists, is a fine white marley earth of a com- 
pa6t texture, and remarkably light. It is found 
chiefly in the East, or the Levant. 

Since white lead is so very deceitful, especially in 
water-colour", might not this, or an earth of the 
same species, well supply its place ? 
OCHRES are an extensive genus of earths. TJie 
most common are, yellow and red: but there are 
likewise blue, brown, and green, ochres : and of 
these several distinctions. Dr. Hill describes of 
red, eleven sorts; of yellow, the same number ; of 
blue and green, one each, and of black two. 

There are several kinds dug up in England, and it 
is probable, more might be found on examination. 

They are cheap colours; from one penny to two- 
pence per ounce, and are divided in the color- 
s' . sliops 

( 63 ) 

shops Into yellow, brown, red, roman, stone, briglit, 
&;c. Their hues are varied by burning. 
OILS are very principal objc6ls of a painter's care, 
being so intimately mixed with the colors ; on 
which tliey have unquestionably much influence. 

Oil, Linseed, is used to colours of deep shades, 
but injures the lighter : it is sometimes rectified by 
exposing it in a bladder to the sun, he. which ren- 
ders it more transparent. Some painters reje^V it 
totally, notwitliStanding such rectification, which 
they regard as of Httlc use. 

Price ikl. per pint. 

Oil, Nut, is very much in use; it is not so sub- 
ject to change as linseed oil is, 

Price 2s. per fmt. 

Oil, Poppy, is by some preferred above all^ as 
being v<ry clear and transparent. 

Price As. per pin/. 

Drying Oil_, is linseed oil boiled ;vlth sugar of 
lead, litharge, or red lead, &c. 

As these substances are by no means of any benefit 
to the oil, we advise a very cautious use of drying 
nil. In general, it is used to pictures painted in 
haste, or in damp weather, &c. | which we have re- 
marked to be dciicient in durability. 

Price from "id. to Is. per pint. Small holtles of oil 
may he had at 2>d. or Ad. each. 

The following has been recommended as a useful 
recipe to make a strong and colorless drying oil : 

Take of poppy, nut, or linseed oil, one' quart, put 
it in a deep glass bottle ; put to it one pound of the 
best litharge in the gross ; shake these well toge- 
ther two or three times a day for a week, then let it 

( 64 ) 

settle clear, and pour it off for use, taking care that 
none of the tallow-like grease thrown down by the 
litharge comes ofr with it, it will be found a good 
strong drying oil, with very little alteration in the 
color; the longer it is on the litharge the stronger 
it will be. The oil designed for grinding up the 
white, &r. must have only half the quantity of li- 
tharge, and be only half the time upon it, with 
the same shaking, &c. 

N. B. The litharge will do several times, after 
draining the grease from it. 
ORPIMENT, is a color, whose properties, as we 
liave before observed, require great care in the 
using of it : and, in fa6l, rather prohibit it. 
PALLETTES, are of various shapes, held on the 
hand while painting, by passing the thumb through 
a hole near the front. Their use is to contain the 
colours, which are to be applied to the canvas. 

Price from Qd. to Is. Qd. and 3s. each. 

Pallette-knife is a thin, well-tempered blade, 
to grind and mix colors, &c. on the pallette. 

Price gd. 
PAPER, various sorts, for various uses, and of vari- 
ous prices; which are best known at the stationer's, 
PINKS, are a class of colours of several hues. 

Brown Pink, is a transparent colour, used in oil, 
and pretty much to glaze with. 

It is the tinging part of some vegetable, of a deep 
yellow, or orange color, precipitated much in the 
manner of Ial:es ; it gives a deep color if good. It is procured from Avignon berries, by boil- 
ing them with fustic wood in chips^ and pcvarl-ashes, 


( 05 ) 

equal quantities, in a tin boiler ; strain the tinfturc 
wken strong enough, and add alum-water. When 
liltcred, the substance is the color. 

Price \s. to \s. 6d. per oz, in bladders 6d, each. 

Dutch pixk, is made by boiling Avignon berries 
one pound, and turmeric root four ounces; strain itj 
add alum one ounce, and boil it, till evaporated to 
a quart. Prcpirc in the mean time four pounds of 
chalk, by wr.-.img it, and let it dry; grind the 
chalk and tindlurc together, and dry the color.-— 
It should be a full gold-colored yellow, and very 

English pixk, differs from Dutch pink, only in 
the greater proportion of chalk. 

Rose pikk is procured exactly in a similar man- 
ner, only changing the Avignon berry, for Brazil- 
wood ; it is a mighty pretty color, but fading. 

Price id. per oz. 
PENCIL. Under this title we shall notice the vari-' 
ous sorts mostly in use. 

Camel's-hair pencils ; to choose this kind of 
pencils, draw them through the lips, moistening 
.them a little; those are good which terminate in a 
true and complete point. Pt-ice id. to 2d. each. 

FiTcii PENCILS are used, by some who wish for 
a smoothness in their picSlures, to scumble the 
colors, after their being laid on with a camel's-hair 
pencil, and to drive them into each other ; while 
those who wish to impart a bolder appearance to 
' their works, paint wholly with fitches. 

Price 2d. each. 

Tools are a larger kind of pencils, not inserted 

into a quill, as the foregoing, but bound round a 

VOL n. Edii. 7. I stick, 

Stick, and strongec in tkeir nature. Some paintnrs 
use them constantly. 

Price from 'id. to \5. each. 

Badger tools are the largest in common use, 
and are longer in the hair than the former. 

Pricafr.Qm. 8f/t ta. 'is. each. 

Besides these, there are other kinds of pencils — 
Buch as, those for shipping painters, very long in 
the hairs, and; slender; useftd to insert the ropes, 
&:c. — Those for miniature painters, very delicate 
and small, he. 
PICTURE- CLOTHS, are of several sizes, enlarging 
progressively, and, are kept in the shops at the prices 
of e^. &d. \0d. \s. Is. 3r/. t^c. 

The regular sizes commence at 

Kit-cats, 3 feet high, by 2 feet 4 inches.- wide. 

Price 'Is. td. 

Three-quarters, 2 feet Shigh, by 2feet l.wide. 

Half-lengths, 4, feet 2 high, by 3. feet. 4 wide* 

Pricd 5s. 

Bishops half lengths, 4 ft. 8 high, by 3 ft. y. 

Price 8s. 

Whole-lengths, 7 feet, 10 high, by 4 feet 10 
wide. They may be. made, yet larger if bespoke. 

Price \l. 2s. 

A sort of ticking is made. by Mr. W. Middle-- 
TiiN, of St. MartJn's.Lane(colorman to artists, and 
who furnishes the necessary implements to artists)j 
at the following prices: 

Three-quarters, price 4 or 5s, 

Half-lengths, price 7s. 

Whole-lengths^ price. 26s. 


( 07 ) 

In general, landscape-painters choose their clbths 
of a smooth surface. Portrait-paij^fers choose d 
very thin priming. Perhaps cloths arc yet better 
-without priming. 

PRIMING is a colour laid on the cloth, kc. previous 
to those which are to form the picture, and should 
be chosen of a tint rather light than dark. 
PLASTER OF PARIS is a very useful commodity 
in ihe arh, i^ it not only receives impressions from 
copper-plates_, &c. but, being cast into molds, 
aifords copies of any piece of sculpture whatever, 
at a Very reasonable rate; and, perhaps, nothing rnore 
contributes to the acquisition of knowledge in de- 
sign, than a careful study of excellent Plasters; since 
they are, in some respe6ls, superior even to a ITving 
model; always retain tlieir situations and attitudes, 
and greatly a'ftist an artist: in ^he projection of 
shadows, '^c. 

Plaster of Paris is dug out of quarries -in a substance 
like a stone, and is then termed crude: To prepare 
it for use, the stone is calcined thoroughly, then 
pounded and very finely sifted. 

This powder mixed- with water, quickly sets^ or 
hardens into a solid consistence; and^ when setting, 
increases in bulk, which property renders it so highly 
and singularly applicable in forming casts, &c. 

To take an ifiifresshn off a pjxits^ ,hy'niia7is of plas- 
ter of Paris^ nothing more is requisite, than after 
having prepared the pl'\te with ink, and cleaned the- 
surface, to mix the plaster with water, and pour it 
on the plate, in a few minutes it will dry, and'easily* 
part from the copper, extraxfling the ink' wii:li- it. 

1 2 . Casts 

( 68 ) 

Casts are taken from a mold, previously well 
oiled, and thereby rendered impervious to the 
water with which the plaster is mixed. The plaster 
in its liquid state being poured into the mold there 
sets, and takes the form of the mold. 

Plaster will sink to the bottom of a quantity of 
water, and will harden even rhere. After having 
been once used, it has lost its valuable properties, 
and no grinding can restore them. Being very long 
kept in powder injures it. 
RED, LIGHT, is of the ochre kind, and very power- 
ful , it is much used by some painters, even in flesh. 

Price id. per oz. Bladders 3d. each. 

Red, brown, is kept in bladders at 3d. each. 

Red, Indian, vide Indian Red. 

Red, Venetian, is a cheap color, used to print 
copper plates in imitation of red chalk. It should 
be finely ground. Mixed with black it forms a 
SAFFRON affords a yellow orange-colored tindlure, 
to obtain which, it need only be steeped in boiling 
water in a tea-cup. 

As it is probable that many vegetables, if treated In 
the same manner as saffron, might afford permanent 
colors, we shall transcribe from the Philosophical 
Transactions an account of the method of drying it. 

The styles, or chives, being separated from the 
other parts of the plant, are dried on a kiln of a pro- 
per construction ; over which they lay a net-work 
of iron-wire, or a hair-cloth, and over this five or 
six sheet* of white paper; upon which they spread 
the saffron two or three inches thick. They cover 
this with other sheets of paper ; o\»er the whole they 


( eg ) 

lay a Coafse blanket, five or six times doubled, or a 
canvass pillow filled with straw; when the fire, which 
is made of charcoal free from smoke has warmed it, 
they lay on the whole a board, liavLng a large 
weight. When the chives have been sweated and 
dried, for about an hour, they turn the papers and 
saffron cakes, and treat the fresh side as the other. 
The cakes are repeatedly turned, till thoroughly 
dry, which usually takes about twenty-four hour*. 
English saffron is the best in Europe. 

SAP-GREEN is furnished by bucktJiorn berries, 
which being gathered when ripe, are bruised and. put 
into a brass kettle, with some pounded alum, where 
they are suffered to remain for several days ; they 
are then pressed, and the liquor hung up in a blad- 
der to dry and iiarden. This is afterwards dissolved 
In water or wine, (Canary is said to be the best to 
preserve it from starving), this again consolidated, 
is sold ill the shops. 
Price from 8cl. lo \s. J)er ounce. 

TERRA SINOPICA, by many called blood stone, 
is an earth of a purple color, varying in tone, and 
depth of color, found in plenty in the Jerseys in 
America_, and probably elsewhere. Its color renders 
further acquaintance with it highly desirable. Its 
texture is close and compa(5l: its weiglit consider- 
able. It is not very hard, melts slowly in the 
mouth, is perfcdlly pure and fine, and retains its 
color in the fire. Why should it not be brought 
into further use 1 
Teura di Siexna, like other earths, is denomi- 
nated from the place where it is native. It is of a. 


( 70 ) 

Warm brown color, pretty much nsed. in \iih&stipty 
in oil, for roads, buildings, &c. as well burnt as un^ 

Pricg raw 4d. per oz. Madders 6d» htirni Oltii 

hhdders Qd. each. • '"■♦ ■-■-• '" ;,.-'- 

Terra verte, is found intlie "earth, not in sttaMj 
but in large lumps. It is fine, regular, and smooth; 
when scraped, and the finer parts separatedj it is 
ready to be ground in oil for use ; it makes the b^st 
standing color of any simple green ; but is a teridet- 
color, easily overpowered by any stronger color. 

Price ill Madders "id. eachi 

An earth is dug up in Mendippe Hills, which i3 
very closely allied to terra verte ; why should it not 
be examined and tried ? 
TROY WHITE is a native chalk, found near On 
kans in France, which is finely powdered, washed/ 
gnd tempered for use. "-^ 

Artificial troy white, called also Spanish white, 
is chalk washed repeatedly, and its finer particles 
united to alum-water, frequently stirred, then filter- 
ed and dried; it is used sometimes in water-colors. 
TURPENTINE. Oil, or spirit, of turpentine is 
used in oil painting, as a drier to the clearer colors, 
and to fit some colors for use in spirits of wine; to 
clean pencils from their colors, when they are'to be' 
quitted, &c. 

Price 6d\ or 8d. per pint — sometimes much more. 

Colors ground in spirits of turpentine, after being 
thoroughly dry, may be used either in oil, or ih'- 


( 71 ) 

TURMERIC ROOT is in form not much unfike 
ginger : as it grows okl, it becomes U'cwn. To ex.- 
tracft a yellow tin<5turc from it: 

Put two ounces of proof spirit, and one ounce cf 
water in a phial, with two drachms of powdered tur- 
meric root ; let them stand three or four days, shak- 
ing them often* It is brighter, and cooler, than 
tlie tind:urc of Avignon berry. 

TURBITH, or turpith, mineral, isa yellow pre- 
cipitate of mercury. It is of a great body, like yer- 
milion, a very bright, true, and lasting yellow; 
works in oil or water; is- cooler than king's yellow, 
and not so- bright. It makes a good green ; it must 
be previously well ground. 

VARNISH is used to give a gloss, and lustre, to 
works. Also to defend them from tlie weather, 
dust, &c. 
There are divers kinds of varnishes ; some of the 
principal are as follow: 

Amber varnish is prepared' in the following 
manner; put four ounces- of amber into a crucible, 
and melt it with a small degree of heat ; pour it 
out upon an iron plate ; when cold, reduce it to 
powder, and add to it two ounces of drying oil, /'. e, 
linseed oil, thickened by bewg boil ad' up- with 
litharge, and one pint of oil of terpentine ; dissolve 
the whole together into a liquid variushi 

This simple amher varnish is of great use for many 
purposesj and is said to be the basis of the-fine i^rtr'* 
nishes which we see on coaches^ and might be- ap^ 
plied to pictures with goodeiFect. ? 


( 72 ) 

Copal Gil Vaiinish, called in France verms 
Mariin, is made by pouring into a strong well-glaz^ 
cd earthen pot, in shape resembling a choco- 
late pot, and in size large enough to hold about a 
gallon, and made warm, four ounces of Chio or 
Cyprus turpentine, and when this is dissolved, eight 
ounces of finely powdered amber ; mingling them 
well, and setting them on the fire for a quarter of an 
hour : take off the pot, and pour gently into it a 
pound of copal, finely bruised, but not powdered; 
stir the mass, and add four ounces of Ghio turpen- 
tine, and a gill of warm turpentine oil; then set it 
on a brisk fire for about half an hour, and taking it 
off, stir the contents well, and add two ounces of the 
finest and; whitest colophony, htt the pot be put 
on a very brisk fjre, and remain till the whole is 
dissolved, and become as fluid as water ; let it be 
removed from the fire, ahd remain for a few minutes, 
and then gradually pour in twency-four ounces of 
poppy, nut, or linseed oil, made drying and boiling 
hot, and stir the mass with a deal stick. When the 
gums and oil are thoroughly incorporated, set them 
over the fire for a few minutes, still stirring them 
about, and let them boil once up; and having taken 
off the pot, pour into it a quart of hot turpentine; 
stir them together, and give them one boil up ; 
take off the pot, and pour into it a pint more of hot 
turpentine, still stirring it well. If the gums are 
thoroughly melted, and well incorporated, the 
I'arnish is made; which, being cool, is strained 
through a close cloth into another vessel, and if it 
be too thick, thinned with oil of turpentine, till it 


( n ) 

becomes of the consistence of linseed oil : strain 
it a second time, bottle it for use, and let it stand 
a montli, at least, before it is used. This 'varntsh 
is used for coaches, cabinets, &c. as well as for pic* 
tures. Used also sometimes for prints. 

Pike \s. or \s. Ad. a phial of two ounces. 

A fnishhig varnish for paintings in oil : — The 
finest and clearest coach varnish, made of copal 
one quart, (the Birmingham varnish is yet better, 
there being no oil in it) put it into an earthen pip- 
kin, stt it over a very gentle fire, it need not boil, if 
pretty hot it is enough ; at the same time set 
another pipkin over the same fire, containing three 
half pints of turpentine and half a pint of strong 
drying oil mixt together ; Vv'hen hot take both pots 
off-, and pour the varnisli in very small quantities 
into the turpentine and oil, every time replacing 
the pots on the fire to preserve the heat ; repeat 
this several times, a dozen at least, till the whole 
is mixt, keep it continually stirring to incorporate " 
them well ; take it from the fire as soon as possible, 
lest it brown the varnish. 

N. B. Were they put together coldj too hastily, 
or in too large a quantity at a time, the copal 
would be precipitated to the bottom. 

Let it stand to clear, well stopped in a bottle for 
Use. So much oil being thrown into it, prevents its 
cracking, and makes it more proper for oil paintings; 
it is long in drying, and must be kept free from 
dust; afier two or three days it sets, retains no 
stickiness, as mastic, 8cc. always does. 

VOL. II. Edit, 7. K Very 

( 74 ) 

Very small pictures may be neatly painted with 
tliis varnish alone. 

This varnish hardens so strongly on the pi^^ure, 
that it cannot be taken oft' again, but must be 
painted over if any alterations are intended. 

A varnish that may easily be removed is made of 
isinglass diluted with water, with the addition of 
one-fourth or one-fifth the weight of the isinglass, 
of sugar, or honey. A sponge and hot water will 
readily remove this from the pi(5lure, &cc. over 
w'hicli it is used. 

Mastic Varxish is made by putting five 
ounces of powdered mastic into a proper bottle, 
with a pound of spirit of turpentine, and setting 
them to boil in habieo Marine, till the mastic 
be dissolved, and straining the solution through 
llannel. This varnish may be converted into a 
varnish for painting with, by grinding one ounce 
of gum anime on a stone with water, till it becomes 
an impalpable powder ; then drying it, and grinding 
it again with half an ounce of turpentine, and after- 
wards with the proper colors, and moistening it with 
the mastic varnish, till the mixture be of a due 
consistence for working with the pencil. It must 
then be kept in phials or in vessels, and diluted, as 
there may be occasion, with spirit of turpentine. 

Price As. or bs. per pint. 

Others recommend the following mastic varnishj 
as very useful for glazing :— Twelve ounces of pure 
mastic put to one quart of spirit of turpentine in a 
glazed earthen pot, (for safety have a large iroa 
heater made nearly red hot, on this set the pot in 


( 75 ) 

some open place, where free from danger) let it boil 
very gently about a minute, it is easily dissolved 
even without boiling ; keep stirring it with a stick, 
when melted set it by to clear itself. Keep it in a 
bottle well corked for use. 

To make the Varnish recomvUnded by Mengs. 

To two ounces of the finest mastic in powder add 
four ounces of V7^w^^ di Rkisa, mix them in a glazed 
pot, which must be set in a pan of boiling water, 
and there continue over a slow fire for one, two, of 
three hours, as shall appear necessary to bring it to 
a proper degree of consistence for drying in a short 
time after it is laid on the pitSlure. This varnish 
may aho be prepared by being dissolved in the 
sun. In using this varnish great care must be 
taken that the pi6ture is quite dry, and has been 
painted five or six days at least, even then it wiJT 
be proper to let it stand for a short time, either be- 
fore the hre or in the air, but the varnish must not 
be laid on before the picture is quite cold. After 
the pi<5lure is varnished, it will be proper to let it lit 
for a day or two free from dust, after which you may 
work upon, re-touch or re-paint it as often as you 
shall think necessary : but it vAU be proper to re-var- 
nish the piece when you have completely finished it. 

N. B. ^giia di Rhasa is spirits of turpentine. 

To make 'ivhite or re-touchwg Varnish. 

Mix one ounce of gum-mastic with half an ounce 
of nut oil, and a quarter of an ounce of spirit of 
turpentine, dissolved in the same manner as in 
Mengs' masti: varnish. 

K 2 Varnishbs 

( ra ) 

[ Varnishes for preserving paintings, 

■ For this purpose some have recommended the fol- 
lowing composition : viz. half a pound of gum san- 
idarac ; an ounce and a half of Venice turpentine ; 
three quarters of an ounce of each of the gums 
anime and copal; lialf an ounce of mastic ; benzoin, 
gum elemi, and white resin, each two drachms, and 
one poun4 of recSlified spirit of wine. The benzoin 
and gum anime powdered, are put with the Venice 
turpentine into a phial, with eight ounces of the 
spirit ; the copal and resin powdered are also put 
in a phial with six ounces, and the powdered gum 
elemi with two ounces of spirit of wine. The seve- 
ral phials ar^ frequently shaken, till the gums, &c. 
are dissolved; then the solutions are strained 
through a fine linen cloth into one bottle, and when 
the mixture has stood some days, it is decanted off 
clear, and kept in a separate bottle for use. Some 
have substituted sarcocolla for the copal. 
. Another composition is formed, by dissolving masr 
tic and sandarac, gr®ssly powdered, of each sis; 
ounces, and Venice turpentine half an ounce in ^ 
quart of highly redified spirit of wine, and strain- 
ing ofi the solution. If it be required harder, an 
equal weight of the gums anime and copal may be 
added,, and the quantity of spirit of wine doubled. 
In the use qf this varnish , the painting should he 
thoroughly dry, and it should be spread very gently 
with the pencil. The varnish should be laid on in 
a very warm place, or the picflure itself warmed to 
a moderate degree, in order to prevent the chilling 
of the var-ni&h.: xii which case another coat should 


( 77 ) 

be added. And, indeed, two or three coats are 
necessary to preserve the painting, and to bring out 
a due tilci''! of its colors, if they are in that state 
called si/jd- i/i, occasioned by tiie attraction of the 
cloth on the oils mixed with them. 

An oil of turpentine luim/s/j may be made by 
grossly powdering mastic and sandarac, of eacli four 
ounces ; two ounces of white resin, and sarcocoila, 
animc, copal, and olibanum, of each one ounce, and 
putting them into a pliial with two pounds of oil of 
turpentine, stopping the phial lightly, and placing 
it in any gentle heat, so that the mass riiay not boil, 
and straining off the solution for use. 

Or, a vaniisli more simple, and cquallj' good, may 
be made by powdering two ounces of sandarac, 
mastic and olibanum, of each an ounce and half; 
or three ounces of mastic and Venice turpentine 
half an ounce; and dissolving them in half a pouud 
of oil of turpentine, and proceeding as before. 

White Varnish is usually made of gum sandarac 
and gum mastic, dissolved in spirits, left to settle 
two days ; then strained through a linen cloth, and, 
aftei standing some time, the clear poured oif, and 
bottled for use. 

The more curious artists dissolve the two gums se- 
parately ; and, having made a separate varnish of 
each, mix them occasionally, as their work requires 
a stiffer or a softer varnish. 

But for the best white varnish more gums are re- 
quired; viz. Venice turpentme, gum copal, elemi, 
benzoin, anime^ and white resin. 


( 78 ) 

Varnish for prints : — Take isinglass four oz. : 
separate it into small pieces, boil it in a quart of 
brandy, or other strong spirit : when it becomes the 
consistence of a strong glue, by being a little ex- 
posed to the air, it will answer the purpose. With 
this glue, while hot, wash over the print as quick as 
possible, and let that stand for a day or so, to dry 
well ; wash it over again in the same manner, and 
afterwards brush it over at such a distance from the 
fire that it may not blister ; do this also, two or 
three times. Varnish it with white varnish, and let 
it stand ; afterwards varnish it again. If it should 
at any time be soiled by flies or the like, you may 
wash it with a sponge and water, to clean it. 

The print should be previously mounted : i. e. past- 
ed on a cloth, and secured by a straining frame. 
VERDITER ought to be procured from the lapis 
armenus, prepared by grinding and washing ; but 
this kind is very rare. 

Verditer is obtained by adding chalk to a solu- 
tion of copper in aqua fortis. It is prepared by the 
refiners of silver, which metal is thought to assist 
the copper. Some say pearl ashes would produce a 
blue superior to chalk. When good, it is a cool, 
full blue, but must not be greatly trusted to for du- 
rability, either in oil, or in water. 

Price fer ounce 6d. or 8d. 
VERDIGRIS is a kind of rust copper, i. e. copper 
corroded by vegetable fermentation into a blueish- 
green substance. Generally, it is obtained by cor- 
roding plates of copper by the vinous acid. The 
crystals of verdigris distilled, make a very good 
3 blue-. 

( 79 ) 

blue-green tincture, which mixes well with yellow 
for a green ; or, if dissolved in the juice bf rue, 
makes a green at once ; with a dcco(9.ion of log- 
wood it strikes a black, which diluted, is a fine blue. 

Pr/rr of tf is filled VenUgris per oz. 6d. or Sd. 
V'ER^JILION, natural, is found in some silver 
mines in the form of sand: this requires good 

Vermilion is a mercurial production, made of 
artificial cinnabar^ ground up with white wine, and 
whites of eggs repeatedly ; the more it is ground, 
the finer and paler it becomes. 

Price from 6 J. to Is. 6d. per ounce. 
ULTRAMARINE is procured from the lapis lazuli, 
by a tedious process of calcination, grinding, "Sec. 
It is the first and prince of blues, warm, rich, and 
noble — but very dear. 

Price from three to ten guineas per ounce. 

King Charles I. presented to Mrs. Beale, the 
paintress, 500l. worth, which he held in his hand. 

Ultramarine-ashes are of a similar nature. 
These are usually sufficiently good for most pur- 
poses to which they may be applied. 

Price from \%s. to 0.1. per ounce, 
UMBER, is a dark brown earth of the ochre kind ;• 
when burnt, it is considerably deepened in its tone; 
it i» used chiefly in oil ; is cheap in its price. 

BhidJcrs Zd. each. 

NAPLES YELLOW was formerly thought to be ^, 

species of yellow ochre ; it is very beautiful, of a 

bright yellow, of a loose, porous, spongy, and shat- 

tery textuye : remarkably heavy, of a dusty surface ; 


( 80 ) 

gritt}'- to the touch, breaks easily between the fin- 
gers, jincl stains the hands ; adheres but slightly to 
the tongue; ferments briskly w'ith aqua fortis. 

It has; lately been demonstrated to be the produc- 
tion of art: on mixing together intimately twelve 
ounces of ceruse, or white lead, one of alum, one of 
sal ammoniac, and three ounces of diaphoretic anti- 
mony, in an unglazed earthen pot covered over ; 
and exposing the mixture to the heat of a moderate 
fire, during seven or eight hours, a substance is 
obtained, possessing all the properties of Naples 

It makes in oil a very useful, mild, and lasting co^ 
lor : it should be very well washed for use in water* 
colors. Price QJ. per ounce. In Madders Qd. each. 

YELLOW BERRY, v'lde Avignon berry. 

YELLOW is obtained from the plant Celandine, 
by infusing it in water, and pressing it gently ; then 
boiling the liquor with alum. 

Also, from the roots of BARBERHiEscutj and put inta 
a strong ley of pearl ashes : From the roots of the 
mulberry tree ; and probably from many other roots. 
Zedoauy root affords a fine yellow^, by boiling 
an ounce in a quart of water, till the infusion is 
highly colored, then strain it. It is as bright as 
saffron, and cooler, being excellent for painting of 

ZINK, has lately furnished an elegant white, v/hich, 
if all said of it by the French, who prepare it, be 
true, is a noble production ; as it stands perfectly^ 
both in oil and water. It is not }'et used in Eng* 
Und — ^it is said to be deficient in bearing a body. 


( 81 > 

The foregoing list contains those colors which are 
generally adopted into use : every master has some 
tnethod peculiar to himself in their management, as 
well as a certain set of colors which may be termed his 
favorites. Some, indeed, so perpetually resort to 
the same combination of colors, that their per- 
formances strongly evidence the mannerist ; a cha- 
radler to be avoided by all who desire excellence. 

The 7ninutia of many articles we have omitted, 
supposing the leading ideas to be sufficient: and the 
same in the preparation of certain colors — no doubt, 
by similar methods many additional pigments might 
be procured. 

In marking the prices to many articles, we suppose 
we have done service to those who choose first to 
count the cost: it may perhaps obviate obje(5lions in 
the minds of some, to observe how reasonable are the 
principal requisites for attempts in niost branches of 
the arts. 

We shall now proceed to offer a few hints on tlic 
management of these materials ; advancing from the 
simple to the more complex methods of application, 
in the following order: 


( 82 ) 



























/// ///<' ^(>r (?/ fb/m/rs. 

( 83 ) 




XjEFORE we proceed to explain the use of colors, 
and the materials for practice, it may be proper to 
premise a few observations, as introdudlory to the ap- 
plication of them. 

In general the more simply, and distincftly, colors 
are used the better ; they are not only more easy to 
work, but they are also brighter, and more durable. 
Of colors produced by composition, such as green, 
and purple, those tints which contain the fewest in- 
gredients are usually to be preferred. 

Some colors very necessary in painting in oil, are 
entirely useless in water; others, of great service in 
water, agree not with oil ; and some which in appear- 
ance promise well in other manners, are found defi- 
cient in effect and durability, when used in either. 

Few colors are, in their natural state, fit for imme- 
diate use, but must undergo previous preparation, 
according to their texture or temper — of these pre- 
parations, the principal are Washing and Grind- 
ing; but some require Calcination, 

l2 of 

( 84 ) 


Colors are washed, by being mixed with, and 
strongly stirred about in, a proper quantity of fair 
water, till the water having dissolved them, is tho- 
roughly colored by them ; if the surface of the 
water appear greasy, take off that scum ; then pour 
the colored water into a clean bason, leaving the 
grosser sediment behind : the water thus poured off, 
will in a little time deposit a quantity of color. 
This operation may be repeated, till the color obtain- 
ed is sufficiently pure, which appears by its fineness, 
and its brilliancy. The use of vinegar, of milk, or 
of other liquids, is occasionally adopted by some 
artists, for certain colors. 


Colors are ground by means of a large muller, on a, 
flat stone : this operation requires strength and care ; 
they are occasionally collecSled together, as the mul- 
ler spreads them, by means of a large knife ; the 
oil, or other vehicle, with which thev are ground, 
being added as wanted. 

In grinding colors the motion of the muller should 
not be too swift, but gentk, lest the color by being 
heated, lose part of its lustre; especially, if it be a 
color of no great body. In grinding white, observe 
to cease, before it becomes greasy, or dirty. 

Colors are liable to injury by being ground on a 
stone not thoroughly cleaned from the color which 
preceded ; many persons who are curious, grind 


( 85 ) 

tlieir own (at least the finer colors) that tliey may 
depend on their purity. 

The Grinding of colors should be continued, 
till they are capable of uniting so intimately vvitli the 
vehicle they are compounded with, as to seem only 
a liquid of that color, (which is termed bearing a 
body) ; and those colors which permit this, are al- 
ways most agreeable in using ; whereas, some will 
not embody, but are apt in working to separate, and 
disperse. This remark chiefly concerns colors in- 
tended for oil ; many of the best water colors are lit 
for use by being dissolved in gum water. 

Colors ground in oil can be used only in oil. Oil 
colors kept too long gww fiU, and become useless. 

Colors united with gums, for the purpose of water 
colors will not readily mix with oil. 

Colors ground in spihits may be preserved after 
grinding, and used either in oil or in water, being 
■capable of mixture with either. 


Some colors require calcination, to render 
them fit for use ; some are burnt, merely by putting 
them in the fire till thoroughly red hot ; others, arc 
rather dried than burnt, being placed in an iron 
Jadle over the fire, and kept there, till the smoke 
they emit ceases. Ivory, is burnt between two cru- 
cibles, well luted together, and covered with coals. 


( sa ) 


The colors being free from those impurities which 
are natural to them, to temper them, take a small 
quantity of ;jny color, put it into a clean shell, or 
cup, 8cc. add to it a few drops of gum water, and 
incorporate them, by working them about the shell ; 
let them dry, and when dry, touch the color with 
your finger; if any of it comes off, it requires a 
stronger gum water; if the color shines, and glisters, 
when dry, the gum water was too strong, and must 
be qualified by lowering it with fair water. Always 
let it dry before you use it; then, having wetted it, 
take a proper quantity in your pencil, transplace it 
on the pallet, and mingle such colors as the subjecft 

Gum water is made by dissoMng a quantity of 
gum arable (the clearer the better) in fair water. The 
strength of the gum water required must determine 
the proportion of the ingredients. Take a quarter 
of an ounce (or, perhaps, half the quantity) of 
gum arable, and pour boiling water on it in a tea- 
cup, when dissolved it is lit for use. A little colo- 
quintida added to the solution, will prevent flies 
from injuring the work if exposed. 

The WATEFx v.ith which colors are united, is of 
more consequence than is generally imagined; and, 
unless limpid and pure, contributes to their fading, 
jflake white, used with water containing particles of 
iron, soon becomes black, and disagreeable. To 


( 87 ) 

remedy this evil, the curious use only distilled water, 
which is easily obtained from a common tea-kcttic, 
by condensing the steam ; which, if the kettle be not 
too full of water, may be done, by binding round 
the spout, a cloth wetted in cold water ; or, by the 
addition of a tin spout to fit the kettle, wetting, and 
cooling, the cloth occasionally. There are mineral 
waters, &c. which produce very singular efFe<5ls with 
some colors. 

But beside the colors which require the use of 
gum water as above described, there are sev^eral use- 
ful colors (extra<5led chiefly from vegetables) in the 
form of tin<5lurcs ; to obtain which, the customary 
method is, to boil the ingredients, with the addition 
of alum, in a quantity of water, till the water has ac- 
quired a sufficient strength of color.: sometimes the 
mixture is boiled yet stronger ; and sometimes, but 
not often, the sediment of the mixture after boiling 
is of use. 

To use a color in tindlure, (generally called a 
WASH color) try first whether its strength be what 
your subject requires ; if it be too deep, it may be 
lightened by the addition of fair water ; if too light, 
it may be deepened, by setting a saucer of it to sim- 
mer over a gentle lire, till it acquires the strength 
desired. The watery part may, by this means, be 
nearly, or even totally, evaporated. Red Brazil 
wash, for instance, will hereby take a solid form, 
and afterwards work up pretty enough. 

Body colors (as they are called, to distinguish 
them from ivashes) may be light enedhy being diluted 
with v/atcr, but cannot be deepened beyond the 


( 88 ) 

natural state of the original material ; to sliadovr 
which, when used of its full color, recourse must be 
had to a darker color, of a similar species. 

Care sliould be taken to keep the drawing, &c, 
flat, and free from sinkings, lest the colors, if thin, 
should run to those parts, and there make patches of 
darks, kc. 

If the paper will not readily take the colors, a 
little fish-gal], or ox-gall, mingled among the colors, 
will help them. 

To pre-veiit colors jrom s'mk'mg in, take roch alum 
two ounces, and boil it in a pint of spring water ; 
wet the back of the paper with a sponge dipped in 
the water while warm. Some use starch applied at 
the back. A yet stronger mixture, which will pre^ 
vent the color from sinking not only on paper, but 
likewise on sattin, is made, by boiling isinglass in 
water, brandy, or spirit of wine, till the liquor is 
strong, and clammy, then, after your outlines are 
drawn, wash them over with this solution while hot. 
Repeat it if wanted. 


A principal advantage of oil colors is, that after 
they are dry they afford a constant opportunity ol 
being retouched, or even changed, either in whole, 
or in part ; thus, blac-k may be re-colored white, or 
brown, blue, &c. ; but, though this be undoubtedly 
a great advantage, yet it is only to be used when re- 
quired by necessity : for, the under color, if allied 
to the superficial, promotes both force, and har- 
mony; and It sometimes happens, that if the under 


( 89 ) 

color be cold, and powerful, it tends to injure the 
tone of the upper. 

Oil colons, are not, In usual practice, heightened, 
by being diluted with oil, as water colors are ivitli 
water; but, by being mixed with any color, or 
pigment of a lighter tone — as, light red upon dark, 
red ; yellow upon light red ; white upon yellow, 
&c. or, simply white. If^ut if a part should be 
heightened beyond its due force, it may be lowered, 
by diluting some similar color with oil, and (as it is 
termed) glazing it over till it is brought to the tone 
required. Glazing is sometimes used on a more im- 
portant, or at least a more extensive plan; as when 
great richness is wanted in some particular color, as 
crimson, &c. after having painted and finished it, as 
highly bright as he can, the artist glazes it over 
with a coat of lake. Sometimes this is repeated, and 
the lights re-touched; and instances have been, where 
an artist has glazed a bright white into a crimson, 
by means of carmine and lake, &c. 

Glazing is best performed with colors naturally 
transparent, such as lake, &c. but, after all, it is 
not applauded by those whose skill enables them to 
produce equal efFed^s without this pradlice. 

Those painters who have attained nearest to a just 
representation of nature, have usually composed on 
their pallettes, a great number of tints related to the 
subje6l on which they were about to employ them ; 
and, by mingling these tints, they have approached 
nearer to truth, than those who mingle the secondary 
colors of the pallette ia their pencils, and immediately 
apply them to the cloth ; for by this latter manner 

VOL. II. Edit, 7. M (wliich 

( 90 > 

(which yet is too common) the colors are not only 
less incorporated, but they are apt to become dull, 
and dirty. 

Th« usual way of painting in oil, is to lay on the 
colors with one pencil, and then soften them into 
each other, with a clean tool : this is termed scum- 
Ming ; but whether scumbling be really beneficial t© 
a picture, is much doubted ; certainly where strength 
is desired, it may well be omitted, as also in the 
finishing touches. 

A pencil for each color is necessary, w^here clean 
tints are desired. 

The smell of oil colors would not be bad (as it 
sometimes is) were the oil of the best quality. 

Colors are ranged on a pallette, beginning with 
whitt on the front, then yellow, &c. according to 
the'darkness of the color, ending with black. 


Colors incorporated with size, are useful, in works 
required to be free from glistening that they may ba 
seen to advantage in all situations, such as the scenes 
of a theatre, &c. but they are not used for pi6lures. 
Of late, fashion has introduced them into apartments, 
instead ofwainsrcotting, he. 

They are likewise used in Fresco-painTixgs in 
warm countries, but these are very rare in Britain. 

Fresco-paintings are performed on the mortar of a 
wall while wet, and dry with it ; w^hich circumstance 
totally prohibits the use of oil. 


( ?1 ) 

The incorporation of calors with wax is very 
rarely pra (ft ised: lor the method of procedure, i-iJe 


Colors are ranked as follows, white, yellow, 


and BLACK, are the extremes of color; yellow is 
the color next to white ; then green ; then blue ; 
green is composed of a mixture of yellow and blue ; 
orange of a mixture of yellow and red ; purple of a 
mixture of red and blue ; these compound colors 
admit an infinity of tints, as they incline most to 
either of the primary colors of which they are com- 

Some persons divide colors into dark, and light ; 
including among the first, black, umber, bistre ; 
among light colors, white, and those which ap- 
proach it. 

Having thus given some general hints on the nature 
of colors, by way of introducTiion, we proceed to- no- 
tice, more particularly, tlic various manners of their 

U1 OF 

( 92 ) 


THE colors fittest for this purpose^ are those 
which are perfedlly thin and fluid, usually called 
wash-colors^ or Unciure^ ; they should be diluted 
with water, intimately mixed with them, by their 
being well stirred together. When the desired tint 
of color is thus obtained, with a brush proportioned 
to the size of the space intended to be stained, briskly 
apply the wash ; always endeavouring to avoid— 

1. All passing over the proper limits of that color ; 

2. All runnings of the color into spots, or parts of a 
deeper tint than the rest ; occasioned by the settling 
of a greater quantity of color in some places than in 
others : or, sometimes, if one part of the space be 
dry before the rest, by a second coat of color passing 
over it. Begin the boundaries of your space first, 
that you may not exceed them. 

Be careful that no two limits, which touch each 
other, are of the same color ; since the prime intent 
of this business is distinction . 

Distribute your colors, if practicable, so as to pro- 
duce a pleasing efFe6t in the whole. 

After the various divisions are faintly washed, the 
boundary lines should be very neatly colored with a 
much stronger color of the same kind. 


( 93 ) 


In this business regard should always be had first 
to the paper on which the prints are printed; if it 
sinks, it may require the assistance of roch alum, or 
other strengtheners. 

The body of printing ink, which remains on the 
surface of the paper, should proportion, in many 
cases, the strength, and consistence, of the color to 
be used, according to the efFedt required. If it be 
intended only to stain the print, the effe61: of the en^ 
graving will be useful as forming shadows, and as 
keeping the drawling. If it be proposed to color the 
print highly, as advancing towards a pi6ture, the 
engraving, although it must be attended to as the 
regulator, and guide, of form, and of effect, yet may 
be concealed by a surface of color. 

Omit white color wherever you can do without it: 
e. g. in the lights, or parts approaching to lights, let 
the thinness of color supersede the admission of white. 

Omit black color on the same principle : if you 
cannot do entirely without it, take especial care to 
use as little as possible, that it be not heavy. 

In the broad lights, rather mingle colors of nearly 
a similar tone, to produce the effecfl required, than 
admit white ; the same principle adopt in the shades. 

Take great care that the outlines of all objects are 
mellowed, sweetened, and softened ; and neither 
sudden, nor rugged, nor cutting to the eye. 

Sometimes a print may be washed, and afterwards 
finished with body colors to good effect. 

Harmony and tenderness of color should always be 
puch attended to : then distribution and warmth. 

The proper colors are those for water colors, 

% OP 

r Si 1 


Drawings are tinted on the following principles: 

I. Sometimes after being outlined with a black- 
lead pencil, they are stained; the sky and distances 
in landscape with a thin wash; the eround and front 
objedls with body colors , then wrought up to efFedt 
Avith stronger colors alone, or united with Indian ink. 

II. Sometimes they are more perfe6lly outlined, 
and washed with Indian ink; then the color,, arc 
added afterwards to finish the whole. 

Drawings done in colors only, seldom look well, 
being usually deficient in effect and repose; for be 
it always remembered, glaring colors are hurtful. 
The best way for slight drawings, is to procure an 
effedl with the Indian ink, and then a brilliancy, and 
variety of tone, ccc. with colors. 

Flesh colors should be very tender — the less the 
fiesh is loaded with color the better. 

In general, the lights require more finishing than 
the shades; in which a breadth of pencilling has 
usually an excellent efFed:. Warmth is very neces- 
sary in all drawings; opposition of colors should be 
carefully attended to — a heavy efie6l in a drawing is 
very bad. 

The middle tint is the beauty of all drawings, and 
should predominate throughout the whole. 

The proper colors are those for waiter colors.. 


( 95 ) 


This part of aft Is seldom pmctised in historical 
compositions, or figures, they being generally treated 
in oil ; yet it has both its uses, and its beauties : The 
colors are free from smell, and often rich, and pleas- 
ing; they arc mixed on the principle of oil colors, 
not rejecting white where proper. 

As it is impossible to convey by words exact ideas 
of the numerous combinations, tones, and variations 
of colors, it is evident, that the following direclions 
must be understood with great latitude. They may 
serve to impart the rudiments of a principle, to be 
varied according to the effects desired; but the same 
proportions of colors will not serve every occasion 
equally well, nor produce the same harmony, or even 
appearance, if surrounded by different neighbours. 
Directions, therefore, are, at best, but very imper- 
fect ; and, though we think it to the advantage 
of students to Insert these direClions, yet Vv'e are 
aware of their impcrfecStions to many purposes which 
may be required in treating of different subjects. 

The materials are gum-water, pencils, a pallette 
(of ivory, if thought proper ; but a Dutch tile, or 
any glazed surface of a light color will serve the pur- 
pose) ; a pallette-knife of ivory (steel is injurious to 
the colors); a pen-knife, &c. 

The COLORS to he used ai-^: 

Whites. Flake white, Spanish white, Troy 
white, Egg-shell white, 8cc. 


( 96 ) 

Blacks. Burnt cherry-stones, Ivory-black, Lamp^ 
})lack, Indian Ink, &c. 

BrovviVS. Spanish brown, Spanish liquorice. 

Reds. Burnt ochre. Carmine, Indian kke, In- 
dian red. Red lead, Vermilion, &c. 

Yellows. Gall-stone, Gamboge; Mastlcot, dark 
and light ; Pinks, yellow, dark, and light ; EnglisJi 
Ochre, Roman Ochre ; Saffron, &c. 

Blues. Blue Bice, Verditer, Indigo, Litmus,. 
Smalt, Ultramarine, Prussian blue, &c. 

Greens. Green Bice, Green pink. Sap green^ 
Verdigris, Verditer, &:c. 

T)'ire3'ions for maVing a V^ar'iely of Colors hy Compounds 

AsH-coLOR. White and Lamp-black; Indigo 
and Black; Cherry-stone and White, shaded with 

Bay-color. Vermilion, with a little Spanish 
brown, and black. 

Bright Red. Indian Lake and native Cinnabar, 
or Vermilion. 

Carnation. Lake and white, shaded with Lake. 

Cloud Color, White, light Masticot; Lake and 
White shaded with blue Verditer. 

Crimson. Lake and White, shaded with Lake. 

Flame Color. Vermilion and Orpiment; Red 
Lead and Masticot, heightened with White. 

Flesh Color. White, with a little Lake, and Red 
Lead; add Yellow Ochre for a swarthy complexion. 

French GreexV. Light Pink and Dutch Bice, 
shaded with Green Pink. 


( 97 ) 

Glass Grey. Ceruse, with a little Blue. 

Hair Color. Masticot, Umber, Yellow Ochre, 
Ceruse, and Cherry-stone Black. 

Lkad Color. Indigo and White. 

Light Blue. Bice, heightened with Ceruse. 

Lion Tawney. Red Lead and Masticot, shaded 
with Umber. 

Murrey. Lake and Flake White. 

Orange. Red Lead and a little fine Masticot, 
shaded with Gall-stone and Lake. 

Orange Tawney. Cinnabar, light Pink, and a 
little Masticot, shaded with Gall-stone and Lake. 

PuRi'LE. Indigo, Spanish Brown and W^hite; 
Blue Bice wirh Red Lead and Flake White ; or Blue 
Bice and Lake. 

Russet. Cherry-stone Black and W^hite. 

Scarlet. Red Lead and Lake, with or without 
Vermilion ; Carmine and Indian Lake ; native Cin- 
nabar and Red Lead, shaded with Indian Lake. 

Sea-green. Bice, Pink and White, shaded with 
Green Pink. 

Sky Color. Light Masticot and White, for the 
lowest parts; Blue Bice and White for the next de- 
gree; Blue Bice alone for the highest part: all sof- 
tened into one another at the edges, where they unite, 
so as not to appear harsh. 

Sky .Color for Drapery. Blue Bice and 
fine Ceruse ; or Ultramarine and White, shaded with 

Straw Color. Yellow Masticot, and a very lit- 
tle Cinnabar shaded with dark Pink. 

VOL. II. Edit. 7. N Violet 

( 98 ) 

Violet Color. Indigo, White and Cinnabar, of 
Lake; or fine Dutch Bice and Lake, shaded with 
Indigo; or Litmus, Smalt, and Blue Bice j the latter 
most predominant. 

Water. Blue and White, shaded with Blue, 
and heightened with White. 

It is evident, even on a slight inspeclion, that the 
proportions of the several ingredients in these com- 
pound colors must varj' the tint, the tone, and the 
efie(5l of them when used : as no general rules can 
be laid down which shall suit every subject, we 
leave to the accuracy of the student's eye and judg- 
ment the making of those peculiar variations, which 
every different composition requires. 

Dlredlons for laying on the different Colors. 

Before you begin, have all your colors ready before 
you; a pallette for the conveniency of mixing them; 
a paper to lay under your hand, to keep your work 
clean, as well as to try your colors on ; also a large 
soft brush, or fitch, to wipe off the dust when your 
colors are dry. 

Lay your colors on very thinly at first, deepening 
tliem and mellowing them, by degrees, as you see., 
occasion. The quicker you lay them on, the evener, 
and cleaner, your drawing will appear. 

Take care to preserve all your colors from dust ; 
and before you use them, wipe your shells, and pal- 
lette, every time with your fitch. 

When you have done your work, or, would lay it 
aside, be careful to wash out your pencils in clean 
warm ivater. 


( 99 ) 

For flice-painting, mix up carnation, or fle^h 
color, with giim-watcr, in a shell by itself. For a 
fair complexion mix vermilion and Hake white; for 
a swarthy one, add a little masticot, English ochre, 
or both. 

Let your fle?h color be always lighter than the 
complexion you would paint; for, by working 
on it, you may easily lower it, but you cannot rea- 
dily heighten it. 

For the cheeks and lips, use a mixture of lake and 
red lead, or carmine, as occasion requires; and for 
blue tints, (as under the eyes, and in the veins) 
indigo, or ultramarine, and white. 

In coloring landscapes, at first only lay <iead co- 
lors, smooth, all over the piece, leaving no part un- 
coveied ; use a masterly freedom; and the work, 
though seemingly rough, at first, will have a good 
effedl when finished. 

Let not the roughness of the color discourage you; 
for, it is easy to soften it by degrees, with the other 
shadows, observing only to sweeten, and heighten, 
them, according as the light falls. 

In some places lay on strong touches, and in those 
places bring your work up together to an equal 
strength ; tempering, and sweetening, your colors, 
with a sharper pencil than the first, that no lumps, 
or harsh edges, be left, but that all your shadows 
may be soft, and smooth, and gliding gently, as it 
were, into one another. 

You are not to finish any part before another, but 
work up all the parts gradually alike, that you may 
judge of tlieir effect! on each other, and on the whole. 

N 2 Having 

( 100 ) 

Having laid your dead colors, begin first with the 
distances, and lighter parts, as the sky, sun-beams, 
&c. then the 3'ellowish beams (which are to be done 
with masticot and white) ; next the blue of the sky 
(with ultramarine, bice, or smalt alone); making 
your colors deeper as you rise upwards from the hori- 
zon, except in tempestuous skies. The tops of 
distant mountains must be worked so faint, that they 
may seem to lose themselves in air. 

All distant objedls imust be made imperfect as they 
appear in nature : and all distances must be finished 
with colors laid as thin, or in as small quantities as 

Bring your colors forward as you advance to the 
front; till you come to the fore-ground itself: 
where you may employ not only stronger colors, but 
a greater quantity of them, and in a bolder manner. 

In coloring trees, boughs, and branches, touch in 
all the dark shades first, raising the lighter leaves 
above the darker ; the uppermost of all are to be 
done last; touch lightly the extremities of the leaves, 
and set olF the darkest shadows with sap-green and 
indigo : or other strong colors. 

The intent of every pi61;ure, &c. is to imitate nature ; 
therefore, where nature indicates different compo- 
sitions of colors, from what we have given above, 
compose them as near as possible ; if you fail at first, 
you may succeed afterwards. It is not to be sup- 
posed that the real effedl of colors in combination, 
can be understood or attained till after the hand and 
the eye are matured by practice and re-consideration. 


( ]oi ) 


Painting in miniature has many advantages over 
other branches of art. It is neater, and not so 
incumbered with matcriah; as you may easily take 
with you all that are necessary, and entertain your- 
self wherever you please, quit and resume it when 
you Vv'ill, without such a variety of preparations as 
are necessary in oil coloring. 

The colors are those used for water colors ; they 
must be of the best quality, finely ground, cleanly 
washed, &c. and mixed in the shells with gum water; 
v.'hich must be reserved in a phial kept corked, and 
observe never to take any or:t with a pencil that has 
color on it, but with a quill cut for the purpose in 
the form of a scoop. 

To know whether your colors are properly gummed, 
draw your pencil ,when filled with color on your 
hand, which dries immediately, and should you per- 
ceive that it cracks or shines, it is then too highly 
gummed; but if it rub off, by lightly passing your 
finger over it on your hand, it has too little gum In 
it, and must have an addition put into the shell, tak- 
ing care not to use too much gum, whicl) makes the 
color hard. Gum adds strength to dark colors; 
and when you choose to give a greater force to any 
color than it naturally bears, increase the quantity 
of gum. 

To corre61: the greasiness of dark colors, taIx a 

little of the gall of an ox^ carp^ or eel, particuh^rty 

3 the 

( 102 ) 

tlie latter, dried and diluted with brandy for use; 
this makes the color work free, and prevents its 

Ivory is generally used to receive the colors, but a 
card is very useful, and may be sufficient for slight 

The choice of good pencils is a great matter, 
therefore wet them a little as you draw them through 
your lips, and if the hairs keep close together (as 
you turn them on the back of your hand) and make 
but one point, they are fit for use ; but if they make 
several points some longer than others, they are use- 
less. When they are too sharp pointed, with only 
a few hairs longer than the others, they must be trim- 
med with a pair of scissars, taking care not to clip 
away too much. It is necessary to have diiferent 
sizes, the larger for laying grounds and dead color- 
ing, and the smaller for dotting and finisliing. 

To bring the hairs of your pencil to join close 
together, and make a fine point, just put it between 
your lips, moistening and pressing it, leaving only 
so much color on it as is sufficient to give fine and 
equal touches. None of the colors used in miniature 
painting are poisonous, or prejudicial,, except king's 
yellow, and orpiment, which are seldom, or never 
used. This method is particularly used for dotting 
and finishing the naked parts of a pi6lure, that the 
touches may be neat, and not too m.uch charged with 
color. As for draperies, and other large masses ; it is 
sufficient to draw the pencil o^er the edge of the 
shell to unload it, giving a few strokes upon a card, 
or pdiper, before you use it on the pi(5lure, 


( 103 ) 

A north light Is desirable for the painting-roomj 
as by that liglit we view obje^ls most truly, and with- 
out glare; it is necessary to admit the light atone 
window only, and that confined to your work, 
placing your left side next it, and your desk on a 
table, just iiigli enough to work at, in an easy and 
gracefid manner, without stooping, or crampness, 
&:c. wliicJi is very detrimental to health. 

Sketch the outlines of the pidlure w^ith thin car- 
mine; this being finished, proceed to dead color; 
making the shadows tender, that they may afterwards 
be heightened by dotting, and brought to proper 
color, and spirit. 

There are several methods of dotting, and every 
painter has that peculiar to himself; some make their 
dots perfedly round, others make them long, but 
the best and most expeditious manner, is by little 
strokes that cross each other every way, till the work 
appears as if it had been dotted; softening them, so 
as to give your pidlure a fleshy mellowness, and avoid- 
ing all dry, or hard touches. 

After you have dead-colored a picture, begin the 
back-ground. First, lay in a light tint of the proper 
color, then pass a layer of the same color over that ; 
laying it as smooth as possible with large strokes of 
the pencil, /. e. not with dots. 

Dark back*grounds are composed of bistre, umber, 
or Cologn earth, with black and white, others more 
yellow, with a great part ochre. Black, white, and 
a little indigo, for grey back-grounds: Dutch pink, 
white and black, make a greenish, or olive ground, 
wliich makes the naked part of a picture appear 


( 104 ) 

very iinc, and gives by contrast^ a warmth to the 

Having drawn the outlines of your picture ver^' 
correctly, begin the ^lades with vermilion and car- 
mine"; giving the strongest touches at the corners of 
the eyes, next the nose, under the nose, the ears, and 
under the cliin; the fingers ; and in every part where 
you would mark out separations in shades that are 

Next lay in the blueish tints with indigo, on such f 
parts as go off, or turn from the light ; as the temples, 
under, and in, the corners of the eyes, on both sides J 
of the mouth, a little on the middle of the forehead, ■ 
between the nose and eyes, on the side of the cheeks, 
the neck, and such other parts as nature indicates. 

Yellow tints are composed of ochre and vermilion, 
and are given on the sides of the nose towards the 
bottom, under the eye-brows, a little underneath 
the checks, and on the other parts v.hich rise, and 
come forward, to the sight. It is particularly in 
these tints the complexion is to be observed. 

Vv'hen you have done 3*our dead-coloring, and laid 
in the several tints, proceed to finish, by dotting ^ 
ever the shadows with greenish tints, and finishing 
the yellowish and blueish tints before directed. Soften 
llie extremity of your shades on the light sides, pre- 
serving the color of the ivory for a middle tint, which 
adds a fine softness to a picture. Finish your strong ■ 
shadows with bistre and vermilion, or terra di Sienna, 
and in some parts with pure bistre, according to the 
subject you are paintings laving on your colors as 
clear as possible. 


( 105 ) 

Dot the clear and bright parts, with carmine and 
a little \'ermilion, using a very liitle ochre, to lose, 
or blend, them, in the shadowy parts, and make the 
tints die away insensibly into one another; taking 
care as you dot, to round the parts, by giving your 
strokes the different turns of the flesh. 

The whites of the eyes arc shaded with blue ; the 
corners next the nose with vermilion and carmine ; 
the sight of the eye (or the iris) with indigo and 
white, adding bistre if it be brown; or black if it be 
grey ; the pupil with pure lamp-black. Shade the 
sight with indigo, bistre, or black, according to its 
color; the marking of the eye-lids shadow with car- 
mine and bistre, which must be softened with the 
other tints; this done, give the little touch of light 
that falls on the chrystal with pure white. This 
gives a brilliancy, and life, to the eye. 

The lips are dead-colored with red lead) or ver- 
tnilion, and shaded with carmine, or lake. The 
markings, or dark touches, with bistre and carmine. 

The hands are colored as the face, observing that 
the joints, and ends, of the fingers, are a little redder 
than the rest. The m.arkings, as direcfled for the 
eyes, lips, &c. 

Hair is dead-colored with bistre, ochre, and white^ 
or black, according to its difterent colors; and finish- 
ed with pure bistre, mixed with ochre or black; the 
lights with ochre. The roots of the hair next the 
face must be softened into the blue tints; and great 
care must be taken to paint the hair light and soft, 
and to avoid a hard, wiry, manner. The eye-brows 
are done as the hair. 

VOL II. Edit, 7. o Cokrs 

( 106 ) 

Colors composed for Draperies^ Lace, &c. 

For BLUE DRAPERY. — Prussian blue^ or ultrama- 
rine and white, shaded with indigo. — Verdi ter,sliaded 
with indigo. 

Red DRArER'y.' — Red lead, or vermilion, shaded 
with carmine, or lake. — Carmine drapery. Form 
the shades with vennilion, and finish with carmine, 
the dark touches with bistre.- 

PuRPLE DRAPERY. — Lake, bluc and white, fi- 
nished with lake and indigo. Varied — by adding 
more blue, or more lake. 

Yellow drapery. — Yellow ochre, Dutch pink, 
gamboge, or Naples yellow, shaded with terra di 
Sienna, and bistre. 

Greex drapery. — Prussian blue, or verditer, 
and Dutch pink, shaded with sap green. Remem- 
ber, different greens are mixed by using more, or 
less, of blue, or of yellow. 

Black drapery. — Lamp-black and white, shad- 
ed with pure lamp-black. To give the lustre of vel- 
vets, &c. use indigo in the dark shades. 

W^hite woollen drapery. — White, and a lit- 
tle ochre, or gamboge, to give it a yellowish tint ; 
shade with bistre. 

Draperies should be done with broad strokes of the 
pencil, as the back-grounds. Several other kinds of 
draperies may be painted, according to what is desired, 
always taking care to preserv^e harmony in the coloring. 

Lace. — Dead color with blue, black, and white, 
finish with pure white : when it lies transparent over 
draperies, or carnations, finish the under parts first, 


( 107 ) 

then paint your lace over them with pure white, and 
shade with the first color. 

Gold lace. — Dead color with ochre ; and finish 
with Dutch pink and red lead. 

Silver lace. — Blue, black, and white, finished 
with pure white. 

Pearls. — White and a little blue for the dead- 
color, shade with light blue ; the speck of light in 
the middle with pure white, and a little yellow tran- 
sparent tint on the shadow side, to round them, 

Diamonds. — Lamp-black, the lights touched 
.with pure white. All other jewels are painted in the 
. same manner, only changing the dead-color. 

It is a frequent over-sight in artists to think 
when they have completed tlie head of a portrait, 
which being drawn from nature, possesses in conse- 
quence a considerable degree of truth and force, that 
the picture is finished, and their work is done; 
whereas much of the grace of the picture, and very 
much of the general effect of it, depends on the 
addition of accessaries, which are to complete it; 
these, if well disposed, and apply suited to the 
main subje6l, not only embellish that subjedt, but 
confirm and invigorate its effects, by imparting a 
splendor and brilliancy throughout the whole : — 
whereas if unsuitable and unfit, they enfeeble what has 
been already well done, and spoil that which in itself 
liad spirit : — In short, for these also consult Nature. 

2 OP 

( 108 ) 


The following article will furnish much informa- 
tion in the manner of using crayons, which may with 
propriety be adopted in drawings, intended aftemardi 
to be finished with chalks ; to that article, therefore, 
wp refe-, as illustrating the present. 

The proccjure, in this instance, is, by preparing 
the masses of light and shade with crayons, either 
ligiitiy touched with the finger, or more accurately 
defined w^ith i stump, according to the size of the 
sutjeCt. The drawing being thus inserted in proper 
colors, the chalks (chiefly red and black) are very 
neatly stippled into every speck, or interstice, agree- 
ablv to the color of the part, i. e. using ;-^<:/ chalk, 
where the flesh inolines to red, and black chalk in 
the stiaduws, or, in tlie parts inclining to blue, &c. 

In working some subjects, it is a good way to 
scrape a little powder ofi' each crayon that may be 
requisite, and to lay the several little heaps of color 
in order on white paper ; then (the outlines being 
previously drawn) with small rolls of paper carefully 
made, rub in the colors ; and finish with chalks. 

Stumps made of kid-leather (gloves, if not soiled 
in that part, serve very well) rolled up tightly, will 
answer the purpose yet better. Some use stubbed 
camers*hair pencils. • x'u. •ij.;jii,-. 

Several crayons made of earths, when tWfoughJy 
dried, then gradually warmed, or rather heated, and 
dipped into linseed oil, till saturated, may be. shar- 
pened to a very fine point; and the lines drawn by 
them, will not be injured without violence. Perhaps, 
by judicious experiments, a complete set might be 
composed. op 

( 109 ) 


The perfe»5llon of crayons consists much in their 
being kindly tempered ; for it is impossible to cxc-r 
cute a brilliant pid^ure with them if they are not; on 
which account great care should be used in forming 
them, to prevent their being hard. We have al- 
ready forl)id white lead in their composition, because 
it will certainly turn black ; which white chalk, 
tobacco-pipe clay, or whiting, well washed, will 
not do. 

Whether a painter works with oil colors, water 
colors, or crayons, the grand objedl of his pursuit 
is still the same — a just imitation of nature: But 
each species has its peculiar rules, and methods. 
Painting with crayons requires, in many respecfls, a 
treatment different from painting in oil ; because 
colors used dry are generally warmer than when wet 
with oil. 

The proper paper for crayons is a strong paper, 
either brown, or blue; the thicker the better, if not 
too coarse and knotty. The knots should be levelled 
with a pen-knife, or by hard rubbing ; then paste 
the paper very smooth on a linen cloth, previously 
strained; but, some artists reckon it most eli- 
gible to delay pasting the paper till the subje<5t is 
dead-colored. The method of doing this, is by 
laying the paper thus dead-colored, on its face, on 
a smooth table, and pasting the back of the paper ; 
the frame, with the strained cloth, must then be laid 
on the pasted side of the paper, after which turn the 
painted side uppermost, and lay a piece of clean 
2 paper 

( no ) 

paper on it to prevent injury: this done, it may be 
stroked gently with the hand, by which means the 
air between the cloth and the paper will be forced out. 

Sitting, with a box of crayons in the lap, is the 
hiost convenient posture to paint in. 

The box made use of, when the student paints, 
should be about a foot square, having nine partitions 
in it. In the upper corner, on the left hand, (sup- 
posing the box in the lap) place the black and grey 
crayons, those being the most seldom used ; in the 
second partition, the blues; in the third, the greens 
aqd browns; in the first partition on the left hand, 
of the second row, the carmines, lakes, vermilions, 
and all deep reds : the yellows and orange in the 
middle; and the pearl tints next; as these last are of 
a very delicate nature, they must be kept very clean, 
that the gradations of color may be easily distin- 
guished: In the lowest row, let the first partition 
contain a piece of fine linen rag to wipe the crayons 
with while they are using; the second, all the pure 
lake, and vermilion tints; and the other partition 
may contain those tints, which, from their complex 
nature, cannot be classed with any of the former. 

That part of the pidlure which is immediately 
painting, should be rather below the face of the 
painter, for, if it be placed too high, his arm will 
be fatigued. The windows of the painting-room 
should be darkened, at least to the height of six feet 
from the ground (as before directed for miniature) 
and the subject to be painted should be situated in 
such a manner, that the light may fall with every 


( "1 ) 


The features of the face being corretflly drawn 
with chalics, take a crayon of pure carmine, and 
carefully draw the nostril, and edge of the nose next 
the shadow, then, with the faintest carmine tint, 
broadly lay in the highest liglit upon the nose, and 
the forehead. Proceed, gradually, with a second 
tint, and the succeeding, to the shadows, which must 
be covered brilliant, enriched with lake, carmine, and 
deep green. This method will, at first, offensively 
strike the eye, from its crude appearance, but will 
be a good foundation to produce a pleasing effe6l, in 
finishing ; colors being much more easily sullied, 
when too bright, than raised to brilliancy. The 
pearly tints of fine complexions must be imitated 
with blue verditer and white; but if the parts of a 
face where those tints appear, are in shado\v, cravons 
composed of black and white must be substituted. 

Though all the face should be laid in as brilliant: 
as possible, yet each part should be kept in its proper 
relation of tone, and of color, to the others. 

Touch in the eyes with a crayon inclined to the 
carmine tint, brilliant, not loaded with color, but 
lightly : incline the light of the eye very much to z 
blue cast, cautiously avoiding a staring white; pre- 
serving a broad shadow occasioned by the eye-lash. 
Avoid a heavy tint in the eye-brows ; treat them like 
a broad, glowing, shadow, on which afterwards tlie 
hairs of the brow arc to be painted ; by wiiich method 
the former tints will shew through, and produce a 
pleasing effect. 


( li^ ) 

feegih the lips with carmine and lake; the stmng 
vermilion tints should be inserted afterwards. Mark 
the cornef of the mouth with carmine, brown ochre, 
and greens, intermixed. If the halt is dark, pre- 
serve much of lake, and deep carmine, therein; 
this may be easily overpowered by the warmer 
hair tints, which will produce a rich eff€6l when 

Having dead-colored the head, sweeten the ^hole 
together, by rubbing it over with the finger passed 
very lightly, beginning at the strongest light oh the 
forehead, uniting it with the next tint,' and, so en 
till the whole is sweetened together, often wiping 
the finger, to prevent sullying the colors. Be cau- 
tious not to smoothen, or sweetenj a picTture, too 
often^ because it will produce rather the appearance 
of a drawing, than of a painting. To avoid this^ 
replenish the pidture with crayon wherever^ and as 
often, as necessary. 

When the head is somewhat advanced, let the 
back-ground be laid in; which must be treated in a 
. different manner, covering it as thin as possible. Near* 
the face, the paper should be almost free from color^ 
for this will do the head great service by its thinnesSi 
In the back-ground, no crayon that has whiting in its 
composition should be used, but chiefly such as are 
least adulterated. The ground being thin next the 
hair, will give an opportun-ity of painting the edges 
of the hair in a light manner, when- finishing. 

The face, hair, and back-ground being covered, 
carefully view the whole at some distance; remarking 


( 113 ) 

"tvhSt parts are too light, and whnt tod dark; being 
particularly attentive to white, or chalky, appear- 
ances, which must be subdued with lake and c.irmine. 
The next step is to cotriplcte the back-ground and 
the hair; because the dust, in painting these, will 
fall on the face, and Would much injure it if that was 
completed first. From thence proceed to the fore- 
head, finishing downward till the whole pidlure is 

In painting the forehead the last time, begin with 
the faintest vermilion tint, in the same place where 
the faint carmine was first laid, keeping it broad. 
In the next shade work in some light blue tints^ in- 
termixing with them somewhat deeper vermilion 
tints, melting thetn into one another. Some light 
yellows may also be used, but sparingly; toward the 
roots of the hair, strong verditer tints, intermixed 
with greens, will be of us6. Pearly tints^ composed 
of verditer and white, are to be preserved beneath 
the eyes, under the nose, and on the temples; be- 
heath the lips, tints of this kind are proper^ mixing 
them with the light greens and vermilion. 

In finishing the cheeks, let lake clear them from 
any dust contracted from the other crayons ; then, 
Vv'ith the lake intermix bright vermilion; and, last of 
nil, (if the subje6l should require it), a few touches 
'of orange-colored crayon^ but with extreme caution; 
after this, sweeten that part with the finger as little 
as possible, for fear of producing a hea\ y efifeft. — 
The beauty of a crayon pi6lure consists, in one color 
shewing itself through, or rather between another; 
this being the only method of imitating beautiful 
complexions to advantage. 

VOL. n. Edit. 7. p The 

( 114 ) 

The eye is the most difficult feature to execute rirl 
crayons, as every part must be -expressed with the 
utmost nicety, to appear finished ; at the same time 
that a painter must preserve its breadth, while parti- 
cularising the parts. To accomplish this, it is a good 
general rule to use the crayon in sweetening, as much, 
and the finger as little, as possible. When a point 
to touch a small part with, is wanted, break off a 
little of a crayon against the box, which will pro- 
duce a corner. To dark eye-lashes, use some of the 
carmine and brown ochre, and the crayon of carmine 
and black ; and with these touch the iris of the eye 
(if brown, or hazel). Red tints of vermilion, car- 
mine, and lake, will execute the corners of the eye 
properly; but if the eye-lids are too red, they will 
have a disagreeable appearance. The pupil of the 
eye must be of lamp-black; between this and the 
lower part of the iris, the light will catch very strong, 
yet it must not be made sudden, but be gently dif- 
fused round the pupil till lost in shade. When the 
eye-balls are sufficiently prepared, the shining speck 
must be made with a pure white crayon, first broken 
to a point, and then laid on firm ; but, if defedlive in 
neatness, it may be corredled with a pin, by taking 
off the redundant parts. 

The difficulty, with respect to the nose, is to pre- 
serve the lines properly determined, at the same time 
so artfully blended into the cheek, as to express its 
projedlion, and yet no real line to be perceptible on 
close examination. In some circumstances it should 
be quite blended with the cheek, which appears be- 
hind it ; and determined entirely with a slight touch 



( 115 ) 

o£ red clulk. The shadow caused by the nose is, 
generally, the darkest in the face, partaking of no 
refle6lion from surrounding parts. Carmine and 
brown ochre, carmine and black, and such brilliant 
crayons will compose it best. 

Having prepared the lips with strong lake and 
carmine, &c. with these colors, make them com- 
pletely correal, and, when finishing, introduce ver- 
milions, but with great caution, as they are extremely 

In coloring the neck, preserve the stem of a pearly 
hue, and the light not so strong as on the chest. If 
any part of the breast appears, its transparency must 
be exprcGsed by pearly tints; but the upper part of 
the chest should be colored with beautiful vermi- 
lions, delicately blended. 

It is evident, that the foregoing principles are ap- 
plicable only to the finest complexions; it would be 
absurd, to treat the portrait of a sea-officer with 
transparent blues, and pearly tints. A variation of 
colors, according to the subjedl, is indispensable; 
but such variety is not difficult to whoever refiedls 
on what has been already hinted. Crayons usually 
appear to greatest advantage, in the tender blendings 
of their tints, in female countenances ; the warmer 
and bolder colors succeed best in oil. 

*^.* We have been particular in noticing the 
places of the colors, because the same rules apply in 
many other subjeds, and are drawn from nature 

P 2 OF 

( 116 ) 


Dark blue, purple, black, pink, and all kind of 
red draperies, should be first tinged with carmine, 
which will render the colors more brilliant than any 
other method ; over this, should be laid the middle 
tint, except the masses of dark shadow, which rp^y 
be laid on deep. 

Wirh the light and dark tints, the smaller parts 
are to be made with freedom, executing, as much 
with the crayon, and as little with the finger as pos- 
sible: in each fold touching the last stroke with the 
crayon, which stroke the finger must never touch. 
In reflexions, the simple touch of the crayon will be 
harsh, therefore, fingering will be necessary. With 
respedt to reflexions, in general, they must always 
partake of the same color as the objedl: refledling ; 
but in the case of single figures, of whatever color 
the drapery is, the reflexion on the face must partake 
thereof, otherwise the pic'HiLirc, like paintings on glass, 
will have but a gaudy efFedl:. 

Linen, lace, fur, &c. should be touched spiritedly 
with the crayon, fingering very little, except the lat- 
ter ; and the last touches, even of this, should be 
executed by the crayon, without sweetening with 
the finger. 

The coat of crayons should be but thin on the 
shadows, but in the lights a body of color will con- 
tribute- to for,ce_j and to durability. 



( 117 ) 


This manner of painting is executed with great 
facihty : it gives all the softness tlj^t earn be desired^ 
and is easy to work ; there are ng outlines to draw,; 
nor shadows to insert, but the colors are put on . 
without the trouble of either. 

The prints for this purpose arc done in mezzotioto, 
but many of those well-finished, engraved in thq 
roanner of chalks, are very proper ; for, their slui- 
dows being blended together, when rubbed on the 
glass, appear softj and united, as drawings in Indian 

From such prints cut off their margin, then on a 
piece of tine crown-glass, very clean, the size of the 
print, and free from knots and scratches, lay some 
Venice turpentine on one sidc^ quite thin and 
sm.ooth, with a paint;er's brush. Lay the print fl^ . 
in water ; when thoroughly wetted (which requires 
four-and-twenty hours for some sorts of paper, but 
other sorts are ready in two hours), take it carefully 
out, and lay it between dry papers, tliat the super- 
fluous water may be absorbed. 

Next, lay the damp print f|at on a table, with its 
face uppermost ; then, holding, the glass over it, 
wi];hout suffering the turpentine to touch it till iti$, • 
exadlly even with the print, gently press the glass 
down in several parts ; and turning it, press the print 
with your fingers, drawing them from the centre to 
the edges, till every part is quite smooth^, and ^^r^^ 
from blisters, -^fr^.frTf.t 


( 118 ) 

This done, wet the back of your print with a 
sponge, till the paper will come off with your fingers; 
then rub it gently, and the white paper will roll off, 
and leave behind it only the ink which formed the 
impression. When dry, with a camel's-hair pencil 
dipped in oil of turpentine, wet it ^all over, and it 
will be transparent, and fit for painting on. 

A sheet of white paper placed behind, will contri- 
bute to its transparency, and assist in determining 
the coloring, &c. 

Lay the lighter colors, first, on the light parts of 
yotir print, and the darker over the shadows ; and, 
having once laid on the brighter colors, it is not ma- 
terial if the darker sorts are laid a little over them ; 
for the first color will hide those laid on afterwards. 

The glass, when painted, must stand three or four 
days to dry, and be carefully covered from dust. 

The proper colors are those used in oil; for their 
management take the rules laid down in the follow- 
ing articles. 

Some years ago, the ingenious Mr. Vispre exhi- 
bited a numiber of paintings on glass , the subjects. 
Fruit, Flowers, &c. As in this kind of painting the 
lights must be first inserted, the pi<5lures are apt to 
suffer by a coldness ; which is evident in the per- 
formances of those who are not perfedt in the prin- 
ciples of their art. This must be, guarded against ; 
and care must be taken to give spirit to the pencil ; 
otherwise the smoothness of the glass will impart a 
lameness to the pi 61 u re. 


( 119 ) 


Notwithstanding the predilection of many persons 
for pi(5lures in miniature, or in crayons, there are 
scarce any who are not sensible of the superiority of 
oil pictures : their more accurate coloring, and their 
greater force, as well as their services in subjedls of 
considerable dimensions, render them principal ob- 
je6ls of attention. 

Of the CLOTHS necessary for this kind of painting, 
also of the pencils, tools, pallette, and pallette-knife, 
&c. see the respective articles in the Compendium 
of Colors. 

To these utensils most painters add, what they 
term a mall-stick ; which is a slender rod, or stick, 
at one end of which is tied a ball of soft rag, cotton, 
&c. to prevent bruising, or hurting the picture, 
against which it rests. This stick is held in the left 
hand, and its use is, to support the right hand while 
at work, keeping it steady, and firm : but many 
artists who possess command and freedom of hand, 
decline the mall-5tlck as a bad custom. 

Easels are of various forms, and contrivances, 
but generally compo-^ed of three uprights or legs, the 
longest behind. In the two which are in front are a 
number of holes, corresponding in height to their 
opposites in each leg, so that when a peg is placed 
m them, whatever is laid on these pegs, is kept even. 
It is usual to place a slight piece of board (termed a 
shelt) on these pegs to support small picfcures. 


( 1^0 ) 

The colors proper for painting in oil, ase usually 
kept in the color jhops in bladders, at certain prices; 
and this is the best method of purchasing small quan- 
tities of them, except ultramarine, carmine, and 
Vermilion, perhaps also the lakes and Prussian blue> 
which should be bought in powder, as in that stixtt 
they will be best preserved; the least touch of thesfe 
will give the picture a cast: mix up no more of these 
colors than you want for present use, which must ht 
with a drop, or two, of nut-oil on the pallette, with 
the pallette-knife. 

To get the color out of the bladders, prick a hole 
in the side of each, and press it, till you have suffi- 
cient for present use ; as what remains will dry and 
skin over, and so become useless. 

A great variety of colors afe used in oil ; the fol= 
lowing is a list of the principal : 

J. Flake White. 

2„ Fine Nottingham Lea£). 

5. Naples Yellow. 

4. Patent Yellow. 

5. Yellow Lake. 

6. Yellow Ochre* 
7" Ditto Burnt. 
6. Red Ochre. 

9. Light Red. 
to. Fine Red Lead* 
1 1. Vermilion. 
J2. Indian, or Chinese Vermilion* 

13. Pale, or Bright Vermilion. 

14. Indian Red. 

a 15. Scarlet 

r 121 ) 

15. ScARLF.T Lake. 

if). Pr.RPLE, or Deep Lake. 

17. Cakmixe. 

18. Brown Ochre. 

19. Si EX N A Earth. 

20. Ditto Burxt. 
2:. ANT\VEi;p Biiowx. 
2'J. BnowN Pink. 

23. Umber. 

24. Umber Burnt. 

25. Ultramarine. 

26. Prussian Blue. 
27- Lamp BlaciC. 

28. Ivory Black. 

29. BoxE Black. 

30. BluE Black. 

1. Flake White, when pure, is tlie very besj 
white ; thougli it has not the body of Nottingham 
White Lead. This color should be ground with the 
finest poppy oil. 

White is a very friendly working color, and 
comes forward witJi yellows and reds — but retires 
with blues and greens. It is the nature of wliites to 
sifil: into whatever ground they are laid on ; there- 
fore they should be laid on white grounds to preserve 
their brilliancy : or, a considerable body of the 
color should be laid on to allow for sinking in. 

2. Of Nottingham Lead there are two sorts; 
the best is little inferior in whiteness to the best 
flake white ; it will stand well, 

voi.. II. Eifil. 7. ft 3. Naples 

( 122 ) 

3. Naples Yellow will not bear iron to touch 
it, without altering its tint. It should be a clean 
tender color, 

4. Patent Yellow, a new invented color, very 
bright and durable — dries very well. 

5. Yellov/ Lakb should be used sparingly ; time 
will deprive it of its beauty, unless it be well secured 
by varnish--it is a bad drier. 

0. Yellow Ochre. The best stone ochre is 
very difficult to procure genuine ; but the want of it 
may be supplied by Sienna earth and Nottingham 
white ; which will produce pretty much the same 
tint, or rather brighter, with this advantage, that it 
is deeper in its tone, with less of the lead in it : the 
great body of the lead supporting the Sienna earth, 
which alone is semi-transparent. 

8. Red Ochre is a valuable color, when prime 
and genuine, for though cheap, it is often to be had 
only of an inferior quality. The best is that which is 
very hard and ston}'-, difficult to grind, more difficult 
to procure in perfe61:ion ; this, with a little deep 
lake, is not inferior to the best Indian red, in many 
effects that may be produced by it. It is a friendly 
mixing color, of great use — should be ground with 
nut oil, though linseed oil is commonly used for it. 

9. Light Red is fine light ochre burnt: this 
mixes very agreeably with white, and produces a 
flesh color of great use. 

10. Fine Red Lead. By an improved method 
of purifying it, is rendered very bright, and stands 

11. Of 

( 123 ) 

11. Of Vermilion the true native cinnabar is, 
by some artists, reckoned the best. It will not 
glaze, but is a fine color when glazed. It is ground 
with linseed oil, and should be used with drying oil. 

13. Pale, or Bright Vermilio^t, is esteemed 
much the most useful of the vermilions ; as the 
efte6ls of the others may be produced with this and 
good lake : but they cannot equal the brightness of 
this, by any mixture whatever. 

14. Indian Red, is a strong, pleasant working 
color; but will not glaze well, and when mixed 
with white falls a little into the leaden tone. It is 
ground and used as lake ; a mixture of red ochre 
and lake is occasionally a substitute for Indian red : 
nevertheless this is a useful and powerful color — in- 
deed it is often rather too powerful, and especially 
.while wet, in which state it differs from itself when 

dry : experience alone can justly foresee its true 

15. Lake is a tender, sympathising deep red, but of 
no strong body, therefore it should be strengthened 
with Indian red. It is the best glazing color. It is 
ground with linseed oil, and used with drying oil. 

17. Carmine is a most beautiful crimson between 
lake and \Trmilion, is a fine working color, and 
glazes. It should be ground with nut oil, and used 
with drying oil. 

3 8. Browj^ OcHre. a color allied to this may 
be made from yellow ochre, and other mixtures of 
the ochres. 

Q 2 io. Sienna 

( 124 ) 

Uj. Sienna Earth. A fine color, bnt little 
in U5e, except for landscape : in which this color 
burnt is of considerable service. 

20. Sienna Earth Burnt, ir.ixed with dark 
yellow and Indian red, makes a fine tint. The best 
sort burnt mixed with white and a little ultramarine 
makes an exquisite flesh color for skies, &c. . 

21. Antwerp Brown. This brown is not al- 
ways kept in the color-shops, we shall therefore give 
here the manner of preparing it : it is valuable from 
its great depth of tone ; it has great body, and will 
stand well, being produced by fire : — Put some good 
asphaltum into an iron ladle, set it over a very slow 
and feeble fire, taking care it does not boil over ; 
keep it there till it will boil no more, but is become 
nearly a cinder ; when cold, put to it the proportion 
of half an ounce of sugar of lead to half a pound of 
the calx, grind it in the strongest drying oil. It 
v.ill work free, and dry well. N. B. This operation 
13 called huDiing of asphaltum : asphaltum thus hurrit 
is used in some compositions of etching ground — 

vide GROUND. 

22. 'Brown Pink is a fine glazing color, but of 
no strong body ; in the flesh it should never join or 
'mix with the lights, because this color and white are 
enemies, and mix to a warm dirty hue; for which 
reason their joinings should be blended with a cold 
middle tint. In glazing of shadows it should be laid 
before the other colors, that are to enrich it : it is one 
of the finishing colors, and tlierefore should never be 
used alone in the first painting. It is strengthened 
with burnt un^iber, and weakened with terra verte 


( l'^3 ) 

is ground with linseed oil, and usod with drying oil. 
A better color (in the opinion of some artists) and 
more certain, may be made from Antwerp browa 
and patent yellow. 

23. Umbkr, burnt or unburnr, Is especially use- 
ful in dead-coloring; it forms outlines^ &c. well, or 
washes in a subje(5l, he. to advantage. 

21. Burnt U.mrer is a very quick drier — is a 
fine warm brown, and a good working strong color : 
it is of great use in the hair, and mixes linely with 
the warm shade. It is highly commended by some 
artists, and highly blamed by others, as a sullying color. 

2.5. Ultramarine is the finest blue known in 
the world : it stands even in the tire ; it is tender, 
glazes beautifully, and never glares — it is a retiring- 
color. From its great value should be used with the 
purest oils. 

26. Prussian Blue Is a fine blue, and a kind 
working color; but apt to be cold, and rarely or 
never stands well : it should be ground in nut oil, as 
grosser oils injure it. It should only be ground 
as wanted. 

27. Lamp-black is a troublesome color, and 
should be burnt in an iron box till red hot ; being a 
greasy color, and when mixed with the strongest 
drying oil, still requiring the assistance of a little 
sugar of lead, to force it to dry. 

28. Ivory Black is far preferable to lamp-black, 
as it mixes much better with other colors ; it is a 
good shade for deep blue. Ivory black and a little 
Indian red make a good general shadow color ; it is 
graund with linseed oil, and requires the assistance 


( 126 ) 

of drying oil. Black is in its nature a cold and re-' 
tiring color, except where b}' the force of contrast it 
comes forward, in which case it has great power. 


A quantity of color being squeezed out of its blad- 
der, on the centre of the pallette, work it into a 
proper form (with the addition of what oil is requi- 
site) by the pallette-knife, and transplace it into its 
station on the upper part of the pallette , beginning 
with the lighter color, placed next the hand. From 
these originals compose a row of secondary tints, by 
mixing them together, in such proportion as appears 
most likely to suit the subjecfl to be treated. A third 
row, still nearer to the subjedl, may easily be formed 
from the former. 

To be somewhat more particular : We suppose 
the original colors placed in their order on the upper 
part of the pallette : To compose a second row of 
colors; take, for example. Lake and Naples yellow, 
to these we imagine white to be added ; this compo- 
sition we place in the second row, and so of the rest. 
If we wish for a lighter tint of the same colors, this 
is produced by an addition of white ; or, perhaps, 
■we want a red somewhat different, varying to light 
red, or to vermilion ; these united, form a compound, 
admitted lower on the pallette : or, the secondary 
color, instead of red, requires yellow, or a different 
kind of yellow; or, in short, any other color which 
■Biay be a departure from tl>e first mixture. This 
combinauon is termed hreiil:inv the colors;, its^use is, 


( 127 ) 

to prevent glare, and rawness, and its judicious 
exercise is a principal token of a masterly hand. 

Nature never presents a pure, unmixed, strong, 
color, of any cast : but evefy color has an inclination 
to, or a tinge of, some other. A blue sky seems at 
first an exception, yet it is not so in fa6l ; nor the 
color of the sea, nor the green of a field ; for an in- 
numerable variety of lights, reflexes, he. are perpe- 
tually playing upon it, and thereby diversifying, 
debasing, and confusing, the original color. Even 
draperies vary in the colors of their lights and shades: 
the yellow light of the sun, the red light of a fire, a 
white light, &c. alter their appearances ; and the 
deprivation of light in the shades, as the parts are 
more or less retired, is too obvious to need expla- 
nation ; yet, even shadows are altered by reflexions 
from their neighbours. 

It is evident, from this mode of reasoning, that to 
set a pallette well, requires no mean skill; and per- 
haps, if these who consider it as labour lost were to 
bestow more attention on it, their pidlures would not 
fare the worse for it, we shall therefore give a variety 
of modes, as pra6tised by the best masters : 

Method of setting the Pallette as used hy Chevalier 
Mengs, and others. 

1 . The principal light of flesh is composed of 
white and Naples yellow, or light ochre, or brown 
ochre, according to the complexion of the person ; 
of these form the first and second tints. 

'I. White, light red, with a little yellow. 

3= The same a little darker. 


( 128 ) 

For Middle Tint, 

1 . White, black and yellow, tempered with a 
little red. 

2. The same a little darker. 

For Shadows, 

1. Yellow, black, with a little red: in three de- 
grees of strength. In all these shadow tints z. little 
asphaltum may be used, in order to give a transpa- 
rency and an harmony. 

For a 7 Farm Tint, 

1 . Naples yellow and lake. 

2. Lake and vermilion. 

3. Lake and light red. 

4. Lake and terra de Sienna, burnt. 

A little asphaltum must be used in all these 
warm tints. 
Likewise make two other tints composed of black 
and white only — and two other tints of a purplish 
hue, which are composed by mixing a little vermi- 
lion with the black and white. 

Another Method of set tin r^ the Pallette. 

1 . Light. Yellow ochre and white. 

2. Ditto; The same a little darker. 

3. Ditto. Light red, a little yellow ochre and 

3 4. Light. 

( 120 ) 

4. light. Tlic same a little darker. 

For a very fine complexion add a little Termi* 
lion in the tints. No. 3 and 4. 

5. Ditto. Vermilion and white is also necessary 
in tine checks, &c, 

6. Demi-tint. The same as No. 1, with peach 

7. Second tint. YeMow .and black, in the dead a 
little red. 

8. Tiaird tint. Tcita de Sienna burnt, ydllow 
and black, 

9. RcBexion^ To No. 3 add yellow ochre and 
brown ockre. 

JO. Dittou To No. 4 add lake and biimt ©dare. 
3 1, Black. Lake, biirnt ©dbire and teroi de Sienna, 
In 'scttiiHg a pallelfc it is ^od to observe to lay 
tliose colors near each other which baimoniz'C : lor 
exarapic, first, white, then Naples yellow, nesct light 
yellow, dark yeHow, light red, Teimillion, tenrai de 
Sienna burnt, lake, blue, wmber light and biamt, and 
black ; also, observe in mixing the tints on the pal- 
lette to place diem lander in like harmony, begin- 
ning with the lightest of each, and so placing those 
of the next degree of streng^ one beside the othctv 

OP THE rjuxcirAL tiicts POiR painting flesh, 


1. Light Re» Tint, of light red smd white; 
it is the best conditioned of aM colors,, for a, general 
groiand for fiesh. With this color, and the shade-tint, 
we shoidd msikt mat the flesh, lake ciator ©bsc^uro, or 

( 130 ) 

mezzotinto. Wc should also remember, that this 
color will grow darker ; because it is naturally too 
strong for the white ; therefore we should temper it 
by mixing some vermilion and white with it, in pro- 
portion to the fairness of the complexion ; and though 
thus mixed, it may yet be called the light red tint, 
to avoid confounding the vermilion tint with it. 

2. Vermilion Tint. Vermilion and white, mix- 
ed to a middle tint ; it is the most brilliant light red ; 
it agrees best with the white, light red, and yellow 

3. Carmine Tint, is carmine and white, mixed 
to a middle tint; it is the most beautiful red, for the 
cheeks and lips : it is a finishing color, and should 
never be used in the first painting. 

4. Rose Tint, made of the red shade and white, 
mixed to a middle degree, or lighter : it is one of the 
cleanest and most delicate tints used in fleshy for 
clearing up the heavy dirty colors ; and therefore, 
in changing, will sympathize and mix kindly. 

5. Yellow^ Tint, is often made of Naples 
yellow and white ; or of light ochre and white, 
which is a good working color. Remember, the 
ochre is too strong for the white ; therefore it re- 
quires a little allowance in using it. It follows the 
light red tints, and should always be laid before the 
blues. If we la^r too much of it, we may recover the 
ground it was laid on, with the light red tints. 

6. Blue Tint, ultramarine and white, it is a 
pleasant working color : with it we should blend the 
gradations. It follows the yellows,, and with them 
it makes greens ; and with the red it produces pur- 

.' . ■ pies. 

( 131 ) 

pies. No color is so proper for blending downi or 
softening the lights into keeping. 

7. Lead Tint, ivory black and fine white, mixed 
to a middle degree ; it is a fine retiring color : is of 
great use in the gradations, and in the eyes. 

8. Green Tint, is made of Prussian blue, light 
ochre, and white : this color will dirty the lights, and 
should be laid sparingly in the middle tints. It 
is most used in the red shadows, where they are too 
strong. It is of a dirty antipathizing nature. 

p. Shade Tint is made of lake, Indian red, 
black, and white, mixed to a murrey color, of a mid- 
dle tint ; this is the best color for the general ground 
of shadows ; therefore called the shade-tint : it mixes 
with the lights, and produces a pleasant clean co- 
lor, a little inclined to the reddish pearl. As the 
four colors of its composition are of a sympathising 
nature, this mixture will be the same ; and therefore 
may be easily changed, by the addition of other color. 

10. Red Shade, ii lake and a very little Indian 
red : it is a good working color, and a good glazer: 
it strengthens the shadows on the shade-tict ;, and 
receives, when it is wet, the green and blue tints 
agreeably. It is a good ground for all dark shadows. 

11. Warm Shade, is made of lake and brown 
pink, mixed to a middle degree : it is a fine color 
for strengthening the shadows on the shade-tint, 
when they are wet or dry. We must take care that 
it does not touch the lights, because they will mix 
v^ith it to a dirty snuff-color; and therefore should be 
softened with a tender cold tint. 

R 2 12, Da^s: 

( 13^ ) 

12. Dark Shade is made of ivory bkck and a 
little Indian red only. This color mixes very kindly 
with the red shade, and sympathizes agreeably with 
the middle tints in the dead-coloring. It is a glazing 
color for the eye-brows and darkest shadows. It is 
an excellent shadow-color, and one of the finest 
working colors. 


the colors and tints necessary for the 
first painting of flesh. 

1. Fine White. 

2. Light Ochre — ^and its two tints. 

3. Light Red — and its two tints. 

4. Vermilion — ^and its tint. 

5. A tint made of Lake, Vermilion^ and 

6. Rose Tint. 

7. Blue Tint. 

8. Lead Tint. 
g. Green Tint. 

10. Half-shade tint — ^made of Indian Red, and 

11. Shade Tint. 

12. Red Shade. 

13. Warm Shade* 

The finishing pallette for a fine complexion re-r 
quires more ; -uix. carmine and its tint, lake, brown 
pink, ivory black, and Prussian blue. 

The first lay of colors consists of two parts— one 
the shadows only, the other the lights. 


( I3i ) 

TIte use of the sh;id;oicrs' is. to make out tTie- cliiwinfr, 
veiTT cQ-rre^Iy, wttti t&ce sfiaileMrtiit, ai& tf tt was. to be 
done with tliis color onl'y; aiul I'euTKfmber ta J/iVc tlW 
color, or hx it sparrngfp Tl're lig-hts Viv m ■with, 
the Iiglit-red tint, in ditieremt ilegrtes, as in nattrre r 
these two, croloirs united; produce st clean tender middle 
tint J to* go. over the darkest s.hado»ws with the red or 
u-rtrm shade, vclll B.m'ih the first Isv. 

The warm sliade,^ it laid on tliie shade-tTnt, impnn-^s 
it to a warmer hue ; but if laid instead of the shade- 
tint, it will dirty and spoil tlie colors it mixes with ; 
if the red sliade be laid fii-st,^ instead of the shad^:- 
tint,, the shadows would appear too red and blooxly - 
the shade and light red tints are so fi-iendly and 
delicate in their natiire% that they wlH not dirty each 
other, though we are continually changing them. 

Toi finish the first painting, improve the reds and 
yellows to the complexion,, and after them the bUies; 
observiiag^ that the bkjes on ttie reds make pui*ple, 
iind the yellows green. The same method is to be 
understood of the shadows; but be sure to leave 
them clean, and not too- dark ; therefore allowance 
should he made in their grounds with the light red ; 
because glazing will make them darker. A cloth o£ 
a dark, ox bad hue,, requires a strong body of color 
all over the shadows,, such as will not sink into the 
groimd, but appear warm^ and a little lighter than 
the life, that it may be of the same forwardness to 
finisbj as if it had i;>een on a light gFound ; for» the 
business of dead-colorina^ is, that we h^ivQ it always 
in proper order for finishing. 


( 134 ) 

The grounds of shadows, in the d'^ad-coloring, 
"should be such as will support the characfler of the 
finishing colors; clean, and a little lighter than the 
finishing colors, because the finishing of shadows 
consists, in a great degree, of glazing ; all shadows 
and colors, that are to be glazed, should be done 
■with colors of a clean solid body ; because the glaz- 
ing is then more lasting, and has a better effect. 

The light red and white improved is proper for 
the first lay or ground ; which should be always done 
w^lrh a full pencil of stiff color, brighter than the 
life, because it v/ill sink a little in drying. The 
greater the body and quantity of color, and the stiffer 
it is laid, the less it will sink: every color in diying 
will sink, and partake, in proportion to its body, of 
the color it is laid on ; all the lights of the flesh, if 
not laid on a light ground, must consequently change 
a little from the life, supposing there is no allowance 
made. The shade-tint for the shadows should verge 
upon the rose tint, in proportion as the complexion 
is delicate. 

It is thought the great masters of coloring seldom 
sweetened, or softened, the colors ; but in uniting 
the first lay, were very careful in preserving the 
brightness of their colors, and therefore did not work 
them below the complexion. The first painting 
should be left bright and bold, and the less the 
colors are broken the better : We sliould forbear 
using any colors that will prejudice them, and be 
contented to add what is w:inted in the next painting. 


( 135 ) 


The second painting begins with laying on a very 
small quantity of poppy oil; then wipe it almost all 
off, with a dry piece of silk, hankerchief, leaving only 
a moisture remaining from if. 

The first lay of the second painting, is, scumbling 
the lights, and glazing the shadows : then finishing 
the complexion with the virgin tints, and improving 
the likeness, as far as we can, without daubing. 

Scumbling, is going over the lights, where they 
are to be changed, with the light red tints, or some 
other of their own colors, such as will always clear 
and improve the complexion, with short stiff pencils; 
scumbling only such parts as require it. 

The light red tint improved, is a good color for 
scumbling, and improving the complexion, in gene- 
ral. Where the shadows and drawing, are to be cor- 
rected, employ the shade tint, driving the color very 
stiff, and bare ; the easier to retouch, and change ir, 
with the finishing tints. Parts of the shadows should 
be glazed with some of the transparent shadow colors^ 
si^ch as will impyove them, and come near to the life, 
taking care not to lay on too much, for fear of losing 
the hue of the first painting, the ground of which 
should always appear through the glazing. In unit- 
mg the lights and shades, they should not mix dead,, 
and meally ; the more the lights mix with the shades^ 
the more meally those shades will appear. 

Go over the complexion with the virgin tints, to 
improve the coloring to the utmost, both in the- 


{ 3St5 ) 

li^Jits and ^Hiadcws. Tins slrcraJM be dont in flie 
same .manm^a: as ^e iaid tii«m iit t3a« latt-er part ©f t'be 
fest painfrng; wirli tl^c reds, ycltows, and blues; 
l)!e-i>di'ng '\htm v^ith. delicate liglit tGiicli«s of tihe 
t^^Dder xiiiddle ci.nts, t^dtiioiit scrfrening. We sko-uld 
ict^e the tin^s mi-^ tihteir gromads dean sind dlstinxSV, 
and be coinieiii r© Ir-axc off TvinLl-e t'he work is safe 
.Tind -misullird, Iciaring wli'at is Teqtiired fartli-cr to 
tfoe cOTiclQ^iKn 5 for, in atrcmpT^ng th'c iinishing 
tcjnda'cs ihtfee ttibe 'csfers we jSht, "we fese tihic spirit^ 
and tiiic d^j-E^R'ing, and diinty^ie!r w« t^yucla. 

It is mmfr sinp'ro^ed tbe 'Ctxmpleinon -R-ants little 
aiiiDTe tt^haiji a few 1 igiht toiiciic?^ therefore th'ciie will 
he mo 'ODcasionii for 'ciiiiig before we begin. We 
begin w^ih cori-eSing aH tfe gl^mg ; €irs;t, wlh<eire 
-■tbs gl:a?;i:ng scares .as -a g:rofiii^n>d, or iKidcr part ; then 
we d4:f'r£nmne ^-ii^X siroiild be don-e Qe:s:t, ^before 'wg 
do it, t'hat ^ie inrta? iTiak« t^D'e altd'ation l^'it!h on-c 
strake 'of tfee pencil, tiliere;bj jjireser^^^ing feotih tfe-e 
.gkai;rtg and tJic fln^ts:^ ibst if w-e cannot laj sutii Ta* 
rieTy •of tints, and £:jndii:Eig 'colors, as'^'e intended, if 
is foettea' to 'lea\-« io#'" wliile tiie -x^'Cffk is- .safe, and in 
^Qod cn-der:; feecatKe thc&e few tojaclies, wlaicli woul'd 
ten^^aiigeir the Ibea^iity ©f tihte cdlfoiang,- mnj easily be 
dxxnc, if -w-c irare paitk^nce (tcy stay tilM tli€ cofctts asrc 
'dar5' 4 ain^d til'icn ;W{M itikxise i3i2ii;iirags Tvitii £ree liii^iit 
strokes of tfe jxcn-cil. 

it is ajEi^Tcla"(easi«!r n© ssitteia ©tct sa.TSxiag iciiiiis wlim 
tift^ .axe day,, tdhaaa "^s'Sataa tdh^j an^e w^t , feecaiasc ^-^ 

( isr ) 

may add the very colors that are wanting, without 
endangering the parts that a;re dry. If any of the 
colors of the pallctte want to be changed to the life, 
when we are painting, it is better to do it with the 
knife on the pallette> than with the pencil* 


The principal colors necessary for painting back- 
grounds in portraiture, as walls, buildings, or the 
like, are white, black, Indian red, light and brown 
ochre, Prussian blue, and burnt umber, from which 
the eight principal tints are made, as follows • 

1. Pearl is made of black, white, and a little 
Indian red. 

2. Lead, of black and white, mixt to a dark 
lead color. 

3. Yellow, of brown ochre and white. 

4. Olive, of light ochre, Prussian blue, and white. 

5. Flesh, of Indian red and white, mixt to a 
middle tint* 

6. Murrey, of Indian red,- white, and a little 
black, mixt to a kind of purple, of a middle tint. 

7. Stone, of white, um.ber, black, and Indian red. 

8. Dark-shade, of black and Indian red only. 
Here the lead tint serves for the blues ; the flesh 

tint mixes agreeably with the lead : the murrey 
is a good blending color, and of use where the 
olive is too strong. The umber, white, and dark 
shade produce a variety of stone colors : the dark 
shade and umber, used plentifully with drying oil, 
make a warm shadow color. These colors may be 
VOL. n. Ei^it. 7. s laid 

( 138 ) 

laid with drying oil^ because they mix and set th^i 
better with the softener. 

Begin from the shado\ved side of the head, and 
paint the lights first; then, the gradations and sha- 
dows, with a largCj stifhsh, tool, sparingly, with the 
dark shade and white, a little changed with such 
colors as will give it the hue required, but very near 
in regard to tone and strength ; leaving them like 

The dark and warm shadows should be laid before 
the colors that join them with the dark shade and 
umber, because, if those colors were laid on first, 
they would interrupt and spoil the transparency, 
which is their greatest beauty. The more the first 
lay is drove, the easier and better we may change it 
with the finishing tints ; therefore we may lay them 
with the greater body. 

As we heighten and finish the lights, w^e do, it 
with warmer colors; accompanied with tender cold 
tints. The lightest part of the ground is always 
nearest to the shadow^ed side of the head ; and this 
part governs all the rest; it should be painted with a 
variety of light, warm, clear colors, which gradate 
and lose their strength imperceptibly. We must 
take care not to cover too much of the first lay, but 
consider it as the principal color. 

When the lights are well adapted to support the 
head, it is easy to introduce wdiatever kind of sha- 
dows we find most proper; then soften and blend 
the whole, the tints will sink, and lose a little of 
their strength and beauty in drying. Grounds, 
walls, &c. may be finished at qnce painting ; or af- 

( 139 ) 

terwards glazed with a little of the dark shade and 
drying oil, drove very hare ; and their hue improved 
with a few light touches of the color that is wanting. 
The dark shadows may also be strengthened and im- 
proved by glazing, after the subje<5l is nearly finish- 
ed, for fear of making them too strong. 

Curtains should be dead-colored when we paint 
the ground ; with clean colors, of a hue near to 
the intended curtain, such will support the finishing 
colors, with a tender sort of keeping, in regard to 
their tone in the lights, but much softer in the sha- 
dows, mixing and breaking the whole with the colors 
of the ground, as Fresnoy says, " bodies that are 
back in the ground, should be painted with colors 
allied to those of the ground itself." If we cannot 
set the folds the first painting, we should leave the 
masses of light and shadow, in regard to the keeping 
of the pi(5lure, broad and well united together, such 
as may appear easy to finish on. The colors of the 
landscape, in back-grounds, should be broken and 
softened, with those of the parts which join tliem : 
hereby bringing them into keeping, so that the parts 
do not stare, nor cut at their extremities. 

The sky should be broke with the lead, and the 
flesh, tints: the murrey tint is of great use in the 
grounds of distant objedls; the umber and dark shade 
in the near grounds: the greens should be more 
beautiful than we intend them, because they will 
fade, and grow darker. After all is painted, we should 
go over the whole very lightly with the softener. 

i 2 PF 

( UO ) 


The right method of painting draperies in general, 
is, to make out the whole, with three colors only ; 
viz. the lights, the middle tint, and the shade tint. 

TJie middle tint should be very near to the general 
hue of the drapery: and the shade tint dark enough 
for the general hue of the shadows. 

The lights should rather incline to a warmish hue : 
the middle tint should be made of friendly working 
colors, such as will mix of a clean tender cool hue, 
and the shade tint should be made of the same colors 
as the middle tint, only with less light ; with these 
three colors we should make out the whole like 
mezzotinto, before we add any of tlie reflexions, 
pr finishing tints. 

The reflexions of draperies, &c. are generally pro- 
dudlions of their c\vn, and lighter than the shadows 
on which they are found; being produced by light, 
they will have a light, warm color, mixed with the 
local color that receives them. Here it will be ne- 
cessary to observe the general method in managing 
the colors of the first lay, and those of the reflexions 
and finishing tints. 

In the first lay, the high lights should be laid with 
plenty of stiff color; then shaped, and softened 
into charadler with the middle tint, very corre6lly. 
Where the gradations of the lights are slow, as in the 
large parts, it is proper to lay the middle tint first at 
their extremities, with a tool that will drive the 


( 141 ) 

color, and leave it sparing : because, the lights will 
mix, and lie the better, upon it. Next make out all 
the shadows with the shade tint drove bare. After 
this, the middle tint, which fills up, and serves as a 
kind of second lights and gradations, should be ma- 
naged very nicely, to produce chqiracler, without 
touching any of the Iiigh lights which finish the 
first lay. 

Reflexions and finishing tints, are in gt:neral anti- 
pathies to the first lay; they will, without great care, 
dirty the colors on which they are laid; and there- 
fore should be laid with a delicate light touch, with- 
out softening: if overdone, it may be recovered 
with the proper color of the part, either diiedlly, or 
when dry. 

When the color of the cloth is very improper for 
the ground of a drapery, we should change it with 
those colors which are most likely to improve, and 
to support, the finishing colors. This m.ethod vyill 
preserve them in their greatest lustre. In dead color- 
ing, the lights, and shades, need only hint at the 
shape and roundings of the figure , but if we have a 
design to work from, it will be proper to make all the 
large and principal parts in tlieir places, with a clean 
color, lighter than the intended drapery, though in 
general of the same hue, while the shadov/5 are no 
darker than a middle tint: these should be mixed 
and broken in a tender manner ; then softened witji 
ft large tool, that nothing rougli, or uneven, be left to 
interrupt or hurt the charadter of the iinishing colors. 


( 142 ) 

Instances of particular lands of Drapery. 


All whites should be painted on white grounds, 
laid with a good body of color; by reason this color 
SINKS more into the ground than any other. 

There are four degress of co^lrs in the first lay to 
white sattin: 1st. The fine white for the lights. 
2d. The first tint, made of fine white and a very little 
ivory black, mixed to an exadl middle degree be- 
tween the white and the middle tint. This color 
follows the white, and with this, we should give the 
lights a charadler, taking care that this tint appear 
distindlly between the white, and the middle tint. 
3d. The middle tint should be made of white, 
black, and a little Indian red, mixt to a beautiful, 
clear color, of a pearly hue. Remember to allow 
for the red hue changing a little toward lead color. 
If there be occasion to make any part of the middle 
tint lighter, we should do it with the first tint only. 
This color should also be laid, sparingly, before the 
ivhite, in the lights that happen in the middle tints 
and shadows; on which we should lay the white with 
one light touch, not covering all the part made with 
the first tint: butj preserving a softening edge, or bor- 
der, between the white and the middle tint. 4th. The 
shade tint should be made of th? same color as the 
middle tint ; but with less white, so that it be dark 
enough for the shadows in general; with which we 
should make out the shadows into character. 


( M3 ) 

In tlie reflexion and iinisliing tints of whitd sattin: 
brown ochre, mixed with tlic color of the lights, 
is a useful color, in general, for all reflexions pro- 
duced from their own colors. Accidental reflexions 
are made witli tlie color of the part^ from whence they 
are produced, and the local colors that receive them. 
Two refledling tints are wanted for draperies, in ge- 
neral, one lighter than the middle tint, the other 
darker. These may be changed on the pallette with, 
the first, and the middle tints, as occasion requires, 
or be lightly broken on the part that receives them : 
but this last method is not so safe as the other. The 
tint for blending the dark shadows to the mellow 
tender hue, is made with the shade tint and a little 
brown ochre; laid on very sparingly, v/ith soft light 
touches, for fear of making them heavy. If it be over- 
done, we may recover it with the color it was laid 

We often see a little blue used in the first tint of 
white sattin. When a warm, or dirty color, is mixed 
with a clean light one, they will form a dirty color. 
It is the want of the red hue which makes white sat- 
tins often appear like pewter. 


Blue sattin is made of Prussian blue and fine white. 
The best ground for blue is white for the lights, 
and black and white for the shadows. 

The first lay of colors for blue is divided into 
three degrees: 

3 J St. The 

( 144 ) 

1st. The middle tint of a beautiful azure. 2d* 
The color for the lights about a middle degree be- 
tween that, and white. 3dly. The shade tint, dark 
enough for the shadows, in general. The broacT 
lights should be laid with plenty of color, and 
shaped to chara6ler with the middle tint, before we 
lay on any other colors. The less the colors are 
mixed, the better they will appear, and stand ; for 
the lights of blue should be managed with as much 
care as those of white sattin. Next follows the rest 
of the middle tint, and then the shadows. The more 
we drive the shade tint, the better it will receive the 
reflexions and finishing tints. The shadows should 
be strengthened, and blended, with ivory blacky 
and some of their own color, mixt into a tender 
mellow hue. 

The reflexions are made as those of white sattin^ 
with ochre and some of the lights: which should be 
done at once. The shadows, when dry, may be im- 
proved with the colors they were made of. The 
Prussian blue best to be used, is that which looks the 
most beautiful before it is ground: the sooner it is 
used after it is ground, the better. 

Velvet may be painted at once. The method is^ 
to make out the first lay with the middle tint, and 
shade tint; on wdiich place the high lights with light 
touches, and finish the shadows as those of sattin ; but 
the nearest imitation of velvet is procured by glazing ; 
having first prepared a ground, or dead colorings 
with such colors as will, when dry, bear out and 
support the glazing color.. The glazing color is, of 
a fine transparent quality, used simply with oil only 5 


( H5 y 

so- that whatever ground it is laid on, the whole may 
:ippcar distin<fil-y through it^ The best ground for 
blue is made with wliitc and ivory black : the white 
is for the ; high- Ughis, wjiiclij with the middk tint 
anil fthacle 'lintv i>iakes put the.first lay' like n•J^^^s<)- - 
tinto. The mkkye'tiflt^ should- ioejighteri iri pr-ppor-" 
tion to the olazing, because that will make- it durket. 
It k often riecessiiry to cover aU but- the high lights 
with a glazing, laid with- li^ss quantity than if it- was" 
to be done once only. If any-of-it-tbuGhthe-li^^htSy 
we should wipe it off with a clcari rag. The very- 
high lights should be improved, and made of a fine 
white, and left to dry. The glazing color is Prus- 
sian blue, ground very fine with nut oil; and should 
be laid with a large stiffish tool, that will drive the 
color as occasion requires. On the last glazing 
strengthen and hriish the shadows. 

We observe, in this instance^ that glazing the 
middle tint, which is made of black and white, will 
not produce a color so blue, as if it had been pre- 
pared with Prussian blue and white ; yet this color 
will preserve the beauty of the lights, in their per-»' 
fe6lion, by reason of its tender obscure hue, when 
the blueness of the other would diminish them. 
This method of glazing blue is the general rule 
for all glazing. 

The greatest fault in coloring draperies of any kind, 
is, painting the shadowed parts with strong glaring 
colors, which destroy the beauty of the liglits. This 
is not only the reverse of art, but of nature, whose 
beauty of color is always diminished in proportion to 
the light: for this reason we should blend, and soften, 

VOL II. EJit, 7. T the 

( 146 ) 

the shadows, with such friendly colors as will agree 
with their local character, and the requisite degree 
of obscurity. 

In glazing blue, the lights may be glazed with 
ultramarine, though the other parts are done with 
Prussian blue, hereby saving a great quantity of that 
valuable color. 

Though this general method of painting sattins, 
is, to make the first lay of colors with three degrees, 
or tints ; yet, in using them, they produce two 
more : for, the mixing of two different colors on the 
cloth, makes another, of a middle tint between them : 
so do the lights and middle tint, and the middle and 
shade tint: the first mixture answers to the first tint 
in white sattin ; and the last is a sort of gradationj or 
half shade. 

If the lights and middle tint mix to a beautiful 
clean color, of a middle hue between both, there 
will be no occasion for a color to go between them, 
as in the blue sattin : but if in mixing, they produce 
a tint inclining to a dirty warm hue, then there must 
be another made of a sympathizing nature, to be 
Uid between them, to preserve the beauty of the 

It is necessary to understand these principles of 
the first lay of colors, as comprehending the general 
rule of coloring, and that on which the pradlice of 
excellent coloring depends. 


( H? ) 


Alight yellow red, made of light ochre, light red, 
and white, is the proper ground for scarlet ; the 
shadows are, Indian red, and, in the darkest parts, 
mixed with a very little black. 

Tlie second painting should be lighter than wc 
intend the finishing color to be in proportion to the 
glazing, which will make it darker. 

The high lights, are vermilion for cloth, and ver- 
milion and white, for sattin, and velvet; the middle 
tint is vermilion, with a very linle lake, or Indian 
red; the shade tint is Indian red and lake, with a 
little black in tlie darkest shadows. The difference 
between scarlet and crimson, is, that the higli lights 
of crimson are whiter, and the middle tint is made 
darker. Their reflexions are made with light red and 
vermilion. The high lights should be laid and ma- 
naged in the same manner as tho^x of the blue, for 
fear of dirtying them ; and sometimes they require to 
be touched over a second time, before we glaze them. 
The more the colors of the second painting are drove, 
the easier and better they niay be managed to cha- 
ra6lcr : but the high lights should have a good body 
of color, and be left with a delicate light touch. 
After it is well diy, we should finish by glazing the 
whole with fine lake, and improve the reflexions and 
shadows. Scarlet requires but a very thin glazing. 
It is better to glaze crimson twice over, than to lay 
too much at once painting. 


( i48 ) 


-Ttuere are two difFcixnt methods of painting a pink 
color : one, by glazing ; the other, by a body of 
colors at one painting. The same grounds do for 
both ; which should be, a whitish color, inclining 
to yellow, for the liglits ; and Indian red, lake, and 
white, for .the shadows. .i 

The second painting, for the glazing, is done witU 
the same colors and a little vermilion, for the re- 
iiexions; and vermilion and white for the high lights^ 
when dry, glaze it with fine lake, then break and 
soften the shadov/s into charadler, and harm.ony, 

The other method is, to make the high lights with 
carmine. and white ; the middle tint with lake, white, 
and a Utile carmine; and shadows with lake and 
Indian red, with a. little vermilion for the reflexions. 
But the shadows require to be broken with some 
tender obscure tint, 


The ground for yellow should be. a 3Tllowisk 
white, for the lights, and a mixture of the ochres^, 
for the shadows. 

-'-'There are the same number of tints in the yellow, 
a| in- the white, sa'ttin; the method of using them is 
the '^ame. The lights are made with king's yellow^ 
ground with clean, good, drying^oiL The first tint 
is light ochre, changed with a little of the pearl tint 


maxlc of the d^rk ?;iw'cle aiKl tvhite :' which sJionM be 
lai<l, and managed, as the iirst tint hi uhire suitia, 
'X^l'ic middle tint i^/(i mixtuT'C -of the light and hro\eQ 
ochre, softened with the peral tint, Tlic sha-do tint 
is made witJi brown pink and brown ochre. These 
belong to fhe-firsf- Iky. ■' -'•"-----' •■ 

The reflexions are light oclire ; sometimes, in tlie 
wafmcst parts, mixed wrfli a little light 4-edV^the 
sliadou's are strengthened with' bTo^vn pink and biimi: 



Th.e proper ground for green Is, a light yello^ 
green ; made of light oclire, a little white, and Frus- 
bian bkie, for the lights; and the ochres, brown 
pink, and Prussian blue, for the shadows. 

The finest green for drapery, is made of king's 
yellow, Prussian blue, and brown pink. Ihe high 
lights are, king's yellow and a very little Prussian 
blue; the middle tint has more Prussian blue; ih^ 
shade tint is made with some of the middle tint, 
brown pink, and more Prussian blue: but }he<iark:;st 
shadows are brcwn pink and a little Prussian blue. 
The ligiits and middle tint sliould be mimaged in the 
same manner as those of the blue sattin. I'lie ^-dride 
tint should be kept entirely from the ligiits, because 
the brown pink that is in it, will, in mixing, dirty 
them, as the black does those of the blues ; theT dry 
a little darker tluui they appear when wef. The 
king's yellow should be ground -with good drying 
oil; for, the longer it is in drying, the more it x^-'iU 


( 150 ) 

change and grow darker: and the sooner it is used, 
the better it will stand. It is proper to have two 
sorts of king's yellow, one very light for the high 
lights of velvet. 


Changeable colors have four principal tints, viz. 
the high lights, middle tint, shade tint, and refiedt- 
ed tint. 

The art lies in finding the exa(9: color of the mid- 
dle tint, because it has more of the general hue of 
the silk than any of the others. The shade tint 
is of the same hue with the middle tint, though 
dark enough for the shadows. The high lights, 
though often very diiTeient from the middle tint, 
should be of a clean, friendly, v/orking color, that 
will, in mixing with it, produce a tint of a clean 
sympathizing hue. 

The method of painting silks is to make out the 
folds with the shade tint, and then fill them up in the 
lights with the middle tint. This first lay should be 
done to satisfadlion before any other colors are added ; 
the stifi^er the middle tint is used, the better the high 
lights may be laid on it. The refiedled tint falls 
generally on the gradating half shades, and should be 
laid with tender touches, sparingly, for fear of spoil- 
ing the first lay. 

This method of painting answers to all the colored 
silks, as well as changeable, with this difference only, 
that the plain colors require not so much art as the 
changeable do in matching the tints. The last part 


( 151 ) 

of the work is the finishing, and strengthening the 
shadows with an obscure tint, inclining to a mcl- 
lowish hue : such as will not catch the eye, and in- 
tcrruDt the beauty of the lights. 


The best ground for black is light red for the 
lights; and Indian red and a little black for the 

The finishing colors are, for the lights, black, 
white, and a little lake. The middle tint has less 
white, and more lake and black. The shade tint is 
made of an equal quantity of lake and brown pink, 
with a very little black. 

The method of painting black is very different 
from that of other colors; for, the principal thing in 
them, is to leave the lights clean and brilliant — but 
in black, it is to keep the sbaJows clear and transpa- 
rent. Therefore we should begin with the shade 
tint, and glaze over all the shadows with it. Next, 
lay in the darkest shadows with black, and a little of 
the shade tint, very corredlly. After that, £11 up 
the whole breadth of lights with the middle tint only. 
All which should be done exactly to the charadlet 
of the drapery, and then finish with the high lights. 

Here observe, that the ground being red, will bear 
out and support the reds, which arc used in the 
finishing colors: the lake in the lights takes off the 
cold hue. If the shade tint was of any other color 
than a transparent warm hue, the shadows would 
consequently be black and heavy; because no other 
'2 colors 

( 152 ) 

folirs, equally; mth ialce 2iad baiown pink, can pfCf 
serve the warm brilliancy, whiGh is wanting in the 
shado'vvs of the black. Black is of a cold heavy 
na'curc, always too strong for any other color; there- 
fore it requires an allowance in using it. There will 
be a few reflexions in sattin, which should be added 
as those of other colors ; they should be made of 
strro-ng colors, such as burnt umber, or brown ochre, 
raix;t with a little of the shade tint. 

Though these grounds mentioned for draperies, are: 
necessary for the principal, and nearest, figures in a 
piclure, for a portrait, or the like; yet figures placed 
deeper in the pidlure, and such as are behind the 
principal, or front, figures, should always be fainter 
in the tints of their grounds, in proportion to their 
^local finishing colors, and their just efi'edls. 


The colors used in painting linen are the same a-s 
those in white sattin, except the first tint; wdiich is 
made of white and ultram.arine ashes, instead of the 
black, mixt to a very light blueish tint. 

In the dead coloring care should be taken that 
th-e grounds be laid white and broad in the lights : 
the shadow^s are composed of black, white, and a 
little Indian red, like the middle tint of white sattin. 
These should be left very light and clean, to support 
the finishins; colors. 

In the second painting the lights are glazed, with 
a- stiff pencil and fine white only, drove bare, with 
little oil : the shadows scumbled with poppy oil, 


( ns ) 

and some of the color tlicy were made of. Tiie 
middle tint of white sattin is the best color for the 
general tint uf tJic-^hadaws. With.thisj an.d-vvhitc, in 
diiTcrent dep,rces make out all the paris to their 
character, with free light touches, without sof;emng. 
Then with a large long pointed pencil, and fine 
wiiite, lay ilie high lights very nicely, "at a touch. 
After this the fine light blueish tint, mixed light, 
is laid in the tender gradations very sparingly and 
ligiuly, without filling them up. 

The first lay should be left dear and d.istindl: the 
more it appears the better. It is the ovetmixing and 
jumbling all the colors together, wliicll spoils the 
beauty of the charadler; therefore it is better to let 
it dry before we add the reflexions and finishing 

This method of letting the beautiful , clear colors 
dry, before we add the warm, refledlitg, and har- 
monizing tints, prevents theniJJrpm rpixing with, 
and dirtying, each other. '" ' 

The principal blending colorsjused^ntliexefie^dons 
are the yellow tint, green .tinrt,.. and rrose tint j which 
last is made of lakey^^dian,,Fpd,,afnd ^v^Hit^* , The 
dead coloring should be as yyhite as y^e Jn|en,d the 
finishing colors to be, by rea5on they will sink 
a little, in proportion to the..c;oipxpf.t.b.S- cloth, which 
the glazing with pure white, pi)ly^ ,\yili_recpv€n 

Vol. It. EJa, 7. u OF 

( 154 ) 


The principal colors used in landscapes are; 

1 . Fine White. 

2. Common White. 

3. Fine Light Ochre. 

4. Brown Ochue, 

5. Brown Pink. 

6. Burnt Umber. 

7. Ivory Black. 

8. Prussian Blue. 
g. Ultramarine, 

10. Tekra-vert. 
] 1. Lake. 

12. Indian Red. 

13. Vermilion. 

14. King's Yellow. 

The principal tints used in landscapes arej^ 

1 . Light ochre and white. 

2. Light ochre, Prussian blue, and whrte^ 

3. Light ochre and Prussian blue. 

4. The same, darker. 

5. Terra-vert and Prussian blue. 

6. Brown pink and Prussian blue. 

7. Brown pink and brown ochre. 

8. Brown pink, ochre, and Prussian blue. 

9. Indian red and white. 

10. Ivory black, Indian red, and lake. 


( 155 ) 

The colors necessary for dead coloring, are com- 
mon white, liglit ochre, brown ochre, burnt umber, 
Indian ra), ivory black, and Prussian blue. 

Tnc principal colors and tints for painting the sky, 
are fine white, ultramarine, Prussian blue, light 
ochre, vermihon, lake, and Indian red. 

The tints are a fine azure, lighter azure, light 
ochre and white, vermilion and wliite, and a tint 
made of white, a little vermilion, and some of the 
like azure. 

Landscapes should be painted on a sort of tan- 
ned leather-colored ground, which is made of brown 
ochre, white, and light red. This color gives a 
warmth to the shadow colors, and is very agreeable 
and proper for 

Skktching, or rubbing in the design, is the fi;"st 
work of the picture. 

This should be done with burnt umber, drove 
with drying oil, and a little oil of turpentine, in a 
faint, Slight, scumbling, free manner, as we shade 
with Indian ink on paper, leaving the color of the 
cloth for the iigiits, and leaving no part of the sha- 
dows so dark as we intend the fust lay, or dead color- 
ing, vvliich is to be lighter than the tiijishing colors. 
Though the foliage of the trees is only rubbed in, 
with a faint sort of scumbling, yet the truiiks and, 
bodies should be in their proper shapes, v/iih their 
breadths of light and shadow. Buildings should be 
done in the same manner, leaving the color of the 
cloih for their lights: the figures on the fore-ground, 
if they are determined, should also be sketclied in the 
pame a;:;thod, and then the whcle left to dry. 

V 1 QF 

( 156 ) 


Let the first lay, or dead coloring, be withdut 
any brif-ht, glaring, or strong, dark, colors; so that 
the effe(5l is made more to receive and preserve the 
fmishing colors, than to shew them in the first 

^The^sky should be done first; then the distances^ 
working downward to the middle group, from that 
to the fore-ground, and to the parts; all parts 
of each group, as trees, buildings, &c. should be 
painted vvith the group they belong to. 

The art in dead coloring, is, to find the two colors, 
which serve for the ground of the shadows in general, 
the sky excepted, and- the method of using them with 
the lights: the first of v^/hich h, tne dark shade \fiih 
a little lake in it: ihe other is, burnt umber: these 
should be changed a little to the natural hue of the- 
objecls, and then laid and drove w'ith drying oil, in\ 
the same manner as we shat^e wiifi Indian ink, which. 
is a scumbling kind of glazing; and as such they 
shouid be left; otherwise- they will be dark and heavy, 
and v/ould be en. irflv spoiled for the finishing glaz- 
ing. Both these colors mix and sympathize agreeably' 
with the ligl'.ts, but should be laid before them. 
• V/hen rhe land'icape is designed, begin with thd' 
sky, w4nch.,£'he>uld' be laid with- a; good body of 
Colors; and left witha-fiiint resemblance of the prin» 
cipal clouds; more in the manner of claro obscuro> 
tten' with finisiiing colors : the whiter it is left, the 
l^ettcr it wiH'beai- out and support them. The dis- 

^ tances 

( 157 ) 

tances should be made out faint and iinccft:\inly \vitS 
tlie dirk. sli;t -c, a^id som-^ at their lights, in diEcucnt 
dt'Tcc^; ariil laad so, ds best to find aiirl shew tlifir 
prii:v.ipal pai^s. Advancing, into tlic middle groiip^. 
w^ lurroduce, by degr-ies, tlw burnt umoer itii the 
s'^-^L os: all the grounds ot the treci being laid, or 
rubbed in, enough orily to suggest an' iilea of tiicir 
shapes and shadows faintly. I'he grounds cf theix: 
sliadows must be clean, and iig,ltcr tlian their finish^ 
in^ co'ors, such as will support tlieir charadler, and- 
seem easy to finish on. 

In painting the lights, it is better to indiiie more 
to the middle tint, than to the high:ligh;s; and to 
leave them with a suiiicLenr body of ckan colors, 
which will receive and preserve the finishing colors 
the better; which may be done with a few tinti, 


Begin with the sky; lay in the azure and color5 
of the horizon ; then soften them ; after that, lay in 
the general tint of the clouds, and finish on it with 
the high lights, and the other tints that are wanting, 
with light, tender, touches.; then, soften the whole 
very lightly. The fin:shing uf the sky should, be 
done at once painting, because the tender character 
of the (\o\ fl will not match so well when dry, a.-; 
w'len the v\h<:)le is v^ct. The stifter the azure, and 
colors of the horizon, are laid, the better the clouds 
jnay be painted upon. them. 

Tlie greatest distances are chieiiy ma-de with the 
folor of the sky; as they grow- nearer and- darker, 
glaze and scumble the parts very thin, with such 


( 158 ) 

glazing shadow colors as come nearest to the gene- 
ral hue of the group the objects are in : so that the 
iirst painting, or dead color, should be seen through 
it ; on this add the finishing colors. 

If this glazed ground be properly adapted to tiie 
objedl and place, it will be easy to find the colors 
which a'"e wanted for the lights, and for the finish- 
ings. That we may not spoil the glazing, we 'should 
be very exadt in making those colors on the palktte, 
and in laying them with light free touches. 

Here it may be proper to say something of the 
most useful glazing colors. 

Lake, terra-vcrt, Prussian blue, and brown pink, 
^re the four principal. The more they are managed 
like Indian ink, and the more distin£tly they are left, 
the better their transparent beauty will stand, and 
appear. After these, burnt umber is a good glazing 
warm brown, used in the broken grounds and nearest 
parts; but the most agreeable color for the darkest 
shadows, is the dark shade improved with lake, 
drove with drying oil : it mixes harmoniously with 
the lights, the shadows, the trunks and the bodies 
of trees, and the buildings. 

The ground of the objedls should be made out, 
witii such glazing shadow colors, as seem nearest to 
the natural hue of the objecl, in that situation ; and 
as the principal glazing colors themselves, are often 
too strong and glaring, they should be a little soften- 
ed by such colors as are near to themselves and the 
pbje<5ls: thus, if in the distances, the terra-vert and 
azure, which are their principal glazing colors, may 
be improved and made lighter, with some oi^ the sky 
3 tints: 

( 159 ) 

tints: and as the distances come nearer, with tlic 
purple. As we get more into tlie middle group, the 
terra-vert and Prussian blue may be varied with some 
of the green tints, made v*'ithout white, for white is 
the destruction of all glazing colors. As we approach 
the first group, there is less occasion for changing 
them; but the fore-ground and its objcd^s require all 
the strength, and force, of glazing, which the colors 
are capable of producing. 

After this glazing ground, we should follow with 
strengthening the same in the shadows and darkest 
places, in such manner as will seem easy to finish. 

The colors that come next, for finishing, are in the 
degree of middle tints : these should be carefully laid 
over the greatest breadth of lights, in such manner as 
not to spoil, and cover too much of, the glazing : 
with a good body of color, as stiff as the pencil can 
agreeably manage, to charadler. The colors of the 
middle tint shoiild be clean and beautiful, finishing 
all the second painting downward, from the sky, 
through the middle group. At the first group, all 
the objeCls should appear perfcClly finished : their 
under or distant parts should be finished, before any 
of the other which are nearer, dov^m to tlie last, and 
nearest, objedls of the picture. Where it happens, 
that painting one tree over another does not please, 
forbear the second, until the first is dry. Thin near 
trees, of difi:crent colors, will do better, if we let the 
under parts dry before we add the finishing colors. 


( ^ii6o ) 


If oiling be necessrary, lay the ienst quantity that 
can 'be, with a stump tool, or pencil, proportioned to 
the place that is to be oiled; tiien wipe the place that 
is oiled with a silk handkerchief, leaving no more 
oil than is proper for the purpose. 

When finishing any objex^, we should use a great 
Tsriety of tints, all nearly the same color, but most 
tsf all, when finishing trees ; as this gives a richness 
to the coloring, and contributes to produce harmony. 
As the greens will fade, and grow darker ; it is neces- 
-sary to improve, and, in some degree, to fbrce them, 
by making an allowance in using them so much the 
lighter; the same reason applies to tiie glazing; 
which, if over loaded, will be dull and heavy, and 
■consequently will grow darker. 

The method for painting near trees. Is, to makfe 
the lirst lay very near to nature, though not quite- s^ 
dark, and to follow it with strengthening the shadows'; 
then the middle tints ; and last of all, lay the high 
lights and iinishing colors: but all this cannot be 
done, as it should be, at once painting. The be'sft 
way. is to do no more than the first lay with the faii>t 
«Iiadc»vs, and leave it to dry. Then improve" the 
middle tints and shadows, and let them dry. 

The conclusion is, adding all the lights and finish- 
ing colors, in the best manner. This method of 
leaving the first and second part to dry separatelv, 
not only makes the whole easier, and more agreeable, 
but leaves the colors in the greater perfeciion ; 


( I6i ) 

because, most of the work may be done with scum- 
bling and glazing, and some parts without oiling. 
The lights also may be laid with a better body of 
color, which will not be mixed and spoiled with the 
wet ground : what is said of trees, answers to all ' 
kinds of shrubs, and bushes. 

The figures in a landscape are the last work of the 
pii^ure ; those in the fore-ground should be done 
before those in the distances ; the shadows of the 
figures should be of the same hue, or color, with 
those of the group, or place, wherein they are 

As a picture is generally intended to be viewed at 
a distance, the artist ^should frequently consider his 
performance at, or near a similar situation ; since 
whatever loses its effect at that distance^ however 
neatly executed, is labour lost. 

The shadows, if large^ may approximate nearly to 
the same tone according to their situations, and may 
be thin of color; but the lights^ should be distin6tj 
bold, spirited^ and will not suffer, even if loaded 
with color; on the contrary, it will contribute to 

To use only one tint to one color, promotes clean- 
ness and freshness of the colors ; too much .mixing, 
teases and injures them. '.n-jjl/; vlir;: 

If a teint different from what arc on the pallefte', is 
wanted while at work on a pidlure, it is better t<> 
mingle the colors proper to compose it on the- pal- 
lette with the knife than with a pencil. 

There is in some persons a strange prediledlion 
for smooth pictures in oil ; this, however, is far from 

.VOL. 11. Edit, 7. X being 

( 162 )■ 

being meritorious, unless a pi(5lure be very small ; 
but in larger pieces a bold and free pencil shews ta 
advantage, especially in the lights, in the smart 
touches, and firm markings and drawing. 

In general, colors look more brilliant while wet 
with oil, than when they are dry ; a little observa- 
tion will accustom the student to this circumstance. 

It is usually the too great quantity of oil (espe- 
cially of the grosser kinds) which occasions the 
decay of the colors: and, it is observable, that pic- 
tures generally begin to fade in the darker parts, and 
in the glazings, where the color is thin ; the lights 
maintaining themselves long after those colors are 

A color cannot have a worse property than that 
of a tardy dryer, as it holds what dust unavoidably 
falls on it, and consequently sullies the beauty of the 
tints; sonve artists, aware of the bad qualities of the 
oils in use, make too free with turpentine to work 
thin, but this not only leaves the picture dead, but 
carries off part of the force in evaporation. 

To know^ when an oil picture is dry, breathe 
firmly upon it ; if it take the breath, it is safe. It 
is proper to let the first coat of color be thoroughly 
dry, before a second is applied ; this should be care- 
fully attended to in winter. 

The pencils, when done with, should be cleaned 
by spirits or oil of turpentine; or, if meant to be 
laid by for a time, they may be washed with soap. 
The pallette should be constantly cleaned. 


< 163 ) 


Water is th^iirst material and of the most general 
use in cleaning pi(5lures. Tliis will remove many 
kinds of glutinous bodies, and foulnesses; such as 
sugar, honey, glue, and many others ; and it will 
also take off any varnish of gum arabic, glair of eggs, 
or isinglass, and is therefore the greatest instrument 
in this work ; it may be used without any caution 
with respe(5l to the colors, as it will not in the least 
affect the oil which holds them together. 

Olive oil, or butter, though not generally applied 
to this purpose, tlirough an ignorance of their effi- 
cacy, will remove many of those spots or foulnesses, 
which resist even soap, as they will dissolve or cor- 
rode pitch, rosin, and similar bodies, and they may 
be used very freely, not having the least effect on 
the oil of ttte painting, nor the dangerous cffe(5ls of 
spirit of wine and oil of turpentine. 

Wood ashes, or (what will better answer the pur- 
pose, when used in a proper proportion) pearl ashes, 
being melted in water, make a proper dissolvent for 
most kinds of matter which foul paintings, but they 
must be used with great discretion, as they will touch 
or corrode the oil of the painting, if there be no 
varnishing gum or resin over it, by very little rub- 
bing ; the use of them, or scope is, however, in 
many cases unavoidable, and in general they are the 
only things erhployed for this purpose. 

Spirit of wine, as it will dissolve all the gums and 
^um rssins, e,xcept gum arabic, is very necessary 

^'i for 

{ 164 ) 

for the taking off from pidlures varnishes composed 
of such substances: but it corrodes also the oil 
of paintings, and softens them in such a manner 
as to Tender all rubbing dangerous, while they are 
under its influence. 

Oil of turpentine will dissolve likewise some of 
the oums used for varnish, but spirits of wine will 
in general much better answer the purpose: there 
are, however, sometimes spots of foulness which will 
crave way to the spirit of turpentine, but resist most 
other substances used for this purpose ; it may, 
therefore, be tried where ever}'^ thing else appears to 
faiJ, but even then very sparingly, and with great 
caution, as it will very soon adl even on the dry oil 
of the painting. 

Essence of lemons is of the same dangerous ten-? 
dency with oil of turpentine, but is a much stronger 
dissolvent, and should therefore only be used in the 
most desperate cases, where spots seem indelible by 
all ether methods ; spirit of lavender and rosemary, 
and other essential oils, have the same dissolving 
qualities as essence of iem^ons, but they are in general 
dearer, and some of them too powerful to be trusted 
near the colors. 

When paintings appear to have been varnished 
with those substances that will not dissolve in water, 
(which is seldom done by painters who are accjuaint- 
ed with the present practice, as they destroy the 
more delicate tints and 'touches of the painting,) 
they are, however, very easily and safely removed by 
^e following method : 

« Place 

( 1C5 ) 

'^ Place ydur pidlure or painting in an horizontal 
situation, and moisten, or rather llood by means of 
a sponge the surface of it with very strong re(^tifie<i 
spirits of wine; but all rubbing be3'ond what is nt-* 
ccssary must be avoided. Keep the painting moist 
by adding fresh quantities of the spirit for some 
minutes, then flood the surface copiously with cold 
water, with which the spirit and such part of the 
varnish as it has dissolved may be waslied off; but 
in this state of it all fridlion, and the slightest vio- 
lence to the surface of the painting, would be very 
detrimental, When the painting is dry, this opera- 
tion may be repeated at discretion, until the whole 
of the varnish is taken off. 

To prepare the pearl and w^ood-ash ley, used in 
cleaning pi(5lures, let an ounce be dissolved in a 
pint of water, to be stirred frequently for half a day ; 
then to be decanted frum the settlings. 

N. B. This mixture is said to enliven the Brazil 

To make a stronger ley of the same, let two 
pounds of wood-ashes and three quarts of water, be 
managed as just 'direcfled, and evaporated (or even 
boiled) to one quart, or a less quantity, as you find 
it acrid to your taste. A strong ley is made oy 
pouring hot water on a quantity of ashes, and when 
it has filtered through theiti, colle6l it for use. — ■. 
These leys are to be used warm with a sponge, a.n<i 
with the caution just dire^led. When thick spots 
are not easily removed, a strong soap lather may 
be cf use, not suffering it to touch any other part 
of the pidture but the spot it is to be engaged with. 


( 166 ) 

For using spirits of wine and other dissolvents, 
the picture is to be laid on a table, and flooded witk 
the liquor, or well dabbed with a sponge, so as to 
keep the pi^lure very moist. Add fresh ley, &c. as 
wanted, then with cold water wash off the whole. 

All dissolvents must be washed off with plenty of 
water, and should it be necessary to use any of them 
again, take care that the painting is quite dry ; this 
must be attended to at every repetition. 

All spots, Sec. of dirt are attached to a pidlurc, 
either before it is varnished, or during its being 
yarnished, (in which case they dry with the varnish) 
or after the varnish is dry. If the latter, plenty of 
warm water generally succeeds; but if it be damaged 
■while varnishing, or before that operation, the coat 
of varnish must be removed ; then the spot cleaned, 
and the whole pi(5lure be re -varnished. 

It appears, from this observation, that it is of 
consequence to set pi6lures, while drying, in a place 
free from dust, &c. since w|iatever dries with the 
colors cannot be removed. 

It sometimes happens that a pi6lure grows dull 
and obscure, and it may be necessary to re varnish 
it; this may be very safely done, after inspecting 
\\-hethcr the £rst varnish be clean, &c, 


( 167 ) 


The art of removing paintings in oil from tht 
cloths on which they are originally doDc, and trans- 
ferring them IQ now oncs^, is of great use. 'U'lic mc- 
tliod is as follows : 

Let the decayed pidlurc be cleansed of all grease 
that may be on its surface, by rubbing it very gently 
with crum of stale bread, and then wiping it with a 
very fine soft linen cloth. It must then he laid, the 
face downwards, on a smooth table covered with fan 
paper, or India paper; and the cloth on the back 
must be well soaked with boiling water, till pe-rfecflly 
soft and pliable. Turn the pidture face upwards, 
and having stretched it evenly on the table, pin it 
down with nails at the edges. Having melted a 
quantity of glue, and strained it through a flannel 
cloth, spread part of it on a linen cloth of the size 
of the painting; when this is set, lay another coat 
over it ; w^hen this is become stiff, spread some of 
the glue, moderately heated, over the face of the 
pi(5lure, and lay over it, in the evenest manner pos- 
sible, the linen cloth already prepared, and nail it 
down to the picture and table. Then expose the' 
whole to the heat of the sun, in a place secure from 
rain, till the glue be perfectly dry and hard ; when 
this is the case, remove the picture and linen cloth 
from the table. Turn the picture with the face 
downwards, and let it be stretched and nailed to tlie 
table as before ; then raise round its edge a border of 
3 wax 

( 168 ) 

Wax as in biting of copper-plates, into which pour i. 
corroding fluid, as oil of vitriol, aqua-fortis, or 
spirit of salt, but the last is to be preferred ; dilute 
either of these with water, to such a degree, that- 
they may destroy the threads of the original canvasj 
or cloth, of the pidlure, without discoloring it. 
When the corroding fluid has answered this pur- 
pose, drain it off, and wash away the remaining part 
by quantities of fresh water. The threads of the 
cloth must be then carefully picked out till the whole 
be taken away. The reverse surface of the paintings 
being thus wholly freed from the old cloth, must be 
\vell washed vvith water, and left to dry. In thd 
mean time, prepare a new piece of canvas of the 
size of the painting; and having spread some hot 
glucj purified as before^j and melted with a little 
brandy or spirit of wine, over the reverse of the 
painting, lay the Lew canvas evenly upon it, while 
the glue is hot, and compress them together with 
thick plates of lead, or flat pieces of polished mar- 
ble. When the glue is set, remove these weights, 
let the cloth remain till the glue is become perfe6lly 
dry and hard. Then the whole must be turned the 
other side upwards, and the border of wax being re-* 
placed, the linen cloth on the face of the painting 
must be destroyed by means of the corroding fluid; 
because the face of the painting is defended only by 
the coat of glue v,^hich cemented the linen cloth to 
it. The palming must then be freed from the glue 
by washing it with hot water. The painting may 
afterwards be varnished, and if the operation be well 


( 169 ) 

conducted, it will be transferred to the new cloth in 
a perfedl state. 

When t)ie painting is originally on wood, the sur- 
face of it must be covered with a linen cloth, ce- 
mented to it by means of glue, as already directed. 
A proper table being then provided, and overspread 
with a blanket, or thinner woollen cloth, laid on in 
several doubles; the painting must be laid upon it 
the face downwards, and fixed steady; the board or 
wood on which it was done, must then be planed 
away, till the shell remains as tliln as it can be made, 
without damaging the paint under it. The process 
is the same as already given for the front. 

When a pi6lure is by accident torn, or otherwise 
injuredj it is repaired, by placing the separated parts 
as nearly in their first state as possible, then attach- 
ing, by a strong glue, a piece of cloth, of a proper 
shape and size, to which the threads of the torn 
parts firmly adhering3 retain their situations. The 
place in the pi<fture where the rent is, must then be 
very exactly colored as before, so as efFe'6lually to 
conceal the damage. 

When a fresh cloth is applied behind a picture^ 
to CQVer the back throughout, and to strengthen the 
original canvas, it is termed, lining a picture, and 
very much contributes to its preservation ; espe- 
cially, if the canvas be ancient, or thin in its sub- 

VOL. n: Edit. 7. if «l? 

{ 170 ) 


Miss Greenland's Method of making a Composition 
for Fainting in imitation of the Ancient Grecian 

Put into a glazed earthen vessel 42 oz. of gum 
arable and 8oz. of cold spring water ; when the gum 
is dissolved;, stir in 7 oz. of gum mastich, which has 
been first washed, dried^ picked, and beaten fine^ 
which is very soon done : set the earthen vessel, 
containing the gum water and gum mastich, over a 
moderate fire, continually stirring and beating them 
Jiard with a spoon, in order to dissolve the gum 
mastich. When sufficiently boiled, it will no longer 
appear transparent, and will be stiff, like a paste; so 
soon as this is the case, and that the gum water and 
mastich are quite boiling, without taking them off 
the fire add 5oz, of white wax, broken into small 
pieces, stirring and beating the different ingredients 
together till the wax is perfe6tly melted, and has 
boiied ; then take the composition off the fire, as boil- 
ing itlongerthan necessary would only harden the wax, 
and present its mixing so well afterwards with water ; 
the composition is taken off the fire, and in the 
glazed earthen vessel, it should be beaten hard, and 
while hot, but not boiling, mix with it, by degrees, 
10 oz. of cold spring water ; then strain the compo- 
sition, as some dirt will boil out of the gum mastich, 
and put it into bottles. 

3 The 

( 171 ) 

The composition, if properly made, should be 
like a cream, and the colors, when mixed with it, as 
smooth as if with oil. The method of using it, is 
mixing the colors with it, as with oil ; then paint 
with fair water. The colors may be used by putting 
a little fair water over them, but it is less trouble to 
put some water when the colors are observed to be 
growiijg dry. 

In painting with this composition the colors blend 
without' difficulty, when wet, and even when dry the 
tints may easily b^ united by means of a brush and a 
very small quantity of fair water. 

M'hen the painting is finished, put some white 
wax into a glazed earthen vessel over a slov/ fire ; 
and w^hen melted, but not boiling, with a hard brush 
cover the painting with the wax; and, when cold, 
take a moderately hot iron, such as is used for iron- 
ing linen, and draw it lightly over tlie wax; when 
the pi(fl:ure is nearly cold rub it with a fine linen 
cloth to make it entirely smooth ; and, when quite 
cold, rub it again to make it shine. 

Painting might be executed in this manner upon 
wood, or plaster of Paris, without requiring any 
other preparation than mixing some fine plaster of 
Pans in powder with cold water to the thickness of a 
cream ; then put it on a looking-glass, and, when 
dry, take it off, and there will be a very smooth 
surface for painting upon. 

Paintings may also be done in the same manner 
with only gum water and gum mastich, prepared the 
same way as the mastich and wax ; but instead of 
putting 7 oz. of mastich, and, when boiling adding 

y2 PQZ. 

( 17-2 ) 

5 oz. of wax, mix 12oz. of gum mastich with the 
gum water before it is put on the fire, and when 
sufficiently boiled and beaten, and is a little cold, 
stir in 12 oz. of cold spring water, and afterwards 
strain it. 

It would be equally pradlicable painting with 
wax alone, dissolved in gum water, in the following 
manner : 

Weigh 12 oz, of cold spring water and 42 oz. of 
gum arabic, put them into a glazed earthen vessel, 
and, when the gum is dissolved, add 8oz. of white 
wax. Put the earthen vessel with the gum water and 
wax upon a slow fire and stir them till the wax is 
dissolved and has boiled a few minutes ; then take 
them off the fire, and throw them into a bason, as,,, M 
b.y remaining in the hot earthen vessel the wax 
misht become rather hard ; beat the sum water and 
wax till quite cold. As there is but a small propor- 
tion of water, in comparison with the gum and wax, 
it. would be necessary in mixing this composition 
with the colors, to put also some fair water. 

It should be observed that the water used by Miss 
Greenland in these preparations came from a chalk 
rock, and was remarkably soft: possibly any other 
water might answer equally well. 

jinother Recipe hy Miss Greenland for the Ancient 
Grecian Method of Fainting in Wax. 

Take an ounce of white wax, and the same weight 
of gum mastich in lachrymas (tears) that is, as it 
comes from the tree, which must be reduced to a 


( 173 ) 

fine powder. Put the wax in a glazed earthen 
vessel, over a very slow fire, and when it is quite 
dissolved strew in the mastich, a little at a time, 
stirring the wax continually, until the whole quantity 
is perfedlly melted and incorporated; then throw 
the paste into cold water, and when it is hard take it 
out of the water, wipe it dry, and beat it in one of 
Mr. Wedgwood's, mortars, observing to pound it at 
first in a linen cloth to absorb some drops of water 
that will remain in the paste, and would prevent the 
possibility of reducing it to a powder, which must 
be so fine as to pass through a thick gauze. It 
should be pounded in a cold place, and but a little 
at a time j as after long beating, the fridlion will 
in a degree soften the wax and gum, and, instead o£ 
their becoming a powder, they will return to a paste. 

Make some strong gum arabic water; and, when 
you paint, take a little of the powder, some color, 
and mix them together with the gum water. Light 
colors require but a small quantity of the powder, 
but more of it must be put in proportion to the body 
or darkness of the colors ; and to black, there should 
be almost as much of the powder as color. 

Having mixed the colors, and no more than can 
be used before they grow dry, paint with fair water, 
as is pra6lised in paiTiting with water colors; a 
ground on the wood being first painted of some 
proper color, prepared in the same manner as is 
described for the pl(5lure. Walnut- tree and oak, 
are the sorts of wood commonly made use of in Italy 
|br this purpose. The painting should be highly 


( 174 ) 

finished, otherwise, when varnished, the tints will 
;iot appear united. 

When the painting is quite dry, with rather a hard 
brush, passing it one way, varnish it with white 
wax, which is put into an earthen vessel, and kept 
jnelted over a very slow fire, till the picture is var- 
nished, taking great care the wax does not boil. 
Afterwards hold the pi(5lure before a fire, near 
enough to rnelt the wax, but not make it run ; and, 
when the varnish is entirely cold and hard, rub it 
gently with a linen cloth. Should the varnish 
blister, warm the pidlure again very slowly, and the 
bubbles will subside. 

When the pi6lure is dirty it need only be washed 
with cold water, 

ExiraSi from Matys Review for Aprils 1785, 

" M. Febbroni, who was in England some win- 
ters ago, has discovered a new method of encaustic 
painting, of which he writes me the following 
account : 

"M. Leivis, of Guttenbrunn, the friend ofMengs, 
and who may be called his successor, has lately 
executed a pidlure according to my manner. It is a 
Thalia done upon wood, prepared with wax; and is 
remarkable for the vivacity and splendour of the 
coloring. \ believe I have already mentioned to 
3^ou, in what this new method consists. You melt, 
or rather dissolve some good white wax in naphtha 
petrolei without color, till such time as the mixture 
has acquired, by cooling, the appearance and con- 

( 175 ) 

sistence of an oil beginning to freeze by the cold. 
You mix your colors with this, and then keep them 
in small tin boxes. You dilute them more or less 
with the same naphtha, according as they dry, or as 
you wish to use them. TJiis painting allows time 
enough to give all the finish you desire, and if you 
wish to work, in a hurry, you may dry it as fast as 
you please, by exposing it to heat. When the pic- 
ture is finished, it is of that fine tone, which is pre- 
ferable to every varnish, or if you choose a varnish, 
you need only warm the pidlure, and all the naphtha 
will evaporate. When this is done, you must wait till 
the pi(5lure cools, when you must polish it, by nin- 
jiing it over neatly with a cloth, as the ancients used 
to do. If you wish to have it still brighter, you 
must melt white wax on the fire, without suffering 
it to boil; mix a little naphtha with this, and draw 
a layer of '\X over the pi6lure already heated, by 
means of a brazier, which you hold under, if the 
picture is small, or before it, if it is large. The 
colors at first appear spoiled, but you restore them to 
their first beauty, -if, when the layer of wax is 
cooled, you polish it by rubbing with a cloth. It is 
then that the colors take the high tone of oil. If 
you fear the effects of fire for your picture, you are 
to make a soap of wax, which is to be done by boil- 
ing white wax in water, in which you have dissolved 
a twentieth part of the w^eight of the wax of marine 
alkali, or sel de sonda very pure. Rub your picture 
with this soap, and when it is dry, polish it as above. 
If you do not choose either of these methods, give 
your painting its usual varnish of sandarac and spirit 


( 176 ) 

■of turpentine.-. This method has been found prefer- 
able to all those that have been tried, and superior 
to oil for the beauty of the colours. "H'here are many 
fine colours which cannot be used in oii^ which may 
be made u:e of with great success in this method. 

" As the naphtha entirely evaporates, one may te 
assured that this is the true method of painting in wax. 
There Ts likewise much to hope for the duration of 
pictures painted in this maianer, as wax is much less 
liable to alteration than oil, and does not so easily part 
with its phlogiston ." 

This extra^l seems to suggest a more probable plati 
of attaining the ancient secret, than that of Count 
Caylus, or Mr-. Muntz ; whose rule ^vas, to satutat-e 
a cloth, &c. withv wax, then to paint on it with water- 
tolours, or crayons, and fix the colours by gradually 
advancing the pidlure to the fire, till the wax, being 
melted, had absorbed them ; then equally gradually 
tvithdrawing the piece. The thought was ingenious^ 
but should seem to be more troublesome than that of 
Mr. Lewis, as above. 

After all, it may justly be doubted, xvhether some 
bitumen, of a still more exalted and spirituous nature^ 
was not the vehicle \Vhich compounded those colours 
whose brilliancy has remained from the remotest ageSi 
That the ancients were well acquainted with bitumen- 
ical produtlions we are well assured, and possibly 
the East may possess some spring or springs of supe- 
rior or more preservative qualities. Might not the 
ingredients they used in embalming afford a hint } 

Naphtha petrolei is a bituminous kind of oij,? 


( 177 ) 

issuing out of certain rocks in the territory of Mo- 
dena. There are three sorts, more or less pure and 
colourless. It is used medicinally, and considered as 
good for sprains, bruises, &c. (This at least is the 
sort sometimes imported into England). It is very 
spirituous and volatile. 


This is one branch of the art of Engraving, and 
possesses some qualities in which it is superior to 
others ; being executed with the utmost ease and 
freedom, and when well managed, expressing many 
subjedls with great truths and charadler-. 

The first preparation for etching, is to lay a ground 
(vldti ground) over the plate, which operation is 
thus performed. 

At the most convenient part of the plate,- as well 
for holding it, as for the work which is to be executed 
on it, is tightly fixed a hand-vice ; then, the plate 
is heated, till the copper shews a small change of 
color ; or, till the back part of the plate, being spit 
upon, reje6\s the spittle. The ball of ground, which 
is tied in a thin covering of silk, is now passed gently 
over the plate so as to distribute the ground evenly 
to all parts, the heat of the plate melting it through 
the silk : then with the dabber, which is nothing 
more than a small quantity of cotton tied in silk, the 
ground is beat, or dabbed, to a perfe6l thinness and 
evenness ; (in this part of the business much address 
is required, since, if the ground, when finished. Is 
thicker in some places than in others, it will deceive 
VOL. II. Edit. 7» z the 

( 17S ) 

the point employed upon it) the ground is then 
smoked, till thoroughly black, for the clearer dis- 
cerning the strokes of the etching. 

A wax taper, twisted together four, or five, or 
more times, is the most convenient candle to smoke 
with ; but any will serve for this purpose. 

The plate must be perfedlly clean, and free from 
grease ; as greasy spots, &c. prevent the ground from 
holding in those parts. To clean the plate, scrape a 
little whiting on it, and wipe it off with a clean rag, 
which will carry the grease with it. 

' While the plate is cooling, after the ground is laid, 
scrape some red chalk on the back of your print,, 
tracing, or drawing, and rub it in all over with a 
clean rag. Then place the reded side on the plate, 
making it fast at each corner with soft wax. Lay the 
etching-board under your hand, to prevent bruising 
the ground ; and, with a blunt etching-needle, trace 
lightly the]outlines, and the breadths of the shadows, 
till the marks of them appear on the ground, which 
you must' take care not to penetrate by tracing too 

It will be proper at intervals to lift up a corner of 
the tracing, and to examine whether every part be 
j)erfe6lly traced before you take it off; as it will be. 
extremely difficult to lay the paper down again ex- 
actly in its former position, if once removed. 

Having completed the tracing, the off-track, or 
djrawing traced, is r<;moyed ; and the subje(5l is ready 
ibr etching. 

•The pra6lice of etching is easily ^ittained by profi- 
cients in design j since it is little more than drawing, 


( 179 •) 

in strokes, with a point, on the plate, what is other- 
wise drawn with a pen, pencil, &c. on paper. 

The etching-board (by some termed a bridge) is a 
thin piece of board, generally of mahogany, of a 
proper length and width, raised by small supports at 
each end, to a cpnyenient height for the hand to rest 
on it. . 

The points, or needles, are almost similar to sewing 
needles, but are stronger, and are inserted into, han- 
dles four, or five, inches long, for the convenience 
of being properly held. 

The best way to begin a siibjc<^, 13, by forming 
the outlines very carefully, then inserting the shadows, 
beginning first in the darkest places. 

Lines drawn in etcliing may be crossed by others, 
if wanted. 

Two lines drawn by the side of each other closely, 
will unite into one under the operation of biting, 
whereby this line will become of great breadth, and 
color : this mode is very useful for dark fore-grounds 
in landscape, and has a good effedl in architedure, 
&c. but the use of etching in historical subjedts, is 
chiefly to prepare the figures, to be afterwards treated 
by the graver. 

The charadleristlcs of etching, are, a certain rough- 
ness (compared with performances of the graver) 
which does not suit glossy, and sliinlng,' objects, but 
which applies with good etlect to coarser parts ; such 
as, in landscape, the barks of trees, the broken, and 
looser touches of fore-grounds, &c. In architecture, 
it represents very happily the ravages of time in old 
buildings, mouldering walls, &c. Another charac- 

z 2 teristic 

( 180 ) 

terlstic of etching is, its freedom ; for which reason, 
it suits well the leaves of trees, light clouds, &c. ; 
and, beside these properties, it is of great service 
where a true, even, and uniform color is wanted, as 
it is not only much quicker, but also more certain 
than simple graving, in general : hence it suits the 
blue parts of skies, the even teints of (new) archi- 
tecture, back-grounds to portraits, &c. which are 
conducted by a parallel-ruler. 

It is evident from the services required, that the 
points to be used, must vary in their fineness, some 
lines being made broad, others very thin. To whet 
a point with perfe(5l truth, free from angular projec- 
tions, &c. requires time, patience, and pra(5lice. 

The plate being etched, the next process is to ex- 
cavate the lines drawn, by subjecting them to the 
aClion of aqua-fortis ; which operation h termed 


First, examine your work carefully, to see that 
nothing be omitted, or any thing redundant ; if any 
scratches appear on the ground, or [any mistakes be 
committed in the etching, they are to be stopped 
out ; which is done, by covering them with a mix- 
ture of lamp-black and varnish, laid on with a pencil, 
which, when dry, will resist the aqua-fortis. But it 
is sometimes best to stop out these, as they occur in 
the course of the work, for by this means they will 
be less liable to escape notice among the multiplicity 


( 181 ) 

of other lines and parts ; and when the varnish is dry, 
you may etch over it, if necessary. 

The next thing is, to surround the work with a 
rim, or border, of soft wax, about half an inch higli, 
forming the wax into a spout, at one corner, by 
wiiich to pour off the aqua-fortis : and that it may 
not run out at any other part, take care to press the 
wax close and firm to the plate. 

Having poured the mixture "^of aqua-fortis on the 
plate, let it continue a short time corroding the lines 
drawn ; wipe off the bubbles, as they rise, with a 
feather, which may remain on the plate during the 
biting ; after a proper time, pour off the aqua-fortis, 
and wash the plate, carefully, with fair water, pour- 
ing it on and off; tJien let the plate dry, and, by 
scraping off part of the ground from the faintest part 
of the work, try if it be sufficiently bitten ; if not, 
stop out the part you have tried with lamp-back and 
varnish ; and when that is dry, pour on the aqiia- 
i'ortis again, for a further operati(5n. 

When the faint parts of your work are bitten 
enough, stop them out with the varnish, Sec. and 
proceed to bite the stronger parts, stepping them 
out, as occasion requires, till the whole work is suf- 
ficiently bitten : then, warm the plate, and take off 
the soft v;ax ; after which, heat the plate till the 
ground is melted, pour on it a little oil, and w-ipe 
the whole off with a linen rag. When the ground is 
taken off, rub the work well with the oil- rubber, and 
wipe the plate clean ; then proceed to finish with the 
graver what parts of the subject require that process. 

Xlie wax for the border, is made, by mixin^^wifli 

a pui;n<J 

( 182 ) 

a pound of Ipees-wax, one quarter, or one third, pf 
a pound of Burgundy pitch, to soften it. As for any- 
color added to it, it is useless ; because, after a little 
while, the wax becomes black. 

It is to be observed, that in biting a plate, much 
attention isjcquired. If a plate be under-bitten, /. e. 
if the parts have not attained their proper color and 
force, there is usually no remedy, but by following 
every line with the graver, in order to blacken it : 
as on the other hand, if very much over-bitten, a 
plate cannot be rendered neat and delicate, let never 
so much time and skill be wasted on it. If bitten 
but little above the color wanted, a few strokes of the 
]3urnisher will lower it at pleasure. 

If the air rising from the copper and forming bub- 
bles hisses very much, in biting, it may be suspedled 
that the aqua-fortis is too strong, or a6ls too sud- 
denly on the copper, which for tender work 13 



The tools necessary for Engraving are, an oil- 
rubber, burnisher, scraper, and od-stone, also needles, 
or points ; also gravers, compasses, a sand- bag, pa- 
rallel ruler, &c. 

Gravers are of dilTerent shapes ; sqaare, and lo- 
zenge : several of each should be provided. The 
square is used in cutting the broad, strokes ; the 
lozenge for the fainter and more delicate parts. 
Gravers should be in length iive inches and a half, 

©r thereabouts, the Jundle included. 

'■ ■ ■ ■ n^i,i» 

( 183 ) 

The sand-bag is used to lay the plate on, for the 
convciiicncy of turning it about to follow winding - 
lines. The oil-stone must be of the Turkey sort ; 
and, while in use, must never be kept without oil. 

Great care is required to whet a graver nicely, par- 
ticularly the belly : lay the two lower angles of the 
graver Hat upon the stone, and rub them steadily till 
they are polished like a mirror ; and till the belly rises 
gradually ; so that, when you lay the graver's edge 
on the plate, you may just perceive the light under 
the point ; otherwise, it will dig into the copper, and 
it will be impossible to execute work with freedom. 
When the belly is whetted : to whet the face, place 
the Hat part of the handle in the hollow of your hand, 
with the belly of the graver upwards, on a moderate 
slope, and rub the face on the stone, till it has an 
'exceeding sharp point, which you may try upon 
your thumb-nail. 

For tempering the graver, if too hard, vide 


Cut off that part of the handle which is on a line 
with the belly of the graver, to make that side fiat. 

Hold the handle in the hollow of the hand, aiid 
extend the fore-iinger toward the point, resting it on 
tlie back of the graver, that you may guide the tdol 
with more ease. 

Take care that your fingers do not interpose be- 
tween the plate and the graVer, but let the whole 
machine slide, as it were, along the plate ; and trust- 
to the resistance of the copper for its steadiness. 
Delicacy of feeling is a prime quality, in a good 


( 148 ) 

Let the table or board you work at, be firm and 


For strait strokes, let the plate lie flat on the table. 

For circular or crooked strokes, place the plate on 
the sand-bag, and hold the graver firni, iiioving 
your hand, or the plate, or both, as you see, or rather 
teel convenient. 

Learn to carry your hand with such dexterity, that 
you may end your stroke as finely as you began it ; 
and, if you have occasion ro make one part deeper, 
■or blacker, than another, do^it by're-entering that 

In the course of the work, scrape off the barb, or 
roughness, which arises, with the scraper ; but be 
careful, in doing this, not to scratch the plate. Ne- 
ver scrape diredlly across a line, but always at an easy 
anple along the course of the stroke. 

Mistakes, or scratches in the plate, may be rubbed 
out with the burnisher, if of no great depth, and the 
part afterwards cleared with the scraper ; polish it 
again at last lightly with the burnisher. ' i 

Yv hen you wish to examine what work you have 
done, rub it with the oil-rubber, which, by fiUing 
the strokes with black, will shew them, when the 
plate is wiped, to advantage. Too much oil-rubbing 
injures the finer work ; as does (very materially) too 
iDuch scraping. 

Engraving in strokes, or hatches, as it is the most 
aiicientj so it is the most noble, manner of engraving : 
it requires most skill, affords most scope for judg- 
caent, and genius, as well as for manual dexterity ; 


( 185 ) 

but is, accordingly, more difficult to execute in a 
masterly, and superior, manner. 

It is evident, that any line drawn, may be crossed 
by another line ; or any number of lines, by a second 
number of lines ; but it is equally evident, that not 
every such crossing can be graceful. If it follows 
too nearly the course of the original lines, it will 
for in, by its intersections, a number of areas, of too 
sharp, and disagreeable lozenge, shapes ; if the first 
lines are crossed at right angles, the areas formed 
will be so many squares, which, by possessing a kind 
of hardness in their appearance, apply only to certaia 
subjects. The medium admits an infinity of degrees. 

If we examine any (large) well-executed print, we 
observe, in some places; (1) single lines, or strokes, 
of considerable length, according to the drawing ; 
(2) lines crossed at an agreeable lozenge ; (3) lines 
crossed at right angles, where a kind of obscurity is 
wanted ; (4) two lozenge lines, crossed with a third, 
usually much softer, and more tender than the two 
former, but following, or rather attend'mg their course ; 
(5) lines at right angles, crossed by a third at a lo- 
zenge, to divest the squares of their hardness and 
stifiriess ; (6) lines at a considerable distance from 
each other, and of a firm color, with a thin line be- 
tween them ; this is called interlining ; (7) the same, 
sometimes crossed in the same manner ; (8) round 
dots, in the flesh ; (q) long dots, for the same pur- 
pose ; {lo)iong dots, crossing each other;, (ll) thin 
lines crossing lines of dots; {I'l) very tliln lines, 
made by the dry point, in the lights, &c. and m.any 
other contrivances for producing variety. These, 

VOL. II. Eiilt. 7, Aft applied 

( 186 ) ■ 

applied according to the indications of the design, or 
to the taste, and skill, of the artist, impart to capital 
prints a richness and chara(5ler, which no other man- 
ner of engraving can boast of; and which is yet far- 
ther augmented, by a judicious introdu6lion, and 
mixture, of etching, engraving, and dry point lines. 
The dry point is so termed, because used without 
a ground, consequently not bitten ; the burr, or 
.barb, rising from the copper, by the use of it, is very 
strong, and must be scraped off carefully. The whole 
point, and its handle, is stronger than an etching 
point, to sustain greater pressure when in use. 

'It appears from this mode of reasoning, that to at- 
tain considerable excellence in this style of engraving, 
is no easy matter ; and indeed, of the many who are 
brought up to it, few arrive at superior honours ; or, 
if they obtain skill in one branch (etching for in- 
stance), they fail in others : yet, as much of the 
progress, even of the best of plates, is little more 
than mechanism, and patience, abilities of all degrees 
are useful in the course of a long work. 

It is proper to caution thosei inchned to attempt 
any of the branches of engraving, against a cramp 
posture, or, leaning the stomach against the table, or, 
poring with their eyes too close to the plate, &c. 
while at work. In very delicately finished works, 
the artist always has recourse to a magnifying glass ; 
but as our readers certainly will not undertake such 
works, we proceed to another species of Engraving. 



( 1S7 ) 


This manner of engraving has lately highly ex- 
cited tiie public attention, and, indeed, has deserved 
it, by the beauty of many specimens which it has 

The process for preparing the plate, /". e. laying the 
ground, tracing, &c. is the same as before. The 
principles adopted in the etching, differ only, in that, 
instead of Tines, the drawing, shadows, &c. are in- 
serted in dots, as freely as may be, yet carefully. 
The biting is the same ; with this difference, that 
whereas, in biting lines, no two should be suffered 
to unite, unless previously intended, and prepai^ed 
for that purpose ; in biting chalks (provided they do 
not by their union form a hard spot, or too consi- 
derable a black) this accident is not of equal conse- 
quence, if the subje(5l be lar^e. In small subjects, 
tlie more delicate and important parts should not be 
colored in the etching, but wholly inserted with the 
graver ; being less hazardous, and much more ac- 

The plate bitten, and the ground removed, the 
effedl of the subje6l represented, remains to be 
worked up with the graver. For small subjects, or 
such as are to be neatly finished, this is the only tool 
to be depended on. The best manner of preparing 
the graver for firm work, is, by changing its situa- 
tion in the handle, so that the belly part of it, which 
was lowermost, becomes uppermost ; then, by turn- 
ing the handle in the hand, the point a(5ls on the 

A a 2 copper 

( Jfts ) 

copper frbm a "greater elevation, which for strong 
dots is preferable ; as only dots, not strokes, are re- 
quired, the tool is, in this position, manageable with 
much greater facility, and speed. 

The remaining part of the progress of a plate con- 
sists only in covering the copper with dots, in a man- 
ner lighter, or heavier, proportionate to the color, 
and to the drawing, required. When one covering 
of dots is scraped off, another must be inserted, and 
so on ; by this repetition, a proper grain of dots, and 
the general masses of shade are procured. This pro- 
cess is tedious ; but in return, it requires no great 
skill in the operator ; a little pra6lice, and proper 
attention, attains the whole mystery. 

In larger subjedls, or those which are to be slighted, 
some persons use tools of various sorts, such as 
wheels, with single, or double, rows of teeth, or, 
cradles resembling a mezzotinto grounding tool (but 
made with teeth), or, others construdled to their 
minds ; but, these tools, though more expeditious 
than the graver only, are seldom so accurate, or so 
pleasing in the effedl they produce. 

These kind of tools, and a variety of others 
(amounting in the whole^ when a set is perfect, to 
neai: forty), have been very much used in France, 
where the manner of engraving in chalks was first 
practised ; they very frequently produce an eife<5l' 
more closely resembling an original drawing in 
chalks, than English performances finished solely 
with the graver ; but, on the other hand, the neat- 
ness and accuracy, as well as a certain mellowness of 
btyle which distinguish English produ<Slions, are r^ot 


( 189 ) 

©nly vastly superior to tliose of the French artists, 
but are universally esteemed so, throughout Europe. 

The cliief merit of plates engraved in chalks, is 
inserted by the artist who finishes the subje6V. Care 
and attention is requisite, and a good habit of desiga 
indispensable ; every requisite in the manual pra^licc 
is easily acquired. 

The French have very well imitated drawings on 
blue paper, by using two plates ; one of which printed 
the black-chalk effedt, the other the white-chalk : 
on the same idea, chalk plates printed in black, on 
blue paper, may afterwards be touched with white- 
chalk, to a very pleasing efFe^l. 


When the parts of a subject which were intended 
to be dark, have failed of their proposed efFe(5i:j they 
may be re-bitten, by the following process (which 
applies to all kinds of etching, and is among the se- 
crets of the superior engravers) : at a convenient 
part of the plate, being properly heated for the pur- 
pose, melt a quantity of ground ; then with a dabber, 
carefully, by degrees, transplace as much of the 
ground thus melted, as is necessary, to the part pro- 
posed, by beating it gently, so that the surface, only, 
of the copper may be covered, and the holluws, or 
excavated lines of the work may remain free ^nd 
clean. When this ground is cold, it may be re- 
bitten with aqua-fortis as before. It is frequently 
better not to smoke it, lest the heat of tiie taper 


( IQO ) 

i^hould melt the ground into the work ; in which 
case, wherever the ground covered the plate the 
aqua-fortis could notacSl* 

N. B. Re-biting is sometimes used both to strokes 
and dotes, to strengthen a part which has not acquired 
all the color it should have ; even after it has been 
laid in with the graver. 

To clean strokes, he. engraved, use a little spirits of 
turpentine, and rub the plate with crumbs of bread ; 
if the dirt is of long standing, soap lees poured on 
the plate, wliile warming, is very efFedlual : but as 
this is a corrosive liquor, it must be immediately 
washed oif the plate by plenty of cold water ; and it 
is too stong for mezzotinto plates (especially) unless 
it be very carefully used. 


Mezzotinto is said to have been first invented by 
A'rince Rupert, about the year 1649, who took the 
hint from seeing a soldier hie his rusty musket ; atid 
Mr. Evelyn, in his History of Chalcography, gives 
•Us a head, performed by that Prince3 in this way ; 
but Mr. Le Blond is said to have introduced it 
mo^t successfully into pra6lice. 

The Prince laid his grounds on the plate witli a 
channelled ruler ; but one Sher'win, about the same 
time, laid his grounds with a half-round file, which 
was pressed down with a heavy piece of lead. Both 
these grounding tools have been laid aside, for many 
years; and a hand-tool, called a cradle, resembling 

a shoe- 

( 191 ) 

a shoemaker's cuttingrboard knife, with a fine ere- 
nelling on the edge, was introduced by one Edial, 
a smith by trade, who afterwards became a wdzzo- 
tin/o printer. 

As it is much easier to scrape off, or to burnish 
away, the parts of a dark ground corresponding with 
the outhnes of any design sketched upon it^ than to 
form shades upon a light ground, by an innnite num- 
ber of hatches, strokes, and points, which must all 
terminate with exa^ilness on the outline, as well as 
differ in their iorce, and manner, the method of 
scraping, as it is called, in viezzoi'mto, becomes, con- 
sequently, much more easy and expeditious, than 
any other manner of engraving. The instruments 
used in this kind of engraving are cradles, scrap- 
ers, and BURdSrisHERS. TJie scrapers for delicate 
work are much like a surgeon's lancet in shape and 
in fineness, but others are much stronger, for greater 
speed, and riddance. 

To lay a ground, the cradle is to be passed for- 
wards uniformly in the same dire6lion ; being kept 
as steady as possible, and pressed upon with a mode- 
rate force, till the instrument has passed over the 
whole surface of the plate. This first course of. 
grounding mu?t be crossed, ^at right angles, on the 
same principle. New lines must then be drawn dia- 
gonally, and the cradle passed along them as before; 
when the first diagonal operation is performed, these 
lines must then be crossed at right angles. The pfate 
having undergone the a61:ion of the cradle, accord- 
ing to this disposition, a second course of cradling 
must be commenced : and the same must be re- 


( 19^ 1 

pcated, regularly, changing the dire(ftion of the lines 
made by the tool. When the whole of this opera- 
tion is finished, it is called 072e turn ; but, in order 
to produce a very dark, and uniform, ground, the 
plate must undergo the repetition of all these opera- 
tions many times. 

When the plate is prepared with a ground, the 
sketch must be traced on it, by means of the paper 
rubbed on the back-side with chalk, as mentioned 
before. It is also proper to over-trace the lines, and 
drawing, afterwards with black lead, or rather, which 
is much better, with Indian ink, to secure the out- 
lines. The scraping is performed, by paring, or 
cutting away, the grain of the ground, in various 
degrees ; so that none preserves its original state, ex- 
cept the touches of strong shadow. The general 
manner of proceeding is like drawing with white up- 
on black paper. The masses of light are first begun ; 
and those parts, which lighten upwards but are in 
shade below : the reflections are then touched ; after 
vhich the plate is blackened with a printer's black- 
ing-ball, made of felt, in order to view the eifedl : 
the whole is then gradually brought to effedl by 
scraping over the parts till they are sufficiently 

Observe always to begin with the strongest lights. 

It is easy to scrape more oif any part if it be too 
dark ; but, if a part be too much scraped away, it is 
troublesome ; for it must undergo the a6tion of a 
small cradling tool, proportioned to the size of the 
part, and the additional ground thus procured is not 
always a corre(Sl matc/j to the original ground, which 


( 193 ) 

has an unpleasant effect, unless very skilfully ma- 
naged. Mezzotinto plates are therefore proved^ long 
before they approach toward finishing, if the subject 
be in any degree intricate, or considerable. 


This manner of producing on copper the, effect of 
a drawing washed in Bistre, or Indian ink, is altoge- 
ther a modern invention ; it was attempted in 1/65 
or 1760, by Mr. P. Sand by and Mr. Dalton, but 
it then failed of that success it has since met with. 
The first person whose produiSlions were not only 
imitations of drawings, but were capable of printing 
any considerable number of copies, was Mons. Le 
pR I N c E of Paris ; whose early performances appeared 
in his " Modes & Usages de Russie." Mons. Le 
Prince, by degrees, improved his discovery, till 
at length it was thought, by the Honourable Mf- 
Greville, (brother to the Earl of Warwick) a secret 
\vorth purchasing at the expence of thirty guineas. 
This gentleman communicated the process to Mr. P. 
Sandby, whose attention and genius carried it to 
great excellence. Since its importation into Eng- 
land, it has been the subjcdl of repeated and conri- 
nued investigation ; and as it was impossible to pre- 
vent the inquisitive essays of many ingenious engra* 
vers, who thought this article worth their acquisi* 
tion, so it has happened, that more ways than one o£ 
producing this eifedl have been discovered. Each 
person thimks his own method the best; and all 

VOL. II. Edit. 7- fib stu- 

, ( m ) 

studiously Conceal their principles; we may there-' 
fore claim the merit of being the first, in England 
at least, who communicated the secret to the public. 
We shall report. several modes of procedure. 

The first way we shall mention of producing 
on copper the efFe<51: of tinted drawings, is, by grind- 
ing a quantity of sulphur in oil, and with this mix- 
ture painting the plate ; then, by placing the plate 
over a gentle fire, the vitriolic acid contained in the 
sulphur is set at^ liberty, and a61:s as a corrosive on 
the copper^ forming a color lighter or deeper, in 
proportion to the heat of the fire, the time of its 
exposure to it, and to the strength of the acid em- 
pioyed in the mixture. 

Ti'A SECOND WAY of producing the same effedl, is 
conceived on the well-known different afie6lions of 
the same menstruum to diiFerent metals; and pro- 
ceeds thus ; saturate a quantity of aqua-fortis of a 
due strength, with shreds of silver ; this liquor poured 
on copper, will quit the silver it contains, in order 
to aft on the copper, by which it is more attracted ; 
the silver will precipitate in the form of a subtle 
powder, and thereby occasion irregularities on the 
surface of the plate, which will hold the ink when 

Of these manners of procedure, the first is very 
offensive in its process, the fumes of the composition 
being highly disagreeable. The second, is chiefly 
applicable to very slender parts, and to add a color 
to places which are not of importance sufficient to 
require a fresh ground, or much -trouble ; such as 
leaves of trees, light flying clouds, &c. as it does not 
3 possess 

( 395 ) 

possess much force, without great igoocl fortune, or 
very close attention. 

A THIRD WAY proceeds on the principles, jhat 
minute interstices, alternately blat-k and white, will, 
when viewed at a litrle distance, produce the efi'e<St 
pf all black,, according to the tone tro which they are 
adapted : therefore, whatever will so fix itself to tl>e 
plate, as to prevent the a^lion of aqiia-fortis where it 
is in conta<5l, and yet will permit the aqua-fortis lO 
corrode aU around it, wijl produce alternately bla^'k? 
and whites. This was first attempted with rosiij 
^nely pulverized ;, but that was apt (if too fin ^, or 
too much warmed) to form a coat, or superficieSj^ over 
considerable parts of the cppp^r, thereby re-sisting 
the menstruum on all sides. Sal ammoniac, pulve- 
rized with the rosin, and intiixiately ri^ixed with it> 
was found to preserve interstices ; but this applies 
only occasionally. r,.,,, / • , , ■ . 

There are several gums which- possess nearly siii>it 
lar properties ; but die following. appears supe^ioTito 
Ml others, and is (excepting ^fh;^ change of gum juni-r 
per, for gum copa}), tltc method followed by Mon?. 
Le Prince. ^ ^ • .■■ _ 

Grind a sufficient quantrty.of • gum copal ; divide 
it by sifting, into three or foor piarcels at: p^easuf^j 
accordinjg to the fineness of each parcel : th$, first or 
finest powder serving for theJighter parts of th^Q sub- 
je<il to be treated, such as distanqes, sky, &c. The 
second or grained powder for middle tints; the coarser 
grains of powder, for iforergrounds, and . other very 
dark places; where strong ^bitiJilg is required by th^ 
subje<5l. To accomplish tlris separatjan, the sieves 

B b 2 must 

( 196 ) 

mvist vary in fineness. Sift on the plate a sufii^ 
cient quantity of the finer powder ; the plate will 
now appear of an uniform tender white, unless closely 
examined, when the interstices between the particles 
of gum will be very discernible ; heat the plate very 
gent'y, only till the gum changes from its white 
color, and is so far melted as to fix on the plate, from 
which it is scarcely to be distinguished by its color. 
When cold, the plate is ready for receiving the aqua- 
fortis. 3top out the lights, &c. as in common 

When the bitug is over (which does not last long, 
a minute, perhaps, to the fine powder), wash the 
plate with water, as before dire(5ied for biting, and 
examine the effe<5l produced, and the state of the 
ground ; if some parts only are done, stop them out, 
and proceed to bite the other parts ; if the whole be 
done of which this ground is capable, clean the plate 
by heating it, and apply a little oil, to remove the 
gum easily, if necessary. Those parts which are of 
the just color required, must then be secured, by 
stopping them out ; the second powder must next be 
treated as the first has been, and the coarser powders, 
or rather grains of gum, must be treated in the same 
manner, to procure the bolder strengths : but these 
may endure proportionately stronger biting, 

It is necessary to have more powders than one, be- 
cause the hold the powder, or grains, has of the cop- 
per will permit only a certain degree of action in the 
aqua-fortis. The grosser the grains, the stronger 
hold they take of the copper ; they will bear more 
heat to fix them, and will suffer mere copper to be 


( 197 ) 

corroded away from around them : but then, they 
would make very staring whites, were not a ground 
previously laid by the others ; or, if they were mis- 
placed on a subject, they would greatly disfigure it. 

Sometimes a finer tint may be laid over a coarbcr 
to good advantage. 

Sometimes a larger grain of whites may be pro- 
cured, by melting the tiner powders more than usual, 
which, by spreading each particle of gum, makes 
each grain cover a greater surface, which it protects 
from the a6lion of the aqua-fortis. 

It requires some patience, and facility with the 
pencil, to prepare the plate by stopping out; which 
operation is not only to be attended to at first, to 
preserve the whites, but may be repeated at any time, 
provided the grains of powder attached to the plate 
appear able to sustain the biting necessary to produce 
the color proposed. 

Every manner of engraving by aqua tinta has 
much of uncertaint)" conne<51:ed with it ; and requires, 
not only good judgment, but great attention, and 
somcj perhaps a good deal, of good luck, to succeed 
happily. If, therefore, any mode of pra<5lising it 
could be reduced to a certainty of producing the 
effect required, and could be so condudled as to be 
under command, it would be a fortunate discovery. 

The first dithculty in aqua tinta is, to get the 
ground perfe<^ly even, and uniform : to accomplish 
this, we have two obje6ls in view ; the Jj7-st is to 
compose a ground which shall be properly divided 
into (I) a material which may produce grains 
to resist the aqua-fortis : (2) a material which 


( 198 ) 

will produce interstices to admit the aqua-fortls. Th-e 
best way, at present known, is, to bruise, grind, 
break, and sift together, repeatedly, till the com- 
pound powder appear of one Upiform eolor, the gum 
copal, with a proportionate quantity of asphaltum ; 
which will make a powder of pretty nearly equal fine- 
ness. Now, the gum copal will be fixed en the plate, 
by being melted, by means of so gentle a degree of 
heat as will not affeA the asphaltum : this powder, 
then, being loose, admiits the aqua-fortis to surround 
the grains of gum. N. B. Other powders may be 
discovered to answer the same purpose : and, indeed, 
whatever is near the specific gravity of the gum, 
may succeed in pradlice. 

The second objedl we have in view is, to lay the' 
grounds perfectly uniform, and evenly distributed, 
over the surface of the copper. It is true, that a 
steady hand may sift a powder through a fine sieve, 
very evenly, if the eye follow it closely, and this 
method, is not to be despised; but, almost every 
body, must have observed, that, powders of all kinds 
are precipitated when at rest in water, very evenly^ 
and uniformly ; if then, a quantity of water, having 
a proper proportion of powder diffused in it, be 
poured on a plate, the water may be drained from it, 
by a proper inclination of it, while the powder re- 
mains behind : when the w^ter has entirely quitted 
the plate, the ground, thus obtained, may be set by 
being warmed as before. 

A menstruum, in which the grains of gum are , 
dissolved and intimately mixed, may be yet. better. 
Gum or rosin dissolved in spirits of wine, the liquor 



( 199 ) 

being poured on the plate, the spirits will evaporate, 
and the rosin becoming dry, will form itself into 
grains, which being fixed on the plate, allow inter- 
stices for the a6lion of the aqua-fortis. 

As the time necessary for putting a border of wax 
round a plate, is more than is engaged in the biting 
of a light ground, some artists make use of a trough, 
properly painted, and secured from the a6lion of the 
aqua-fortis, into which, when filled with aqua-fortis, 
(and 'after having stopped out all that is to be left 
white on the. plate, not forgetting the margin), they 
plunge the-plate ; and suffer it to remain there, only 
so'long as they judge necessary to produce the color 
waryted ; if upon examination the plate be not bitten 
enough, they plunge it again, till they are satisfied. 
This they do to every ground, till the plate is 

Each of these modes of praftlsing aqua tinta, sup- 
poses a good deal of trouble in stopping out the parts, 
which are to be left white : there have been, there-, 
fore, other methods suggested, which for some sub- 
je6ls answer better. 

First, lay a ground of gum copal grain, all over 
the surface of the copper: when this is cool, and 
ready i'or use, paint, with the shadowing composition' 
mentioned below, in the same manner, and with the* 
same freedom, as with Indian ink, the shadows or. 
the subjedl (if it be a landscape, the foliage' of* the^ 
trees, &c.) let it be thoroughly dry; thenj'with a 
large, soft, camel's hair pencil, cover over tlie^wholeV 
with the asphaltum varnish : and when that is thd-"^ 
roughly dry, plunge the plate into water: in" 1 short 



( 200 ) 

Space of time, the water penetrating through this 
varnish, will dissolve the sugar, or the treacle, which 
forms its composition ; and that, rising, will part 
from the copper, and bring with it all that covers 
it, leaving the copal ground unaffected by the wa- 
ter, and still adhering firmly to the plate. This bite 
as before. 

The ASPHALTUM VARNISH IS madc, by dissolving 
four ounces of asphaltum in about eight ounces of 
spirits of turpentine ; using a very gentle heat: pour 
off the liquid, and add more of either ingredient, as 
the varnish may be thought too thick, or too thin. 

The SHADOWING COMPOSITION is made, by tak- 
ing any quantity of treacle, and grinding it into a 
paste with whitening ; or, by taking, of coarse sugar 
about two ounces, of whitening about one ounce, 
and grinding them with a sufficient quantity of wa*- 
ter, to form a paste proper for use by the pencil. 

If any hard edges occur in aqua tinta, they may 
be softened by the burnisher, or the burnisher may 
insert lights or slight touches of drawing, &g. occa- 
sionally, to advantage. 

The aqua-fortis used in this method of engraving 
should not be too strong ; because, as its operation 
is always rapid, if too strong, it will break up the 
ground, and do other mischief, before it can be pre- 
vented. It is not a bad \vay to try the strength of it, 
before it be used, on a separate piece of copper. 

A very great disadvantage attending re-tinting of 
any part is, the nicety required to match a color ; in 
fa(fl, it is hardly possibly to lay two grounds so pre- 
cisely alike as is requisite for that purpose : nay, it 


( 201 ) 

frequently happens. that a second ground. obliterates^ 
or at least damages, tlie first over which it is laid. .' 

Aqua tinta is a method of engraving (if it may de- 
serve that titlc"i so very rapid, that it will produce on 
a large plate, in one week, the efiec^ of a month's 
labour at some other kinds of engraving : it is in ge- 
neral, however, but shallow on the copper, yet, 
when well managed, is sufHciently lasting. Its merit 
consists much in a very even colour, smootll, and 
free from blemishes. It applies well to architecture, 
to landscape, and to back-grounds. 

Though I do not think much use can ever be 
made of the inventfon, yet I think proper to- insert 
here the mode of etching upon glass : or, 'rather, 
the discovery of a solvent which adls upon glass, as 
aqua-fortis does upon copper. 

The acid for this purpose is procured from sparry 
fluor, or Derbyshire blue John, powdered, and by 
means of concentrated vitriolic acid submitted to 
distillation by a gentle heat ; what comes over, and 
unites with a proper quantity of water in the receiver 
(which is of lead as well as the retort) is the acid ; 
it must also be kept in a leaden vessel. This will 
corrode lines, &c. drawn upon glass through a varnish. 

Exphjiation of the Method of fnniirig tn Colqi/rs, 

The plate being warmed in the usual manner, the 
colours are applied by means of stump camel-hair 
pencils, to the different parts, as the subject sug- 
gests; it is then wiped wiih a coarse gauze canvas, 

VOL. II. Ed'it, 7, « c-c any 

( 202 ) 

any other being Improper ; after this, it is wiped 
clean with the hand, as in common pradlice ; and 
being again warmed, is passed through the press. 

The colors are mixed with burnt linseed oil, and 
those generally used by painters are proper. 

The little linger generally supplies the place of 
pencils. This art succeeds best in chalk engravings. 
The prints, if touched up with colours, after they 
are printed, will approach very beautifully toward 
the effedt of pidtures. 


This business is, properly, neither sculpture, nor 
engraving, but, being apphed to many of the pur- 
poses of engraving, it claims affinity to that art. The 
smoothest grained woods are the best ; such as pear-, 
tree, or beech, but above all box. The surface 
being prepared by smoothening, a thin coat of white 
lead, tempered with water, is passed over it, the 
outlines of the design are traced with a black lead 
pencil, or ink, and the design is laid on tlie block ; 
then wetted, and carefully rubbed on the back, till 
the lines traced are transferred to the white lead, 
which shews them plainly ; the blank parts are then 
cut away with sharp knives, small chissels, or gravers, 
as required. This kind of work differs from engrav- 
ing on copper ; in that, the parts of the copper 
which are ciU out hold the ink, and form the impres- 
sion ; in this, the parts which remain, being ^?-o;«/V 


( 203 ) 

tti'fff, perform tlic same business. The blocks arc 
printed as letter-press. 

This kind of work has been made to produce an 
cffedl resembling washed drawings, by using several 
blocks, correspondent to the several colors of the de- 
sign : the ink) being accurately mixed to the color 
wanted, is applied all over the surface of tht* 
block, and the darker colors printed after the lighter. 
Aqua tinta has superseded the use of this method ; 
but one similar to it is pracSlised at Paris, only using 
copper plates instead of wooden blocks, and printing 
the separate parts of the design in their proper colors, 
by which they are very prettily tinted. 

In delicate works, or parts expressive of distances, 
to slope away the surface of the wood gently in those 
parts produces a good effe6l ; because, in the print- 
ing, they less hold the ink, and less ink is pulled off 
them by the paper ; consequently, they appear 
fainter. . 

c c a ©F 

( 204 ) 


This is one branch of the art of the sculptor, and, 
in man}?' cases, a very important one ; being, to all 
works of considerable size, an indispensable requi- 
site previous to cutting the marble ; being also, -he 
usual mode -in which young sculptors study the prin- 
ciples of their profession, academy figures, &c. 

The toojs for this purpose are ur.ually slender sticks 
of wood, made by the artist himself, and therefore 
of a shape at his pleasure ; but, whatever other im- 
plements may occasionally be employed, the thumb 
and fingers generally perform the major part. The 
clay to be used should be fine, soft, free from stones, 
dirt, Sec. and be carefully examined before it is used. 
In London, this kind of clay is procured from 
abqut Vauxhall. 

To model a Bas Relief: on a strong board, of suf- 
ficient size, sketch the dimensions of the subjedl in- 
tended, then place the clay, which is moist and ad- 
hesive, laying a greater quantity on the parts which 
are to be raised, to give them thickness, and follow- 
ing the course of the drawing proper to the subject'. 

To model a figure, it is sometimes requisite to in- 
sert little sticks into the limbs, and other parts which 
will not support themselves without props ; but this 
requires care. It is a liberty very allowable in mo- 
delling, to support the figure with beds of clay in 
convenient places, where they do not injure the com- 
position, since these kind of models are to be consi- 
dered as little more than sketches, or preparatory 


( 205 ) 

When the model is quitted, if not finished it must 
be kept cool, and moist, by being covered with a 
wet cloth. 

If a model is intended to be preserved, it must be 
set by, to dry very thoroughly ; then, taken to a 
pottery, where it must be gradually hardened, and 
bakfcd. There are many risks attending this process; 
if the clay be not dry witliin, however it may appear 
' without, sudden heat will spoil it ; or, if there re- 
main any stone concealed in it, when the heat of the 
iire reaches that stone^ it will explode, and crack the 

If the colour of the clay used is not approved of, 
it may be painted in Distemper, after being burnt ; 
oil colors, having a glossiness, are seldom employed. 

To prepare for a large piece of sculpturb. — The 
model is finished as above, the size of the figure 
intended, and t!ien molded in separate parts, in 
which, when re-united, is - cast a plaster-figure ; 
which is repaired, {i. e. cut, sdraped, &c.) with great 
accuracy. This figure is now the standard, from 
which a copy in marble is to be taken, the original 
part of the business being over. 

To MODEL IN Wax. — The process is much the 
same as with clay. To teri:iper the wax, some add to 
a pound of wax half a pound of colophony ; some 
add turpentine, melting the whole ' with olive oil ; 
some insert a little vermilion, or other color, to give 
it a tint. Wax will readily take every color added 
to it ; and is accordingly sometimes used to imitate 
life; in which procedure cleanness of tint must be 
carefully attended to. 


( 206 ) 


Mr. Bacon having communicated to the public, 
in the Cyclopedia, some remarks on that profession 
in which he excels, to offer it to our readers, re- 
quires, we presume, no apology. Th^y are a^- 
follows : 

** It is probable that smlphire is more ancient tlmrt 
painting ; and, if we examine the style of ancient 
painting, there is reason to conclude, that sculpnre 
stood first in the public esteem : as the ancient paint- 
ers have evidently imitated the statuaries, even to 
their disadvantage : since their works have not that 
ft-ecdom of style, more especially with tespecSl to 
their composition and drapery, which the pencil 
might easily acquire to a greater degree than that of 
the chissel ; bur, as this is universally the case, it 
cannot be attributed to any thing else besides the 
higher estimation of the works on which they formed 
themselves. Which is the most difficult art has been 
a question often agitated. Painting has the greatest 
number of requisites, but, at the same time, her ex- 
pedients are the most numerous p^and, therefore, we 
may venture to affirm, that, whenever a sculpturr. 
pleases equally with a painting, the sculptor is cer- 
tainly the greatest artist. Sculpture has indeed tiie 
honour of giving law to all the schools of design, 
both ancient and modern, with respedl to purity of 
form. The reason, perhaps, is, that Seing divested 
of those meretricious ornaments by which painting is 
enabled to seduce its admirers, it is happily forced to 


ullijhJ hytTofl^rX'w^naltunojrtlaiJhlli 




{ '207 ) 

seek for its effect: In the higlier excellencies of the 
art: hence elevation in the idea, as well as purity 
and grandeur in the forms, are found in greater per- 
fe(5lion in sculi^liirc than in painting. Besides, what- 
ever mav be the original principles which dire(St our 
feelings in the approbation of intrinsic beauty, they 
are, without doubt, very much under the influence 
of association. Custom and habit will necessarily 
give a false bias to our judgment ; it is therefore na- 
tural, and in some measure reasonable, that those 
arts which are temporaneous, should adapt them- 
selves to the changes of fashion, &c. But sculpurjt^ 
by its durability, and consequent application to works 
of perpetuity, is obliged to acquire and maintain the 
essential principles of beauty and grandeur, that its 
efFe6l on the mind may be preserved through the 
various changes of mental taste. It is conceived, 
that it will scarcely admits of a question, whether the 
fincients or moderns have most excelled in this art; 
the palm having been universally adjudged to the 
former. To determine in what proportion they are 
superior is too difficult an attempt. Wherever there 
is a real superiority in any art ©r science, it will in 
time be discovered ; but the world, ever fond of ex- 
cess, never stops at the point of true judgment, bilt 
dresses out its fiivourite obje6l with the ornaments 
of fancy, so that every blemish becomes a beauty. 
This it has done by ancient sculpture to such a de- 
gree as not to form its judgment of tljat by any rules, 
but to form an opinion of rules by the example. As 
long as this is the case, modern art can never have a 
fair comparison with the ancient. This partiality to 


( 208 > 

the ancients is so strong as to prevent almost all dis-, 
crimination ; and is the .sole reason, why many an- 
tiques, that now stand as patterns of beauty in the 
judgment of most connoisseyrs, are not discovered 
to be copies. This is not more important than it is 
easy to be perceived by a judicious eye ; for wiiere- 
ever there is a grandeur or elegance to an eminent 
degree in the idea and general composition of a sta- 
tue, and when the ejcecution of the parts (called by 
artists the treating of the parts) betrays a want of 
taste and feeling, there is the greatest reason to con- - 
elude, that tlie statue is a copy,, though we v/ere ever 
so certain of its antiquity. And surely, if evidence 
of a pidlure's being a copy proportionably diminishes 
its value, the same rule of judgment may no 
less properly applied to a statue. Modern and ancient 
art can never, therefore, be fairly compared, till both 
are made to submit to the determination of reason 
and nature. It may be observed, that the ancients 
have chiefly confined them.selves to the sublime and 
beautiful ; and, whenever a pathetic subje6l has 
come before them, they have sacrificed expression 
to beauty. The faqious groupe of Niobe is one 
Instance of this kind ; and, therefo/e, however 
great our partiality to the ancients may be, none 
can hesitate to affirm, that, whenever the rnoderns 
shall unite great expression with great beauty, they 
will wrest the palm out of their hands." 

In Sculpture the first thing done, is, out of a great 
block of marble .to saw another of the size required ; 
which is performed with a smooth steel saw, without 
teeth ; /Casting water and sand thereon^ from time to 

time J 

( 209 5 

thile! ; then, by taking off what is superflaous witii 
a steel point and a licavy hammer of soft iron, it is 
brought near the measure required ; and still nearer 
with a fmer point ; they then use a flat cutting instru- 
ment, having notches in its edge, or teeth ; and then 
a cliisscl to take off the scratches the other has left ; 
till, at length, taking rasps of different degrees of 
fineness, they gradually bring the work into a con- 
dition for polishing. 

To polish, or make the parts smooth and sleek,' 
they rub them with pumice-stone and smalt ; then 
with tripoli ; and when a still greater lustre is re- 
-quircd, they use burnt straw. 

To proceed the more regularlyj on the head of the 
model, some place an immoveable circle, divided 
into degrees ; with a moveable ruler, or index, fast^ 
ened in the centre of the circle, and divided likewise 
into equal parts. From the end of the ruler hangs a 
Thread 'with a plummet, which serves to take all the 
points to be tsansferred thence to the block of marble, 
from whose top hangs another plummet like that of 
the model. But otJier excellent sculptors disapprove 
of this method ; urging, that the smallest motion of 
the model changes their measures ; for which reason, 
they rather choose to take all their measures with the 
compasses, though reckoned more tedious. 

In large figures, the first part of the business 
being labour, and not skill, it is committed to under- 
;vorkmen : and indeed the whole of this part of the 
profession being to copy the model, the master seldom 
troubles himself to work at it, at least, till the close 
of the process. 

toL. II. Edit. 7, » d Ift. 

i 210 ) 

Tn imitating bas-reliefs, if it be a subjeA whiclll 
admits of being laid flat, they endeavour to bring 
the copy to cast the sat^e shadows as the original. 

Sculpture has been in England rather a monumen- 
tal art, than, as it is in maby pther countries, a de- 
corative profession. Of late, we ha-ve had many 
elegant chimney-pieces of sculpture, but very few 
large figui^s, except for tombs. Our best specimens 
in public are, the statues of Phrenzy and Melancholy, 
on the piers before Bethlehem Hospital, which de- 
serve to be ranked among the first performances in 
this art ; they were executed in the reign of Charles 
II. by Gabriel Gibber, father of the poet-laureat. 
There is also a most elegant statue of King Edward 
VI. in bronze, which stands in one of the courts of 
St. Thomas's Hospital, in Southwark, by Scheema- 
KER ; and one of Sir Isaac Newton, at Cambridge, 


Westminster- Abbey is the most famous repository 
of sculpture in England ; and it contains many fine 
specimens ; but the figures lose much of their efre(^ 
by being crowded together without order ; whereby 
one groupe injures another. 

St- Paul's Cathedral has lately received further em- 
bellishments by sculpture ; and more is intended. It 
affords many noble opportunities and situations for 
capital groupes, Sec. in all parts, but especially in the 
circumference beneath the dome. 

^ ' U'H 

( 211 )■ 

The falhimng colors being fim'ly ^'iscovBred and maclt 
public^ have been om'ited in their proper places : Wij 
give them here for the saiisfadion of our readers* 

Brunswick Green.— This is a very valuable 
and newly discovered color^ and is prepared by two 
brothers, of the name of Gravenhorst, at Brunswick, 
Hithereto it has been kept a secret ; bilt it is conjec- 
tured to be a precipitate of copper which has been 
dissolved in tartar and water by coition, and which, 
by evaporation of the lixivium, is deposited in the 
form of a cupreous tartar. A similar color is sold by 
Messrs. Brandram, and Qo. in Sise-lane, London, 
which possesses many, if not all^ the rare qualities of 
that prepared at Brunswick. - 

Earth, White. — Many ingenious men have 
employed their talents in discovering a more whole- 
some, and cheaper, pigment, than white lead ; 
and, perhaps, the finer and whiter sorts of earth 
might be usefully substituted. The Terra Goltber- 
gcnsis is of a white color, which is dug up in se- 
veral parts of Germany, more particularly at Golt- 
berg, whence its name, and Strigaw, and at Lignitz 
in Silesia. At this time, it is procured in the neigh- 
bourhood of Hasselt, in the bishoprick of Liege, in 
the circle of Westphalia, where it is usually sealed 
with the impression of an eagJe^ and the words 
" Terra Gol/bergensisi''' — Of tobacco-pipe clays there 
are also several sort: that appear convertible into pig- 
ments, especially one of this class which is found near 
Lymington in Hampshire, wl^ich is not at preseni: 
turned to much use. But the earth termed Mehwim 

D d -i (vids 

( 212 ) 

(vide MelinuTw), has ever been famous in the annals 
of painting, being the principal white of the painters 
of antiquity. It is still found in the same place from 
whence the painters of old had it, viz. the island of 
Milo, called Melos by the Greeks, whence its name, 
and is common in all the adjacent islands. It is not 
quite so bright a white as white lead ; but as it never 
turns yellow, as white lead does, it is far preferable 
to that article in the course of time. Besides, as 
most of the discoloring substances of earths may 
be attributed to iron, if it were treated with marine 
acid, the brightest, might be improved. 

OnANGE Lake. — This may be prepared by boil- 
ing four ounces of the best Spanish annotto, and one 
pound of pearl ashes, for the space of half an hour, 
in one gallon of water. Strain the tin<5lure, and mix 
it gradually with a solution of a pound and a half of 
alum in six quarts of water, desisting when rto ebul- 
lition «nsues. Treat the sediment as is usual in com- 
mon lake, and dry it in square bits, or rolls, &c. 

Patent Yellow. — This color, for which the 
ingenibus Mr. Turner has a patent, is prepared by 
triturating red lead and common salt together in a 
mortar, and then exposing them in a crucible (made 
of tobacco-pipe clay) to a certain heat. The salt is 
decomposed, the marine acid uniting with the calx 
of lead, forms the patent yellow ; and the basis' of 
the salt, which -must be carefully vvashed out, is the 
mineral alkali, of so much consequence in the soap^ 
glass," and other rnanufaftories. 

Sugar of Lead'.— ^Lead and its calces may be 
4issolved by the acetous acid, and will afford a crys- 


( 213 ) 

tallizal)le salt, called suj^r^r of lend, from its exfrt-me 
sweetness. This, like all tlie preparations of" lead, is 
a deadly poison. It lias the property of rendering 
oils thicker^ and causiiio; tlicm to dry more rapidly. 


If a small quantity of strong nitrous acid be poured, 
on litharge (wliich see), the acid unites itself to the 
metal with consiilerable cflcrvcsccnce and heat. Some 
water being now p.oured on, and the glass vessel con- 
taining the mixture shaken, a turbid solution of the 
litharge is made. If a small quantity of acid of vi- 
triol be now added, it throws down a beautiful 'ix;7/if/<? 
frec'ip'itatc ; and the acid of nitre being left at liberiT' 
to a6l upon the remainder of the litharge, begins 
anew to dissolve it with efFen-escencc. When it is 
again saturated, which will be known bv the discon- 
tinuance of the bubbles, more acid of vitriol is to be 
dropped in, and a white precipitate is again thrown 
down. If any of tlie litharge remains undissolvef^, 
the nitrous acid being set at liberty a second timc^ 
attacks it as at first ; and by continuing to add .icirl 
of vitriol, the whole of the litharge m.ay be converted 
into a most beautiful and durable v.hite. Unfortu- 
nately, this color cannot be used in ou., thong;! in 
water it seems superior to any. 

N. B. If the process be well managed, iiri Duutc 
of nitrous acid may be made to convert ijcveval puuiui^ 
gf litharge into a white of this kind. 

Jt has been strongly recommejided to ixipcr'-^-ta^;/- 

( '^1^ ) 

crs, and others, who use water-colors in large quan- 
tities, to prepare their lakes, and the colors now pre- 
pared of chalk, on the basis of the above precipitate 
of lead. — For instance : if the color required be a 
very fine one, suppose from cochineal, the coloring 
matter is to be extracted by spirit of wine, without 
heat. When the spirit is sufficiently impregnated, 
it is to be poured by little and little upon the calx : 
the spirit sooil evaporates, and leaves tlie calx co- 
lored with the cochineal. More of the tindtiire is 
then to be poured on, rubbing the mixture con- 
stantly ; and thus, by proper management, many 
beautiful colors, not inferior to the best carmine, 
may be prepared. When only a small quantity- of 
color, for the more exquisite touches of the minia- 
ture painter, is required, we would recommend the 
process to be condu6led on the basis of white prec'ifi^ 
iate, or calx of I'ln, pursuing the same method of 
lubbing in the coloring tinAure as when white pre^ 
/mtate of lead is used. If, instead of cochineal, 
Brazil-wood, turmeric, logwood, &c. be substituted, 
difterent kinds of red, yellow, and purple, may be 


( 215 ) 

By way of conclusion to this part of our Work, we 
shall add some misckllaneols remakks, ex- 
trailed from a small work by the late ingenious Mr. 
Robertson ; whicli being only distributed among 
his private friends, and never pihlished, is in few 
hands : and being the result of the experience of 
many artists, communicated to him, as well in Italy, 
as in England, and written down by him, will, wc 
hope, be acceptable to our friends ; as certainly many 
of the ideas and liinti arc very goo'd. 


Mr. Forrester communicated to me the followinsr 
observations, which he had from Mr. Patoon and 

The Venetian masters often worked upon jess 
grounds thus prepared. Take a line, and even can- 
vas, or board, and give it one coat of jess made 
with size ; when dry paint upon it. The first coidr- 
ing will sink in as tlie jess drinks up the oil, but by 
that means leaves the greater brilliancy in the colors ; 
the second painting will not sink so much, and alsfi 
appear very clear, after which* you may very safely 
re-touch, and glaze or scumble, with the mastic var- 
nish at pleasure, and your pidlure will retain by iajr 
more force and vigour, than if 'painted on any othed 
ground. You may likewise paint with safety on this 
ground (or even on a white silk without any prepara- 
tion) in water colors, prepared in the common way, 
any head, figure, landscape, he. After being hai- 


( 216 ) • 

nionizcd and finished in water-colors, the mastic 
Tarnish, must be carefully laid on before you proceed 
to rc-touch, glaze or scumble in the usual way with 
oil and varnisli until the effe(5l proves satisfa61:ory ; 
this will bear out and retain more force, delicacy, 
and clearness, than any oil-painting whatever, and 
will even last as long, and is also a nlethod made use 
(i£ by some of the finest colorists Iti their best works. 

It is of great importance in Our first and second 
paintiflg, whether of llcsh, drapery, landscapej &c. 
to paint only with earths, reserving the most clear 
and brilliant colors for the last painting and glazings, 
by which means a greater truth and force will always 
be preserved in our works, and they will also last the 
Ibnger for it. It may reasonably be supposed, that a 
proper foundation of strong holding colors is neces- 
siciy (such as most earths are) under the more delicate^ 
which. will make them' last and bear out the better: 
wKilst, on the contrarv, if earths are used upon the 
clear and brilliant colors, the efte(5l must be both 
*lull and heavy. Besides, if in dead or second co- 
loring the finest and brightest tints are used, what 
colors can be found to brighten or finish with ? 

The method used br Pietro Bianchi, who was a 
very ingenious and general painter, and whose pic- 
tures still m.aintaift a great clearness and freshness, 
though done forty, fifty, or sixty years — is this : he 
^ok one half of drying oil, and the other half of 
clear nut oil ; these he mixed well together, and his 
pi(5lure being dry, he rubbed (with a sponge or 
brush) these mixed oils upon the pi6lure, leaving it 
only damp tlierewith, after which he re-painted or 


( 217 ) 

rc-touchcd at pleasure. This method was given by 
an old scholar of John Baptista Bougieiir, who wa3 
well acquainted with the said Pietro Bianclii. The 
same person also informed me, that his owi> master, 
Baptista Bougieur, made use of the thick white Var- 
nish sold in the color-shops for re-touching and re- 
painting ; but the consequence was, that, after some 
years, all his pictures became covered with a stuff 
like a mildew, which after being cleaned off would 
shortly return. 

Signior Gaspar Scarmouchi, who is also an 
ingenious man, and a scholar of Lucatelli, recom- 
mends the use of poppy oil for according, re-touch- 
ing, or rc-painting a pidlure, which, he says, will 
never change, and dries much sooner than nut-oil. 
The method of applying it is by letting the pi^lure 
be well dried, then rub, with a small sponge dipped 
in the oil, the part of the painting which you intend 
to re -touch, after that spread the oil with the palm 
of the hand, which will make the colors spread and 
work very agreeably. 

Mr. Andrews says, that, if you would unite any 
part of a pl61:ure in water colors, whether sky, face, 
drapery, or any other part, you must wet the pidlurc 
on the back, with a clean sponge moderately, so as to 
damp the colors, after which you may re-touchy 
scumble, or re-paint, as often as you please^ pro- 
vided the size with which you mix your colors is 
neither too weak nor too strong, and that the pi6lure 
be painted on an unprimed fine cloth or silk. — This 
is Mr. Patoon's secret, and may be repeated with 

VOL. n. Edit. 7. EC safety 

( 218 ) 

safety as often as you please to re-touch it, and with- 
out any risk. 

In order to prevent your colors from ever chang- 
ing, and to maintain their original beauty, force, and 
vigor, the cloth should be primed with peach-stone 
black and white ; that is to say, the second going 
over the cloth, or the last hand, as it is termed, 
should be done with this black and white, and the 
picture will maintain itself without the least danger. 

According to Mr. West, when you intend to re- 
paint, re-touch, or glaze your picture, let it first be 
tolerably dry, then give the whole, or the part which 
you intend to paint, a coat of varnish a day or two 
before, after which you may mix some of the same 
varnish with the colors you put on, which will make 
them bear out with great force and clearness, inso- 
much that there will not be the least occasion for 
varnishing those, parts when the whole is finished, 
only covering the oth?er parts that appear dull or 
sunk in. ► , 

According to Mr. Jenkins, when the varnish is 
very dry on the pi(5lure, the best method is to rub 
un the part to be painted, or re-touched, &c. alittla 
purified nut oil, which must be wiped clean off, so 
as to leave only a little dampness on the place, which 
assists the fresh coloiS in uniting with the old without 
any sinking in. 

Mastic, with nut oil, is very good for re-touching, 
to be used instead of the v^hite varnish sold at the 

For re-touching or bringing out pidlures when 
sunk in, take purilied nut oil, and mix it with oil of 


( 219 ) 

lavender in equal quantities : rub it on the part, or^ 
i^ the part is too fresh, iiiix the oils with the color 
on the pallet, or dip the pencil in it. This oil of 
lavender renders the colors pleasing and most agree- 
able, making them appear of a good body, easy to 
work, and quick to dry, so that the same part of a 
pi(5lure may be painted on, day after day, until it is 
finished, without the least inconveniency or bad 


Some say, that, by shutting up a fresh pi^lure on 
which you have put a mastic varnish, it will become 
mildewed, wherever that varnish has touched : how- 
ever, the method of taking off that mildew is easy, 
and may be done thus : 

To prevent Mlldeiv from Varnhli. 

Wash the picture with a clean sponge, dipped in 
an equal quantity of vinegar and water, milk warm, 
ivhich will take away the mildew effectually ; after- 
wards it will be necessary, when the pidlure is dry, 
to rub it over with a clean soft sponge or cotton, 
moistened with purified oil, which you must wipe 
off as clean as you can with cotton, or any other ma- 
terial tliat will take the moisture of the oil away, and 
the picture will become clear, and look as fr?sh as 

Mr. Jenkins's method of taking off mildew froin 
mastic varnish, is, by taking an equal quantity of 
^pirits of wine, and rose water mixed, and so rub 

K e 2 it 

( 120 ) 

it on with a sponge, till It takes off the old varnish, 
after which wash the pi6lure with clean water, and 
when it is dry you tnay put on a fres'h varnish again; 
but if the varnish has beJen mixed in the color at the 
finie of painting, or fe-touching, a^ is practised by 
many painters, you must not attempt to take it off 
by any means, 


Umber burned or unburned is a good color, espe- 
cially for dead coloring ; it is used and recommended 
by Mr. Mengs, and has a good body. 

Terra de Sienn^ burned, and mixed with dark 
yellow, and terra rosa, make a fme tint. 

Crystal pounded to an impalpable powder is aa 
excellent dryer of the colors, mixed either with oil 
or varnish. 

In order to dry a pi6lure suddenly, place the back 
towards the sun, which will effe^l it without the least 
detriment to the colors. 

The best sort of the Terra de Sienna burned, mixed 
with white, and a little ultramarine, makes an exqui- 
site flesh or fine color for skies, &c. 

Terra rosa Persica, with black and white, makes an 
excellent fleshy tint. 

Indian red, with ivory black, makes a fine color. 

The black earth of England' is a very fine color. 
Persico or peach stone black is a fine bluish black, 
and the best and safest in flesh, skies, water, &c. 

A most excellent black may be made thus : take a 
quantity of white paper, the whiter and cleaner the 


( 221 ) 

better, and burn it, preserving the ashes, which will, 
when mixed with oil^ make a fine black. 


A very fine glazing liquid for the more delicate 
parts of a pi(9"ure may be thus made : fu'st grind 
the mummy or burned lake, or any other glazing 
colors, very fine on the stone with oil ; when you 
are making the varnish, put in these colors, and 
let them boil in them till tlie varnish is made 
(mastic), in which time tlie colors will sufficientlj 
incorporate with the varnish. When you are going 
to make use of it, in order that the colors may be 
mixed the better, stir the bottle well. This makes 
the most delicate glaze that can possibly be, and 
which may be put on any part of the pidlure; it will 
mellow it in the finest manner, without leaving the 
least smuddlcd efFecSt, or even the appearance of 
being glazed at all. 

The finest brown used by Mr. "VV'cst in glazing is 
the flesh of mummy ; the most fleshy are the best 
parts ; the threads of the garments, or any dirt which 
may prevent its grinding, must be intircly cleared 
away ; after which it must be ground up with nut oil 
very fine, and may be mixed for glazing with ultra- 
marine, lake, blue, or any other glazing colors; when 
it is used, a little drying oil must be mixed with the 
varnish, without which it will be longer in drying, 
which is the only defedt it has, as it may be usecf in 
ijny part of a pidlure witiiout fear of its changing. 


( 222 ) 

Tlie finest brown next to that of mummy is the 
Prussian blue burned, which is to be used in the 
same manner for glazing as the former, with this 
difference, from its being a better drier, there is no 
occasion to use drying oil with the varnish. In some 
respedls, this has the advantage of the mummy, 
being very little, if at all, inferior in point of color ; 
it dries better, is obtained with less difficulty, and 
ground with greater ease. 

A good glazing brown is made of gumbouge 
burned ; it is very similar in color to asphaltum, but 
much inferior to the mummy, or blue. 

To obtain a very lively and beautiful green, paint 
the objecfi:, whether tree, drapery, &c. quite blue, 
afterwards glaze it over with brown pink, which will 
produce the wished-for effect. 

The finest green may be produced by painting the 
ground white, and glazing over it with verdigreabc 
mixed up with varnish. 


LixsEED OIL is expressed from the sked of line or 
flax. It is the principal oil used in all kinds of 
paintings, or, indeed, the only kind, except for 
some very nice purposes, where its brownness ren- 
ders it unfit. 1 he principal dcfe<5ts of linseed oil 
are these, a brown color, and a slowness m drying, 
both of which are ia a much greater degree in some 
parcels than in others, arising sometimes from an 
accidental mixture of seeds growing with it, which 
make it partake.of thr nature of olive oil wliicii can- 

( 22} ) 

not be brought to dry by any art or means whatever. 
The excellence therefore of linseed oil consists in it» 
near approach to a colorless state, and its soon drying. 
With respc6l to the first quality, it may be distin- 
guished by inspedlion only ; hut the second can only 
be known by trial, tor there is noparticularappcarance, 
or otherimmediately perceptible mark attendmg this 
last quality. Linseed oil is in general used without 
any other preparation than the mere mixture of it 
with the proper dryer, but to keep it a considerable 
time before it is used will always be found to im- 
prove it. It is nevertheless used sometimes after it is 
wrought into the state of drying oil (npt to mix and 
make other unprepared parcels dry) but alone, as the - 
sole veliicle of the colors. The convenience of this 
is the speedy drying of the paint so composed, but 
it cannot be prai^lised when the beauty of the color 
is of the least consequence ; for, in this case, the 
oil imparts a strong brown to the mixture. 

Nut oil is the oil of walnuts pressed out of the 
kernels by means of a screw-press ; it is used for the 
purpose of mixing with flake white, or other pig- 
ments, where the clearness of the color is of. great 
consequence, and would be injured by the brownness 
of linseed oil. It is used without any other prepara- 
tion than keeping, which is ever found to improve it 
with regard to its color and quality of drying. The 
adventitious faults of nut oil are turbidity, slowness 
in drying, and not being perfedily colorless ; inspec- 
tion points out the first, but the remaining tv;o must 
be examined by trial : if, however, there is no adul- 
teration in the case, time will generally cure it of all 


( (221 ) 

dcfedl3. Whoever would have nut oil perfedlly 
good should peel the skin of the kernels before they 
press them, for the skin contains-an acid oil of a very 
different nature from that of the kernel, and is ex- 
tremely subje(5t to turn brown, or even black, and 
consequently tinges the other when expressed with it. 

Poppy oil is expressed from ripe seeds of poppies, 
in the same manner as nut oil from walnuts : its 
qualities and uses, defe(5ls and remedies, are also 
much the same, only when it is perfectly good it is 
much clearer, and will also dry better than the best 
nut oil. 

Oils of SPIKE or LAVENDER are essential, or dis- 
tilled oils, obtained by distilling spik^, or any other 
lavender, with water. It is used in painting, only as 
the vehicle for laying on the composition formed of 
the flux, and colors in enamel painting, which its 
fluidity renders capable of being worked with a 
pencil, its volatile nature afterwards rendering it 
wholly dry, without leaving any matter that might 
affe6l the substances of the enamel, which an essen- 
tial oil is only capable of. Oil of spike and lavender 
is subject to be adulterated by the oil of rosemary. 



Date Due 



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